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Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End recipients. Turkey

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Introduction to Port Design and Construction Technique and Perspectives

Ports are a link in a total transportation chain for goods and people to flow into cities.

Ports secure links with trade partners around the globle

Ports serve as supply centers and bases for shipping and marine industries (fishing, offshore petroleum).

Port costs – (ships turnaround, rail, cars, trucks, etc) total in excess of 50 % all transport costs of international trade.
55% of are the result of time loss.

Published in: Engineering
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Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End recipients. Turkey

  1. 1. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Port Design and Construction Technique by Msc. Jorge C. Palma
  2. 2. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End- recipients Index  Section 1. Introduction to Port Design and Construction Technique and Perspectives  Section 2. Port Planning and Development. Case Study  Section 3. Port related maritime structures  Section 4. Breakwaters  Section 5. Navigation Channel Design  Section 6. Dredging  Section 7. Repair, Rehabilitation,Maintenance and Upgrading of Waterfront Structures  Section 8. Environmental Factors in Port Planning and Design  Section 9. Extreme Maritime Construction Technology (videos) Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 2
  3. 3. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End- recipients Section 1 Introduction to Port Design and Construction Technique and Perspectives Port Design and Construction is a blend of engineering disciplines and sciences:  Civil  Structural  Geotechnical  Hydraulic  Oceanographic  Naval  Architectural  Environmental  Socioeconomics  Other Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 3
  4. 4. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End- recipients Section 1 Introduction to Port Design and Construction Technique and Perspectives  Ports are a link in a total transportation chain for goods and people to flow into cities.  Ports secure links with trade partners around the globle  Ports serve as supply centers and bases for shipping and marine industries (fishing, offshore petroleum).  Port costs – (ships turnaround, rail, cars, trucks, etc) total in excess of 50 % all transport costs of international trade.  55% of are the result of time loss. Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 4
  5. 5. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End- recipients Section 1 Introduction to Port Design and Construction Technique and Perspectives  World exported almost 18 000 000 million USD in 2011(United Nations). Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 5 World exports by provenance and destination Exports FOB: million USD /1 Exports to Developed economies 2/ Commonwealth of Independent States Asia-Pacific Europe North America Exports from Year World Total Total Japan Total Germany Total U.S.A. Total Europe World 2000 6337849 4374903 413661 337372 2549479 474942 1411764 1176012 77403 65291 2008 15945179 9579855 811829 607480 6348816 1117793 2419210 1966121 516893 426699 2009 12396195 7208259 607995 441563 4794318 860956 1805946 1449941 313402 243914 2010 15031655 8401878 754568 551775 5437338 1000207 2209971 1776381 399754 324616 2011 17 928 779 9 774 881 908003 667246 6 327 305 1146456 2 539 573 2037885 464 548 383359
  6. 6. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End- recipients Section 1 Introduction to Port Design and Construction Technique and Perspectives  Ports developments are motivated by economic and technology evolution from global industrial and technology revolution.  Development influenced by changing nature of ships and demand of cargo to be handled more rapidly.  Revolutionary shifts to new technologies ocurred in the 1950s with specialised container ships and new equipment (Straddle carriers, heavy-lift forklift trucks, gantry cranes, special tractors,other).  Further, Roll On Roll Off to handle containers, cars, tracks, trains, etc.  Ports developed in harbors, but now demand area and depths (15- 18 m post-Panamax vessels in 1990s) and move to offshore island ports and moving up-river shallow-draft ports and down river to deep waters.  New vessels above 8000 TEU (20-foot equivalent unit) and future 12 000 -15 000 TEU, 120 000 DWT, L. aprox 380 to 400 m, beam 60 m. draft 14,8 m and speed ~23-25 knots.  New cranes outreach of 60 + m, lifting capacity 50 to 70 tons. Overhead cranes stacking nine high and 10 rows operated remotely, fully automated and high speed. Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 6
  7. 7. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End- recipients Section 1 Introduction to Port Design and Construction Technique and Perspectives 1. Megaports able to receive largest vessels will be serviced by traffic from small ports. 2. Worldwide demand for energy and raw materials create strong need for specialized liquid and dry bulk material ports. 3. Deepwater facilities able to handle supertanquers or superbulkers constructed. Key factor: High capacity loading and unloading technology. 4. Presently tankers 500 000 ton ply the oceans. Shipyards capacity: 1,000,000-dwt tankers. 5. Production, transport, and consumption of LNG steady increase. New Terminals: Vessels 65,000-70,000 dwt, 300 m lenght, draft ~12 to 13 m. 6. Bulk carriers with terminals of 20 000 tonnes/hour of dry bulk and 220 000 m3 of crude oil per day. 7. Avoiding dredging go construction of offshore fixed or floating marine facilities. Moved 2 km and more offshore and linked to the shore by submarine piplelines or bridgelike trestle. 8. New generation of cruise vessels with more than 350 m for 6400 passengers. 9. The challenge: Environment protection programms. Features: » Identification and classification of environmental impacts, » Monitoring and enforcement of laws, » Public participation » Effective communication, » Cooperation with industries 10. Negative effects » Leaking of oil and ballast water » Noise, vehicles and transport, visual intrusion, atmosferic pollution, water quality reduction by dredging, effects of coastal morfology and fauna and global war on terrorism. Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 7
  8. 8. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End- recipients Section 1 Introduction to Port Design and Construction Technique and Perspectives Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 8 Passenger Ships Rank Ship Year Gross Tonnage Length Beam Staterooms Max Capacity 1 Allure of The Seas 2011 225,282 GT 361.8 m 65 m 2,706 6,400 1 Oasis of The Seas 2010 225,282 GT 362 m 65 m 2,706 6,296 2 Norwegian Epic 2010 155,873 GT 329.5 m 41 m 2,114 5,183
  9. 9. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 1. Introduction to Port Design and Construction Technique Top 20 Container Terminals of the World Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 9 Rank Port, Country Volume 2010 (Million- TEUs) Volume 2011 (Million- TEUs) 1 Shanghai, China 29.07 31.74 2 Singapore, Singapore 28.43 29.94 3 Hong Kong, China 23.70 24.38 4 Shenzhen, China 22.51 22.57 5 Busan, South Korea 14.18 16.17 6 Ningbo-Zhoushan, China 13.14 14.72 7 Guangzhou Harbor, China 12.55 14.26 8 Qingdao, China 12.01 13.02 9 Jebel Ali, Dubai, United Arab Emirates 11.60 13.01 10 Rotterdam, Netherlands 11.14 11.88 11 Tianjin, China 10.08 11.59 12 Kaohsiung, Taiwan, China 9.18 9.64 13 Port Kelang, Malaysia 8.87 9.60 14 Hamburg, Germany 7.91 9.04 15 Antwerp, Belgium 8.47 8.66 16 Los Angeles, U.S.A. 7.83 7.94 17 Keihin Ports, Japan* 7.48 7.64 18 Tanjung Pelepas, Malaysia 6.47 7.50 19 Xiamen, China 5.82 6.47 20 Dalian, China 5.24 6.40
  10. 10. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Shanghai, China Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 10 31,7 million TEU
  11. 11. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Shanghai, China Introduction. Ports of the world. Shanghai, China Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 11 31,7 million TEU
  12. 12. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Shanghai, China Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 12 31,7 million TEU
  13. 13. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Shanghai, China Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 13 31,7 million TEU
  14. 14. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Singapore CT, Singapore Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 14 29,9 million TEU
  15. 15. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Hong Kong CT, China Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 15 24,3 million TEU
  16. 16. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Shenzhen, China Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 16 22,5 million TEU
  17. 17. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Busan, South Korea Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 17 16,7 million TEU
  18. 18. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Ningbo Zhoushan Terminal, China Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 18 14,7 million TEU
  19. 19. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Guangzhou,China Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 19 14,2 million TEU
  20. 20. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Guangzhou,China Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 20 14,2 million TEU
  21. 21. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Qingdao, China Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 21 13,0 million TEU
  22. 22. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Jebel Ali, Arabian Emirates Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 22 13,0 million TEU
  23. 23. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Rotterdam, Holland Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 23 11,8 million TEU
  24. 24. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Rotterdam CT, Holland Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 24 11,8 million TEU
  25. 25. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Tianjin, China Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 25 11,6 million TEU
  26. 26. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Tianjin, China Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 26 11,6 million TEU
  27. 27. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Kaosiung, Taiwan China Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 27 9,6 million TEU
  28. 28. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Kelang, Malaysia Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 28 9,6 million TEU
  29. 29. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Hamburg,Germany Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 29 9,0 million TEU
  30. 30. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Antwerp Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 30 8,6 million TEU
  31. 31. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Antwerp, Belgium Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 31 8,6 million TEU
  32. 32. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Los Angeles, CA Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 32 7,9 million TEU
  33. 33. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Los Angeles, CA Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 33 7,9 million TEU
  34. 34. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Keihin Bay, Japan Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 34 7,6 million TEU
  35. 35. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Keihin, Japan Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 35 7,6 million TEU
  36. 36. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Keihin, Japan Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 36 7,6 million TEU
  37. 37. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Keihin, Japan Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 37 7,6 million TEU
  38. 38. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Keihin, Japan Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 38 7,6 million TEU
  39. 39. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Keihin, Japan Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 39 7,6 million TEU
  40. 40. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 1.Introduction. Ports of the world. Keihin, Japan Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 40 7,6 million TEU
  41. 41. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 1.Introduction. Ports of the world. Keihin, Japan Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 41 7,6 million TEU
  42. 42. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Keihin, Japan Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 42 7,6 million TEU
  43. 43. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Keihin, Japan Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 43 7,6 million TEU
  44. 44. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Xiamen, China Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 44 6,4 million TEU
  45. 45. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 1.Introduction. Ports of the world.Dalian,China Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 45 6,4 million TEU
  46. 46. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world.Dalian,China Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 46 6,4 million TEU
  47. 47. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 1. Introduction. Ports of Turkey. Aliaga Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 47
  48. 48. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 1. Introduction. Ports of Turkey. Ambarli Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 48
  49. 49. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 1. Introduction. Ports of Turkey. Diliskelesis Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 49
  50. 50. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 1. Introduction. Ports of Turkey. Aliaga Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 50
  51. 51. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 1. Introduction. Ports of Turkey. Izmit Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 51
  52. 52. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 1. Introduction. Ports of Turkey. Izmit Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 52
  53. 53. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 1. Introduction. Ports of Turkey. Izmit CT Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 53
  54. 54. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 2 Port Planning and Development.  Economic and Financial Analysis of Port Operations and Development  The Port Planning Process  Port Development  Port Design and Equipment Selection  Port Project Management  Port Operations and Management Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 54
  55. 55. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 2 Port Planning and Development.  Economic and Financial Analysis  The role of ports have changed and largely driven by:  Economies of scale in ship size and speed, specialization and ship types  Economics of physical form change of cargoes with new methods of cargo handling, storage and processing  Economies of specialization in cargo types of form such as bulk and unitized carriage of goods  Main stimulus to development is existing or expected need for improved port capacity and services. It can not be clearly defined, then vital to determine the actual condition of the entire transport system of the port and hinterland, or region.  Projection of total demand, modal distribution of traffic, forecast of technological changes in shipping and handling can be made on this base. Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 55
  56. 56. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 2 Port Planning and Development.  Economic and Financial Analysis. Basic Guidelines:  Site selection  Sufficient demand  Port´s natural sea and land conditions  Special material-handling equipment available  Efficient inland distribution networks available  Information requirements  Ranking procedure  Physical requirements for port site Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 56
  57. 57. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 2 Port Planning and Development.  Economic and Financial Analysis. Proposed steps:  Step1. Description of the proposed port projects. Potential benefits and beneficiaries and alternatives of port configurations  Step 2. Forecast of traffic flow  Step 3. Assessmnet of costs and benefits:  Port facility costs  Material-handling equipment cost.  Inland transportation costs  Benefits. Savings in shipping costs, reduction of waiting time, saving in investment costs, other.  Step 4. Alternatives for timing of investments: Possibility of later expansion to demand growth. Determine a port expansion strategy with minimum cost and desired level of service. Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 57
  58. 58. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 2 Port Planning and Development.  Economic and Financial Analysis. Proposed steps:  Step 5. Economic feasibility analysis. Present value and internal rate of return calculation. Choose the combination of a port site and inland transportation alternative with largest net present value of total costs and benefits.  Step 6. Sensitivity analysis. Determine how the selected site and the inland transport mode will be affected as traffic volume or capital investment costs change. (Example: If investment costs for road facilities increase proporcionally with traffic volume, the preferred inland transportation mode may be rail, instead of road) Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 58
  59. 59. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 2 Port Planning and Development.  Economic and Financial Analysis. Information Requirements. Relevant data for terminal site selection are:  Characteristics of alternate terminal sites  Audit of currents conditions  Demand centers in a region to be served by port  Import-export generated by each center  Inventory of available resources in port).  Information for economic analysis:  Inland transportation network distances from each terminal to each demand center  New investment costs for each alternate inland transportation mode and actual operating cost  Financial resources available  Revenue schedule  Appropiate rate of return  Foreign exchange earnings  Construction period and economic life of the project equipment Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 59
  60. 60. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 2 Port Planning and Development.  Economic and Financial Analysis. Ranking Procedures. From described methodology for logistic site can be chosen based on pure cost-benefit analysis. But non- qualtifiable factors have important effects on terminal-siting decision. Relevants are:  Availability of labor  Skill level of labor  Available financial resources  Port expandability  Exisitng infrastructure around prospective port site  Regional development considerations  Atractiveness of location to ship operators (depths, accesibility)  Economic analysis (NPV calculation)  Sensitivity analysis result Next step is to assign weights to each factor, by relative importance. In scale from 1-5, 1 representing poor and 5 representing excellent, for each site. Total weighted score for each alternate is calculated by summing up the product of the assigned weightof each factor and the given rank. Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 60
  61. 61. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 2 Port Planning and Development.  Physical Requeriments for Port Sites. Choise of particular location depends on many physical characteristics such as:  Depth requirements  Area requirements Basic Physical Criteria  Astronomical tide and wind  Changes in water level (storm surges and the negative surges)  Waves (direction, amplitude, heights)  Currents  Fog and ice Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 61
  62. 62. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 2 Port Planning and Development  The Port Planning Process starts with master planning in line with defined objectives. Tasks:  Economic Base Survey: Detailed commodity flow, type, and form forecast: Economical transport base of ports. Growth of economic activity. Trade development analysis.Commodity flow analysis.  Transport System. Water transportation, Rail transportation, Higway–road transport  Change in Shipping Pattern. Commodity flow and physical form.  Study of Shipping and Land Transportation Technology Changes  Cargo Handling, Transfer and Storage  Inventory of Port Facilities and Analysis of Operations  Analysis of present facilities and future needs  Engineering Study  Identification of Port Development Alternatives  Financial Study  Environmental Analysis Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 62
  63. 63. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 2 Port Planning and Development  Port Development Strategy:  Whether the need should be met?  How it should be met? (improving institutions, operations, or facilities or construction of new facilities)  Where it should be met – ex. in wich port, and what parts in that port?  When it should be met - the time schedule for implementaiton of planned improvements? Answers depend on the development objectives, on government policy and on resources availability Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 63
  64. 64. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 2 Port Planning and Development  Port Development Strategy and Objectives Criteria:  Optimization of number of Berths and Other Major Fixed Investments  Minimizing Total Transportation Costs. (Discounted total investment costs + operating costs over the economic life of the project)  Promoting Economic Growth (Often strengthen the economic of region or country) Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 64
  65. 65. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 2 Port Planning and Development  Identification of Development Opportunities Project identification is done defining problems and potential solutions by port authorities and users:  Problem Definition. Capacity, Service level, Navigational features, Inland transportation networks, Technological changes  Institutional Improvement. Complete reorganization, custom procedures, documentation, labor relations, training programs for dock laborers  Operational Improvements. Working procedures. Mechanization, Improvement of equipment and maintenance  Modification and Expansion of Existing Facilities  Development of New Port Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 65
  66. 66. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 2 Port Planning and Development  Port Design and Equipment Selection It is carried out after the requirements for a port in term of demand and expected performance are established.  Design of the port is performed at two to three levels  Details of engineering are postponed to the final design stage  Formalization of project status is done at the end of each stage  Project successively refined until translated into detailed design, construction plans and designs. Rules of thums about port design:  Average capacity of discontinuos machines about 60% of their maximum performance  Design capacity of conveyors serving discontinous machines should be equal their maximum performance  The rated capacity of a conveyor should be 115 % of the required maximum performance Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 66
  67. 67. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 2 Port Planning and Development  Port Design and Equipment Selection Rules of Thumb: Storage Capacity  Shiploading and unloading – 1.5 to 2.5 times maximum size of vessel expected  Train loading and unloading - 1.5 to 2.5 times maximum size of train  Barge loading – 2 to 3 operating shifts  Truck loading - Variable try one day´s throughput  Overland conveyor - 1.5 to 2.0 days supply at delivery end  Steel plant - 1.5 to 2.0 months supply  Power plant - 2.0 to 3.0 months supply  Cement plant – 1.5 to 2.0 month supply Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 67
  68. 68. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 2 Port Planning and Development  Port Design and Equipment Selection Risk Analysis. It can be applied to evaluate risks involved:  Choosing port capacity, equipment and technology, layout, and location considering the estimated future demand by cargo and ship types  Estimating the probability distribution of NPV based on the probability distribution of future port throughput in the port investment evaluation.  Estimating the failure risks associated with the conceived overall design of the port by estimating the failure risks of its individual components. We attemp to evaluate statistically the probability, frecuency and severity of events causing damages of certain levels to port structures or equipment being port protective, coastal protective, offshore exploitation, cargo handling, storages or other. Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 68
  69. 69. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 2 Port Planning and Development  Port Design and Equipment Selection. Risk Analysis. To be considered:  Make thorough analyses of the stability of the port strutures, including overall stability as the stability of single elements.  Determine the failure risks associated with the design by estimating the failure risks of its individual components. (Dangerous level of loads, special stress due to static and dynamic, vibratory, cycles, impact, analize environmental forces like waves, currents, winds, ice and earthquakes, forces by port operations, conditions of maximum loads and combinations.)  Determine the possibility of the occurrence of combinations of phenomena that produce damages and their probability of joint ocurrence.  Determine the expected life of the structure may be altered by: The changes in the objectives that initiated the project, new port technologies, inability of fulfill the purpose for which it is designed, durability of some materials.  Construction risks  Schedule risk is the most important non physical one  Financial reliability risk of contractors  Changes in taxation  Forex exchange risks  Liability for insufficient or unreliable data. Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 69
  70. 70. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 2. Port Development. Prefeasibility Case Study Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 70  This Case Study aims to define a value proposition for Port case study.  Port to be privatized in short term and seeks for a vision on business development.  Present installations show a weak technical level, lack of efficiency, and low competitiveness.  The method applied is a review of port scenarios, alternatives, and indexes to maximize the efectiveness of core resources.
  71. 71. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 2 Port Development. Prefeasibility Case Study. Layout Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 71
  72. 72. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 2. Port Development. Prefeasibility Case Study Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 72  The reluctance of private investors with regards to Country/Region is explained – among others – by the inadequacy of transport infrastructures.  The improvements will focus on specialized technologies and innovations, to support a value proposition to the market that maximizes investment efficiency and port competitiveness.  A key question is about dropped general cargo that requires half of port areas, xx % of berthing capacity, and represented up to xx% of exports over the last XX years.
  73. 73. Scenario 1: Prefeasibility Case Study Port main regions Futuredevelopment Pier I Pier II Pier III Pier V 73
  74. 74. Scenario 2: Keep storages in General Cargo Zone Future development Pier I Pier II Pier III Pier V 74
  75. 75. Scenario 3: Maximixing container Zone Future development Pier I Pier II Pier III Pier V
  76. 76. Scenario-4: Maximizing Ro-Ro areas Future development Pier I Pier II Pier III Pier V 76
  77. 77. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 2. Port Development. Prefeasibility Case Study. Analysis Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 77  An effort to maximize containers, either Ro-Ro operations against dropped General Cargo will result in exceding berthing capacities respect to existing port areas.  But trying to use the existing berthing lines with dropped general cargo, forces us to a lower port efficiency, dismissing more port specialization and innovation.  Mix marketing question is related to Country/Region import-export demands and imbalances.
  78. 78. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 2. Port Development. Prefeasibility Case Study. International Trade Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 78 Total exports $494,479,704 $561,674,731 $523,133,694 $350,017,237 $407,915,185 $590,533,140 Variations year/year (%) 14% -7% -33% 17% 45% COVERAGE EXPORT/IMPORT 31,6% 22,3% 16,1% 17,5% 22,0% 27,5% EXPORTS ($) 494479704 561674731 523133694 350017237 407915185 590533140 IMPORTS ($) 1566635401 2513736389 3241753715 2003420319 1850049084 2145869958 IMPORTS+EXPORTS ($) 2061115105 3075411120 3764887409 2353437556 2257964269 2736403098 Trade Balance: Deficit ($) -1072155697 -1952061658 -2718620021 -1653403082 -1442133899 -1555336818 Years 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
  79. 79. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 2 . Port Development. Prefeasibility Case Study. Metal shares Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 79  A key to Country/Region is increasing export/import coverage – lower than XX %-; diversifying and improving the GDP structures.  In case, metal industry has represented up to XX % in 200X-0X of total export cash flows and must continue through Case Study port. METAL EXPORTS AS SHARE OF TOTAL  Metal 1 industry has been recovered from private hands and is planned to re-privatize under better conditions. Prices up in 20XX.  Metal 2 production center has been sold to a foreign firm and has resumed activity with investment plan to produce XXX Ton/year. Metal 1 exports ($) 19252447 39118115 56187550 22044119 30927751 56604641 Metal 2 exports ($) 321074758 351303588 267596093 159390767 176651148 257821232 Metal exports ($) 340327205 390421703 323783643 181434886 207578899 314425873 Share of total exports 0,69 0,70 0,62 0,52 0,51 0,53 Years 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
  80. 80. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 2. Port Development. Prefeasibility Case Study, Port Cargoes Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 80 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Mean values Mean values Products Shares in total (%) Cement 5,5 12,3 13,3 11,8 13 17,9 7,3 11,6 bananas 11,3 11,2 7,9 8,7 6,1 10,7 4,7 8,7 containers full 14,6 11,4 12,8 20,2 34,4 46,7 30,6 24,4 27,1containers empty 2 1,5 1,5 2 3,8 5 3,1 2,7 Metal 2 products 23,1 18,2 14,8 12,3 13,7 13,4 12,1 15,4 36,6 Metal 1 products 4,2 19,9 31,3 24,1 15,1 20,9 32,9 21,2 sugar 11,8 4,7 9,2 17,1 1,8 3,5 0 6,9 timber 2,5 1,6 0,8 0,9 0,8 1,2 0,3 1,2 ro-ro 14,1 8,3 6,4 5,8 6,7 7,7 6 7,9 7,9 other 10,9 10,9 2,1 4,8 4,7 2,3 3,2 5,6 5,6
  81. 81. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 2. Port Development. Prefeasibility Case Study  36,6 % of Prefeasibility Case Study port operations has been related to metal import/export for more than 7 years.  Metals products can be unitized and transported by containers, improving overall port efficiency.  Other products like bananas can be operated in refrigerated containers. Cement to operate in bulk -if demand to increase- either in containers.  In short term, the export sectors will suffer from slower demand in Country 1 and Country 2, respectively the second and third most important markets. Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 81
  82. 82. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 2. Port Development. Prefeasibility Case Study. Tourism Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 82 Year Inbound Increment % 2002 136000 - 2003 142000 4,2% 2004 188000 24,5% 2005 272000 30,9% 2006 378000 28,0% 2007 984000 61,6% 2008 1031000 4,6% 2009 1044000 1,2% 2010 1088000 4,0% • The tourism industry, whose contribution to GDP is expected to rise from xx% to yy % from now to 20xx, will continue its upsurge, supported by tax incentives, growing investments in hotel and infrastrutures and the signing of partnerships with foreign companies.
  83. 83. GenPlan 1. Keeps Dropped cargo.Maximum berthing Futuredevelopment Tourism Pier III Pier II Pier I Pier V 83 Ro-ro 1
  84. 84. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 2. Port Development. Prefeasibility Case Study. Plan 1. Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 84  Proposed GenPlan1 represents a continuity strategy. It seeks for maximum use of berthing capacities and KEEPS existing technologies. Same import/export structures with minimal investments.  Bulk products operated with closed technology for environmental issues.  The container berth to be mainteined and portainer crane replaced. This increases XX % the terminal capacity. Additional areas for future storage available, but restricted and difficult to arrange apron, marshalling and freight station areas.  Dropped General Cargos keeps operating metal and other with existing mix structures, but moving bananas to containers, and cement/or to closed bulk lines.  Using existing Ro –Ro berth (XXX m.), for demand xxx vehicles/day will require storage areas of xxxx-xxxxx m2 that can be solved with multi- story parking . Difficult allocating new berthing lines for future development.  Tourism capacity can be increased up to xxx/xxx %, rising to xx % rates in 2021.
  85. 85. Plan-2.1 Balanced modernization of General Cargo Futuredevelopment TourismZone Pier III Pier II Pier I Pier V 85
  86. 86. Plan-2.2 Maximum containers and use of berthing lines Futuredevelopment TourismZone Pier III Pier II Pier I Pier V 86
  87. 87. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 2. Port Development. Prefeasibility Case Study Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 87  GenPlan 2 is a big bet strategy. It seeks for high specialization, answering to future import/export demand, lowering labour costs, improving vessels turnaround, and increasing port competitivenes.  Dropped General Cargos from marketing mix excluded. Container and Ro Ro areas are balanced.  Metal products to be operated in containers.  Existing container berth to be enlarge. It increases about XX % the CT capacity  Areas for export/import of vehicles is guarateed with multi-stores parking solutions. Prefeasibility Case Study becomes an atractive regional port.  Depending on Ro–Ro berthing lines to use, the needed storage areas (X00 000 m2) up to (Y00 000 m2) guaranted.  Tourism berthing is increased by phases up to xxx %, rising to xx % rates in 20xx.  Bulk products to be operated with closed technology for environmental requirements.
  88. 88. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 1. Port Development. Prefeasibility Case Study. Spaces increments Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 88 PHYSICAL SPACES Existing GenPlan Target GenPlan2.1 Berth (m) subtotal %* Area (m2) %** Area/Berth Berth (m) subtot al %* Area (m2) %** Area/Berth Bulk 560 560 19% 144000 18% 257 560 560 22% 144000 13% 257 Containers 350 350 12% 162000 20% 463 500 500 20% 461250 43% 923 Drop general cargo 1 350 950 32% 420750 52% 443 0 0 0% 0 0% 0 Drop general cargo 2 300 0 Drop general cargo 3 300 0 Ro-ro 1 230 230 8% 15000 2% 65 230 590 24% 400000 37% 678 Ro-ro 2 130 Ro-ro 3 - 230 Passengers 1 140 840 29% 15000 2% 18 140 840 34% 15000 1% 18 Passengers 2 200 200 Passengers 3 200 200 Passengers 4 100 100 Passengers 5 100 100 Passengers 6 100 100 Administration 54000 7% - 54000 5% - Total 2930 2930 100% 810750 100% 277 2490 2490 100% 1074250 100% 431
  89. 89. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 2. Port Development. Prefeasibility Case Study. Conclusions  The value proposition from Genplan-2 reduces vessels turnaround time and labor costs based on high specialized services improving port efficiency and competitiveness including: I. General Cargo in Containers II. Ro-Ro III. Cruise Tourism  Port areas to be exploited with a relation Area/berths coefficient of YYY m2/m.  Existing Container Terminal to be enlarged increasing more than X times its capacity.  Port of Prefeasibility Case Study to become an important regional competitor with xxx vehicles/day.  Possible rising tourism berthing rates to xx % in 20xx without high investments. Cruise global demand doubled over ten years. Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 89
  90. 90. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 2 Port Planning and Development  Port Project Management. It consists of a project cycle that includes a formative, an implementation, and an evaluation stages. We check:  Is the project goal clearly and understandably stated?  Is the project goal possible /realistic?  Is the attainment of the goal, in fact, desired?. If it is the elimination of a problem, the real cause must be known  Does the project, in fact, try to solve the problem, or simply to ameliorate the problem´s symptoms?  Is sufficient information available or can be obtained?  Do outside variables influence what happens?  Do resources exist with capability completing the job?  Is communication of decisions and actin plans possible in appropiate period of time?  Is the orgnizational struture stable enough to complete the project? Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 90
  91. 91. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 2 Port Planning and Development  Port Project Management.  Port identification, appraisal initiation and approval is a process that in many cases takes 2-3 years.  A total cycle tme of 5-8 years may result. Actual construction may occur only 1-2 years later.  The delay in the approval affects the accuracy of the information and analysis on wich the approval is based and is therefore a somewhat self-defeating process.  In a world of inflation, resources missallocation, changing political and fiscal alignments and major economic fluctuations, timeliness of project appraisal may be much more important than accuracy of the appraisal efforts. Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 91
  92. 92. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 2 Port Planning and Development  Port Project Management. Methodology:  Establishment of Need for Project  Criteria and Economic/Financial Constraints (total investment, NPV, limited negative NPV, limited operating costs in a given period, employment generated to exceed a certain number)  Project Alternatives Development.  Appraisal and Project Selection (here differs most widely from traditional approach)  Estimate for each alternative financial capital costs over time  Estimate of loan and financing costs  Estimate of accounting operating costs for different levels, or development of inputs or outputs.  Estimate of accounting receipts and revenues Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 92
  93. 93. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 2 Port Planning and Development  Port Operations and Management. Major categories.  Waterfront operations. Navigation control, accomodation of ships, loading and unloading vessels, servicing ships, ship maintenance, marine operations administration  Inland operations. Cargo storage and processing, interfacing transportaiton modes, traffic control, short term accomodation and administration of passengers.  General operations. Safety and environment control, port operation control, maintenance of port facilities –dredging, repairs of piers, repairs and equipment maintenance.  Security and protection  Special (military) Operations  Documentation and Information control  Environmental control Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 93
  94. 94. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 3 Port related maritime structures  Cargo handling equipment  Containers  General cargo  Ro Ro  Liquid bulk cargo  Dry bulk cargo  Vessel characteristics (Design vessel, Dead Weight Tonnage, loaded displacement, length, beam. Loaded draft)  Types of structures  Wharves (closed and open)  Piers  Dolphins Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 94
  95. 95. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 3 Port related maritime structures  Cargo handling equipment. Portainers Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 95
  96. 96. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 3 Port related maritime structures  Cargo handling equipment. Transtainers Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 96
  97. 97. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 3 Port related maritime structures  Cargo handling equipment. Container forklift and reach stacker 6 Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 97
  98. 98. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 3 Port related maritime structures  Cargo handling equipment. General Cargo equipment Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 98
  99. 99. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 3 Port related maritime structures  Cargo handling equipment. General Cargo equipment Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 99
  100. 100. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 3 Port related maritime structures  Cargo handling equipment. Liquid Cargo equipment Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 100
  101. 101. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 3 Port related maritime structures  Cargo handling equipment. Bulk Cargo equipment. Belt conveyors Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 101
  102. 102. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 3 Port related maritime structures  Structure components and materials  Piles  Sheet piles bulkheads  Pile caps  Decks  Fenders  Mooring fittings Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 102
  103. 103. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 3 Port related maritime structures  Design loads  Dead loads  Vertical live loads  Mooring loads  Berthing loads  Earthquake loads  Earth pressure  Ice forces  Loading combinations. (Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant mistakes dismissing possibilities of earthquake near shore and tsunami simultaneosly.) Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 103
  104. 104. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 3 Port related maritime structures  Geotechnical issues  Axially loaded piles  Laterally loaded piles  Shallow foundations  Lateral earth pressure  Slope stability  Settlement  Liquefaction  Geotechnical investigations Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 104
  105. 105. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 3 Port related maritime structures  Design of structures  Gravity-stabilized bulkheads  Tied-Back bulkheads  Pile-supported wharves  Pile supported piers  Dolphins  Fender Systems  Mooring fittings Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 105
  106. 106. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 4 Breakwaters  Breakwater Design  Breakwater Layout  Stopping Area  Maneuvering Area  Anchorage Area  Harbor entrance  Modeling and testing Breakwater layout and Harbor Entrances. Numerically and Labs.  Economy of breakwater construction. A compromise between waves action and level of services Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 106
  107. 107. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 5 Navigation Channel design  Channel Design  Ship characteristics  Environmental conditions  Design methods  Aids to navigation Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 107
  108. 108. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 6  Dredging  Dredging methods and equipment  Underwater surveys  Cutters, dragheads, and buckets  Pipeline transport of dredged material  Dredge material placement  Contaminated sediment and capping  Environmental considerations Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 108
  109. 109. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 7  Repair, Rehabilitation,Maintenance and Upgrading of Waterfront Structures  Deterioration of structural materials in a marine environment  Concrete deterioration  Corrosion of steel  Wood degradation  Physical damage to waterfront structures attributed to dock operations  Inspection of waterfront structures. System approach.  Engineering evaluation and interpretation. Structural analysis  Maintenance repair and rehabilitation. Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 109
  110. 110. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 7  Repair, Rehabilitation,Maintenance and Upgrading of Waterfront Structures Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 110
  111. 111. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 7  Repair, Rehabilitation,Maintenance and Upgrading of Waterfront Structures Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 111
  112. 112. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 7  Repair, Rehabilitation,Maintenance and Upgrading of Waterfront Structures Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 112
  113. 113. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 7  Repair, Rehabilitation,Maintenance and Upgrading of Waterfront Structures Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 113
  114. 114. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 7  Repair, Rehabilitation,Maintenance and Upgrading of Waterfront Structures Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 114
  115. 115. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 7  Repair, Rehabilitation,Maintenance and Upgrading of Waterfront Structures Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 115
  116. 116. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 7  Repair, Rehabilitation,Maintenance and Upgrading of Waterfront Structures Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 116
  117. 117. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 7  Repair, Rehabilitation,Maintenance and Upgrading of Waterfront Structures Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 117
  118. 118. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 7  Repair, Rehabilitation,Maintenance and Upgrading of Waterfront Structures Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 118
  119. 119. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 8 Environmental factors in Port Planning and Design  8.1 Environmental guidelines and regulations. Env. Impact Assesment is required by World Bank consistent with international standards, ex: International Association of Ports and Harbors, American Association of of Port Authotities, European Seaports Organization, PIANC, London Dumping Conference.  8.2 Dredging disposal, and land reclamation  Planning for dredging  Environmental impacts for dredging. Physical, structural, chemical and biological  Dredging impact mitigation. Disposal options – Ocean, confined aquatic disposal CAD, Confined Upland Disposal – Confined Disposal Facilities. Permit Applications,  Land Reclamation. Geotechnical issues, liquefaction  8.3 Regional Environmental Impacts. Infrastructure impacts, Biological and wetlands impacts, Water quality impacts, Erosion and sedimetation impacts, Flood impacts and control, Shipping and navigation issues impacts, Vehicular and rail traffic impacts, Air quality impacts, Noise and vibration impacts, Socioeconomic and Environmental Justice,Cultural Impacts, Visual Impacts.  8.4 Soil contamination and site remediation  8.5 Marine Petroleum and Dry Bulk Terminals (water quality control, air quality control, mainly) Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 119
  120. 120. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 8 Environmental factors in Port Planning and Design  8.6 Factors Affecting Project Feasibility  Dredge disposal options area available, at reasonable cost.  Dredge does not include large quantities of rock requiring drilling and blasting  Dredge material does not include highly contaminated sediments .  Suitable reclamation material is available at reasonable costs from the ongoing dredging, or nearby sources.  Feasible mitigation options for impacts to high-value biological resources, including tidal marshes, sea-grasses, and endangered species.  Permits for dredging, disposal and reclamation works can be obtained from regulatory agencies within reasonable time frame.  The port development, including the breakwater, will not have major adverse effects on adjacent coastline due to erosion, sedimentation, or water quality.  The infrastruture servicing the project including roads and utility, are adequate or can be improved with project budget .  Adequate upland area is available for environmental mitigation, such as wetlands mitigation, screens and buffer zones, and storm drainage detention ponds.  The upland area soils and groundwater are not excessively contaminated and do not require extensive cleanup and site remediation.  The project has not major cultural resources impacts, such as important archeological artifacts or historical structures.  The project will not have major regional impacts that affect socioeconomics or cause environmental injustice  All reasonable alternatives have been considered and evaluated in terms of environmental impacts costs, and benefits.  The project is economically sound and can be adequately financed for initial construction phases, and future operations.  The project has a reasonable level of community and political support. Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 120
  121. 121. Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients Section 9 Maritime Construction Technology (40 minutes videos selection)  Driving Deep Pile Foundations  Extreme Ocean Engineering Conditions.  Offshore Oil and Gas Plattform Project.  Very Large Container Carrier Construction http://www.portengineering.com/courses/master/wg15a/morevideos10.html Additional Information:  Arcelor Mittal Piling Handbook  Design of Pile Foundations Eurocode 7  Retaining Walls and Geotechnical Design Eurocode 7  Static Pile-Soil-Pile interaction in Offshore Piles Group  USSteel Steel Sheet Piles Design Manual  World_Export_BY_Provenance_Destination2011  Total Import Export by Countries 2003-2011. End of Presentation Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only. 121

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