The male and female repro ib master

1,868 views

Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,868
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
867
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

The male and female repro ib master

  1. 1. The Male And Female Reproductive Systems(Let’s Keep it clean, people!)
  2. 2. Sex Cell Production In most animals cells are produced in 2 ways: Mitosis – cell reproduction; asexual Meiosis – sex cell production; produces 4 gametes that are genetically non-identical
  3. 3. Variations Mainly during Meiosis: – Crossing Over – recombination of genes – Independent assortment of chromosomes – Mutation – produces new characteristics that can be passed – only in sex cells
  4. 4. Male Reproductive
  5. 5. Parts to the System PARTS AND FUNCTIONS: In Scrotum – Testes – produce sperm in tightly coiled tubes: Seminiferous Tubules - meiosis – Interstitial Cells – in between seminiferous tubules: produce TESTOSTERONE – Epididymis – stores maturing sperm Tubes – Vas Deferens – carries sperm from epididymis to urethra. – Urethra – in penis. Exit point for sperm Food and Travel - – Seminal Vesicles – releases “sugars” – Prostate Gland – releases alkaline solution – Cowper’s Gland – fluid to lubricate urethra, flush out urine Hormones: – GnRH stimulates production of FSH and LH(ICSH)
  6. 6. HORMONES and NEGATIVE FEEDBACK GnRH stimulates the pituitary to release LH and FSH LH stimulates the production of testosterone. FSH works on “sartoli’ cells to provide nourishment for sperm. Sartoli cells produce a hormone “inhibin” which inhibits the pituitary and hypothalamus resulting in lower levels of FSH HIGH LEVELS OF TESTOSTERONE PRODUCES NEGATIVE FEEDBACK ON THE PITUITARY GLAND DECREASING LEVELS OF LH (ICRH).
  7. 7. DRAW
  8. 8. Sperm Cells HEAD – – Contains nucleus – 23 chromosomes – Acrosome – contains enzymes to penetrate the egg. Neck – packed with mitochondria Tail – flagellum for movement
  9. 9. Female Reproductive System
  10. 10. Parts and Functions Parts and Functions: – Ovaries –eggs produced in cavities: FOLLICLES. Released at Ovulation. – Oviduct – passageway for egg. SITE of fertilization – Uterus – muscular, pear shaped. Holds developing organism – Cervix – lower end of uterus – Vagina – entry point for sperm. Exit point for Fetus. Birth Canal.
  11. 11. DRAW
  12. 12. Menstrual Cycle LH FSH estrogen progesterone Follicle Stage Luteal Stages ovulationmenstruation
  13. 13.  General: Hormones from Glands control cycle: – Hypothalamus(in brain): GnRH…….secreted to Pituitary:  FSH – – Stimulates growth of egg – Stimulates secretion of estrogen  LH – – Stimulates ovulation – Stimulates empty follicle to convert to corpus luteum – Stimulates corpus luteum to secrete estrogen and progesterone – Ovary  Estrogen – Stimulates repair and growth of the uterus  Progesterone – Stimulates and maintains growth of the uterine lining
  14. 14. Stages of Menstruation Menstruation – (5 days) – Egg not fertilized – Inner Uterine lining (endometrium) breaks down and passes out of the vagina(with the egg). Follicle Stage – (9 days) – FSH production increases – Follicles in ovaries develop. (oocyte) – Estrogen secreted to heal, repair, and thicken endometrium with blood vessels Ovulation – Middle of Cycle--- 1 day – High level of estrogen decreases FSH and stimulates secretion of LH – High level of LH – Follicle ruptures and egg is released. Corpus Luteum Stage – ( 13 days) – Corpus Luteum is produced in ruptured follicle…stimulates progesterone production. – Maintains endometrial growth. – Egg implantation if fertilization takes place
  15. 15. Hormones: – and + feedback ESTROGEN – Negative feedback on pituitary to block FSH release. – Positive feedback on pituitary to signal release of LH Progesterone – Negative feedback to block FSH release – Negative feedback to block LH release
  16. 16. From Fertilization to Birth
  17. 17. Copulation vs. Fertilization Copulation – – Coupling – Physical contact between male and female needed for sperm to move from male to female: intercourse Fertilization – Fusion of male and female nuclei to produce a zygote
  18. 18. Fertilization
  19. 19. DEVELOPMENT
  20. 20. After Fertilization MALE AND FEMALE GAMETES LINE UP AT THE EQUATOR  PREPARE FOR 1ST MITOTIC DIVISION  NO CELL GROWTH  “CLEAVAGE DIVISION” AFTER SEVERAL DIVISIONS: – BALL OF CELLS = MORULA  REACHES UTERUS IN APPX. 4 DAYS Implantation – into wall of the endometrium
  21. 21. Implantation
  22. 22. Development
  23. 23. Development Embryo – development from about week 4 thru week 12 – Outer embryonic layer grows blood vessels into the uterine wall – placenta – Placenta – exchange of nutrients – maternal and fetal; source of estrogen and progesterone (acts as an endocrine gland) – Chorion – keep mother and baby blood from mixing. – Amnion & Fluid – shock absorber; insulation – Umbilical Cord – contains artery and vein; fetus to placenta Fetus – Week 13 - 40
  24. 24. Changes During Pregnancy
  25. 25. Parturition
  26. 26. Hormonal Control
  27. 27. Parturition Prostglandin – hormone- like substances; help to stimulate contractions. Oxytocin – hormone – released by pituitary gland POSITIVE FEEDBACK SYSTEM Parturition – process of delivering the fetus and placenta. Includes – Labour – dilation of cervix, vagina – Expulsion – Birth – Afterbirth – delivery of placenta
  28. 28. Parturition
  29. 29. Anmniocentisis CVSIn Vitro Fertilization
  30. 30. Amniocentesis and CVSAmniocentesis –•inserting a needleinto the uterusthrough a verysmall incision inthe abdomen• needle takesamniotic fluid –contains embryoniccells.• used to detectgenetic defects
  31. 31. In vitro fertilization Approximately 1 of 6 couples Used mainly as a way to overcome a female infertility (physiological) issue: blocked oviducts or timely ovulation Cannot be used in the case of low sperm count.
  32. 32. In Vitro Fertilization
  33. 33. IVF Process1. Drug given to stop menstrual cycle.2. Large doses of FSH given – 2 weeks3. HCG given 48 hours before collection – matures eggs4. Man provides semen.5. Eggs extracted through the vagina6. Each egg is mixed with some sperm in a petri dish – incubated 24 hours7. Check to see if fertilized!8. Embryo’s selected and placed in uterus9. Wait approximately 2 to 3 weeks and take pregnancy test – implantation10. Scan as normal for any developmental issues
  34. 34. Ethical Issues of IVFPro: Against: Environmental infertility  Fate of extra embryos? will not affect offspring  Long term storage of Not developed – no pain embryos – stem cells? to embryo  Multi pregnancy places Genetic screening before stress on family transferring  Expensive Parents have strong  High rate of failure desire for child  religious
  35. 35. Ethical Issues of Family Planning
  36. 36.  Permanent Contraception – Female sterilization (tubal ligation) – Vasectomy Mechanical – Diaphragm – Intra Uterine Device – Condom Chemical – Spermicide – Birth control pill* – “day-after” pill* Other – Rhythm - cycle – Withdrawal before ejaculation – Abortion
  37. 37. Birth Control and “Day After” Pill Birth Control – synthetic estrogens and progesterone(s) that prevent release of GnRH ---- FSH & LH Morning After – – Blocks progesterone receptors in uterus. – altering the lining of the womb, so a fertilized egg cant embed itself there.
  38. 38. Ethics of Family Planning and ContraceptionPro Against Can choose to get  Most not 100% pregnant effective A few methods 100%  Promotes promiscuity effective  Abstinence difficult in Population control marriage  Irreversible
  39. 39. THE END!!!!!!!!!!
  40. 40. Puberty in Males Marked by a sharp increase in testosterone production: Production of sperm: primary!! Secondary:  Enlargement of penis and testes  Growth of body hair: face, underarm, pubic  Deepening of voice  Broad shoulders - muscle
  41. 41. Puberty in Females Marked by the onset of the menstrual cycle Egg production: primary! Secondary: – Breast Development – Body curve – placement of tissue – Hair: underarm, pubic
  42. 42. Developmental Terms to Know Zygote – newly fertilized egg Cleavage – first series of cell divisions; multiple rounds of mitosis Morula – 4-16 cells; solid ball of cells Blastomere – cells of the morula Blastocyst – after 5 days; develops a hollow cavity Implantation – blastocyst penetrates endometrium Endometrium – uterine lining Gestation – pregnancy, 40 weeks
  43. 43. Implantation
  44. 44. Implantation Blastocyst contains fluid filled cavity called blastocoel. Blastocyst: – Two parts: – Inner mass cells - will develop into the embryo – Trophoblast – releases HCG hormone; digests a hole into the endometrium HCG helps to maintain progesterone levels during pregnancy. Pregnancy test.
  45. 45. Twins!!!!!

×