Human respiration honors master

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Human respiration honors master

  1. 1. HumanRespiratory System 03/26/12 19:28 cottingham
  2. 2. The Essential Questions What are the primary functions of our respiratory system? What is the structure of the respiratory organs? How does structure affect function? Why do we breath? How do we breath? How and where does the oxygen and carbon dioxide get in and out of our bloodstream? 03/26/12 19:28 cottingham
  3. 3. Vocabulary  Trachea Nasal cavity  Bronchi Nose  Bronchioles Cilia  Lungs - Alveoli Mucous membrane  Pluera Pharynx  Diaphragm Larynx  Breathing Vocal cords  Inhale (inspiration) Epiglottis and glottis  Exhale (expiration) Feedback mechanism  Oxyhemoglobin Respiratory Center: medulla  Carboxyhemoglobin ventilation  Carbonic acid  Bicarbonate 03/26/12 19:28 cottingham
  4. 4. Human Respiration  Involves the process of cellular respiration and gas exchange a) Internal- cellular respiration: Glucose + O2  H2O + CO2 + 36 ATP’s b) External- gas exchange: exchange of gases between theinternal and external environment with the use of lungs 03/26/12 19:28 cottingham
  5. 5. 03/26/12 19:28 cottingham
  6. 6. (I) Human Respiratory System  Composed of a network of passageways which permits air to flow from the external environment and into the lungs 03/26/12 19:28 cottingham
  7. 7. The Respiratory System 03/26/12 19:28 cottingham
  8. 8. The Upper Respiratory Tract 03/26/12 19:28 cottingham
  9. 9. Nasal Cavity The nose Lined with a ciliated mucus membrane The cilia and mucus: 1. Filters air 2. Warms air 3. Moistens air 03/26/12 19:28 cottingham
  10. 10. Pharynx Known as the throat region It is an area in which both air and food pass through 03/26/12 19:28 cottingham
  11. 11. Larynx Also called the Adam’s apple Humans use the larynx as a voice box which contains vocal cords that vibrate and produce sound as air passes through 03/26/12 19:28 cottingham
  12. 12. EpiglottisA cartilaginous flap It “covers” the trachea when swallowing food 03/26/12 19:28 cottingham
  13. 13. Trachea Known as the windpipe Kept open by rings of cartilage Lined with a ciliated mucus membrane One cigarette paralyzes the cilia for 20 minutes 03/26/12 19:28 cottingham
  14. 14. Lung03/26/12 19:28 cottingham
  15. 15. Bronchi Bronchus = singular Trachea divides into two major divisions known as bronchi The bronchi contain cartilage rings as well The bronchi subdivide many times forming smaller tubules known as bronchioles 03/26/12 19:28 cottingham
  16. 16. Bronchioles Lack cartilage rings Tiny bronchioles subdivide and terminate (end) with structures known as alveoli 03/26/12 19:28 cottingham
  17. 17. Alveoli 03/26/12 19:28 cottingham
  18. 18. 03/26/12 19:28 cottingham
  19. 19. Alveoli Are thin, moist and surrounded by capillaries Are the functional units for gas exchange between the lung and the blood Alveoli increase surface area for gas exchange O2 diffuses into the blood from the alveoli and CO2 and water diffuse out of the blood and into the alveoli 03/26/12 19:28 cottingham
  20. 20. 03/26/12 19:28 cottingham
  21. 21. How Do You Breathe 03/26/12 19:28 cottingham
  22. 22. Diaphragm Muscle that forms the floor of the chest cavity Aids in the breathing process 03/26/12 19:28 cottingham
  23. 23. Mechanisms of Breathing Respiratory Volumes  Tidal Volume  Amount of air moving in and out with each breath  Around 70% of this air reaches the alveoli, 30% remains in the airways  Vital capacity  Maximum volume moved in and moved out in a breath  Illness can affect vital capacity  Inhalation reserve volume  Forced inhalation (amount of air brought in above tidal volume)  Exhalation reserve volume  Forced exhalation (air exhaled beyond tidal volume)  Residual volume  Amount of air always remaining in lungs 03/26/12 19:28 cottingham
  24. 24. Mechanisms of Breathing Understanding Breathing  There is continuous air from pharynx to alveoli  The lungs are in the “sealed-off” thoracic cavity.  Rib cage forms top and sides  Intercostal muscles lie between the ribs  Diaphragm forms the floor 03/26/12 19:28 cottingham
  25. 25. 03/26/12 19:28 cottingham
  26. 26. Inhaling 03/26/12 19:28 cottingham
  27. 27. Exhaling 03/26/12 19:28 cottingham
  28. 28. Nervous Control of Breathing 03/26/12 19:28 cottingham
  29. 29. Gas Exchanges in the Body 03/26/12 19:28 cottingham
  30. 30. Diseases of theRespiratory System 03/26/12 19:28 cottingham
  31. 31. Common Bronchiole andPulmonary Diseases 03/26/12 19:28 cottingham
  32. 32. Disorders of the Respiratory System Disorder of the Upper Respiratory Tract  The Common Cold  Caused by viruses  Antibiotics are ineffective against viral infections  Pharyngitis  Inflammation of the throat  Tonsillitis  Tonsils (lymphoid tissue) become inflamed and enlarged  Laryngitis  Inflammation of the larynx  Causes hoarseness  Persistent laryngitis is one warning sign of cancer  Sinusitis  Infection of the cranial sinuses  Nasal congestion blocks sinus openings 03/26/12 19:28 cottingham
  33. 33. Disorders of the Respiratory System Disorder of the Lower Respiratory Tract  Acute bronchitis  Infection of the primary and secondary bronchi  Usually it is preceded by a viral infection that leads to a secondary bacterial infection  Chronic bronchitis  Airways are inflamed and filled with mucus  Bronchi have undergone degenerative change including the loss of cilia  Smoking is the most common cause 03/26/12 19:28 cottingham
  34. 34. Bronchitis Inflammation of the membrane of the bronchial tubes 03/26/12 19:28 cottingham
  35. 35. Disorders of the Respiratory System Disorder of the Lower Respiratory Tract  Asthma  A disease of the bronchi and bronchioles  Wheezing, breathlessness, coughing  Inflammation of the bronchioles  Airways are usually sensitive to specific irritants  Incurable but can be treated with medicines 03/26/12 19:28 cottingham
  36. 36. Asthma 03/26/12 19:28 cottingham
  37. 37. Disorders of the Respiratory System Disorder of the Lower Respiratory Tract  Pneumonia  Viral or bacterial infection  Bronchi or alveoli fill with fluid  High fever, chest pain and headache  Pulmonary tuberculosis  Caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis  Cells build a protective capsule (tubercle) around the bacteria 03/26/12 19:28 cottingham
  38. 38. Pneumonia 03/26/12 19:28 cottingham
  39. 39. 15.4 Disorders of the RespiratorySystem Disorder of the Lower Respiratory Tract  Emphysema  Damage to the walls of the alveoli A chronic and incurable disease  Smoking is the major cause of this disease 03/26/12 19:28 cottingham
  40. 40. Emphysema 03/26/12 19:28 cottingham
  41. 41. 15.4 Disorders of the RespiratorySystem Lung Cancer  A series of progressive steps  Thickening and callusing of mucosa of bronchi  Loss of cilia  Cancerous changes occur in callus cells  Tumors may obstruct bronchi  Cancerous cells spread to other parts of the body  Lung cancer can be caused by secondhand smoke 03/26/12 19:28 cottingham
  42. 42. Normal Lung versus Cancerous Lung 03/26/12 19:28 cottingham
  43. 43. Lung Cancer 03/26/12 19:28 cottingham
  44. 44. 03/26/12 19:28 cottingham

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