Cellular Respiration! 01/09/12   21:25 cottingham
The Essential Questions <ul><li>How is cellular respiration important to maintain one’s life? </li></ul><ul><li>1) What is...
More Essentials  <ul><li>9) What are the products and byproducts of ETC?  </li></ul><ul><li>10) What are the products and ...
Key Vocabulary <ul><li>General: (words to apply in many places) </li></ul><ul><li>Oxidize </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce </li></...
Key   Vocabulary <ul><li>ADP </li></ul><ul><li>ATP </li></ul><ul><li>NAD + </li></ul><ul><li>FAD  </li></ul><ul><li>Glucos...
Key Vocabulary –  THE PROCESSES <ul><li>Glycolysis </li></ul><ul><li>Oxidative Decarboxylation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>P...
Metabolism <ul><li>2 parts: </li></ul><ul><li>Catabolism – breaking down food into carbs, fats, and protein </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>BREATHING + </li></ul><ul><li>EATING </li></ul><ul><li>= </li></ul><ul><li>CELL RESPIRATION </li></ul>01/09/12   2...
Metabolism 01/09/12   21:25 cottingham
Making Energy 01/09/12   21:25 cottingham
01/09/12   21:25 cottingham Page 120
ATP, ADP and Glucose <ul><li>ATP  </li></ul><ul><li>Usable cellular energy </li></ul><ul><li>High energy in the bond that ...
Oxidation and Reduction <ul><li>Oxidize  – TO LOSE ELECTRONS and LOSE Hydrogen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any molecule containi...
NAD+ and FAD <ul><li>ARE COENZYMES </li></ul><ul><li>Every time a molecule GAINS electrons it is  reduced : </li></ul><ul>...
01/09/12   21:25 cottingham Fig. 7.4
PHOSPHORYLATION  –  whenever any molecule is a  recipient  of a phosphate (P i ) group! ADP to ATP  01/09/12   21:25 cotti...
01/09/12   21:25 cottingham Fig. 7.6
Mitochondria  01/09/12   21:25 cottingham Outer membrane  – encloses mitochondria, contains protein channels. Inner membra...
Cell Respiration –the equation (the absolute minimum you need to know) <ul><li>C 6 H 12 O 6  + 6 O 2  --> 6H 2 O + 6 CO 2 ...
Cell Respiration – an overview 01/09/12   21:25 cottingham
Location of Specific Steps of Respiration  01/09/12   21:25 cottingham
Location of Specific Steps
GLYCOLYSIS – overview <ul><li>Anaerobic phase – occurs in cytoplasm . </li></ul><ul><li>Common to nearly all living organi...
Glycolysis 01/09/12   21:25 cottingham Glycolysis  animation
Glycolysis  <ul><li>Occurs in CYTOPLASM:  </li></ul><ul><li>2 ATP needed to break GLUCOSE into: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>...
01/09/12   21:25 cottingham Fig. 7.7.b
Glycolysis:  Inputs and Outputs 01/09/12   21:25 cottingham
Oxidative Decarboxylation   & The Krebs Cycle  <ul><li>Most Important Reminder </li></ul><ul><li>Since the diagrams repres...
Oxidative Decarboxylation   01/09/12   21:25 cottingham <ul><li>Also called: </li></ul><ul><li>Pyruvate  Dehydrogenase  Co...
Oxidative Decarboxylation  <ul><li>A transition step --- in the matrix! </li></ul><ul><li>FOR  EACH  PYRUVATE: </li></ul><...
The Krebs Cycle <ul><li>ANIMATIONS </li></ul>01/09/12   21:25 cottingham
The Krebs Cycle 01/09/12   21:25 cottingham the Krebs cycle
The Krebs Cycle  <ul><li>FOR EACH PYRUVATE: </li></ul><ul><li>Oxaloacetate(4C) joins Acetyl(2C) to form Citric acid(6C). <...
Citric Acid Cycle 01/09/12   21:25 cottingham
Krebs Cycle Totals For 2 Pyruvates! 01/09/12   21:25 cottingham
Oxidative Decarboxylation   & The Krebs Cycle  <ul><li>Most Important Reminder </li></ul><ul><li>Since the diagrams repres...
Electron Transport Chain <ul><li>Animations  </li></ul>01/09/12   21:25 cottingham
The Electron Transport Chain 01/09/12   21:25 cottingham Electron Transport System and ATP Synthesis
01/09/12   21:25 cottingham Fig. 7.9
ETC <ul><li>Inner Membrane of Mitochondria: </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons from NADH and FADH 2  are passed into the ETC. (Ox...
ETC  <ul><li>4.  “Leftover” electrons combine with H+ ions. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen combines with oxygen to for...
Chemiosmosis  <ul><li>Hydrogen ions (H+) pass through the membrane…down the gradient… </li></ul><ul><li>Energy is released...
Counting the ATP <ul><li>For every NADH that is produced, 3 ATP’s can be generated through chemiosmosis. </li></ul><ul><li...
Process NADH FADH2 ATP from Electron Transport Chain Direct ATP from process glycolysis Oxidative Decarboxylation Krebs  C...
Energy Yield per  Glucose Molecule 01/09/12   21:25 cottingham
Inside the Mitochondria 01/09/12   21:25 cottingham
Protein and Fat Respiration 01/09/12   21:25 cottingham
01/09/12   21:25 cottingham Fig. 7.1
<ul><li>PROTEIN –  </li></ul><ul><li>Amino acid – without nitrogen can enter  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glycolysis – as py...
RESPIRATION  WITHOUT OXYGEN 01/09/12   21:25 cottingham
Without Oxygen: <ul><li>Without oxygen, no more NAD + ’s are generated. </li></ul><ul><li>Without NAD + ’s the Krebs cycle...
01/09/12   21:25 cottingham
01/09/12   21:25 cottingham
01/09/12   21:25 cottingham
Fermentation <ul><li>Anaerobic Respiration </li></ul><ul><li>Glycolysis occurs BUT… </li></ul><ul><li>Pyruvate is REDUCED ...
01/09/12   21:25 cottingham Page 126
01/09/12   21:25 cottingham
01/09/12   21:25 cottingham 2
01/09/12   21:25 cottingham 2 2
01/09/12   21:25 cottingham 2 2 34
01/09/12   21:25 cottingham
01/09/12   21:25 cottingham
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Cellular respiration master honors

1,958 views

Published on

0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,958
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
890
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Cellular respiration master honors

  1. 1. Cellular Respiration! 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  2. 2. The Essential Questions <ul><li>How is cellular respiration important to maintain one’s life? </li></ul><ul><li>1) What is cellular respiration? </li></ul><ul><li>2) Explain the relationship that occurs between photosynthesis and cellular respiration. </li></ul><ul><li>3) Give the equation for cellular respiration. What are the reactants and what are the products in this equation? </li></ul><ul><li>4)What types of organisms undergo cellular respiration? </li></ul><ul><li>5) In what organelle does cellular respiration take place? </li></ul><ul><li>6) What types of molecules are broken down through cellular respiration? </li></ul><ul><li>7) What are the products and byproducts of glycolysis? </li></ul><ul><li>8) What are the products and byproducts of Krebs cycle?  </li></ul>01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  3. 3. More Essentials <ul><li>9) What are the products and byproducts of ETC?  </li></ul><ul><li>10) What are the products and byproducts of fermentation? </li></ul><ul><li>11) What are some food products that are associated with lactic acid fermentation and alcoholic fermentation? </li></ul><ul><li>12) What is the main purpose of fermentation?  </li></ul><ul><li>13) Explain why a runner may experience a burning sensation while running for a long distance.  </li></ul><ul><li>14) How much ATP is produced in the various steps of cellular respiration? </li></ul><ul><li>15) Explain the difference between aerobic and anaerobic respiration. What does this mean in terms of efficiency? </li></ul>01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  4. 4. Key Vocabulary <ul><li>General: (words to apply in many places) </li></ul><ul><li>Oxidize </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce </li></ul><ul><li>Anabolism </li></ul><ul><li>Catabolism </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphorylation </li></ul><ul><li>Chemiosmosis </li></ul><ul><li>Mitochondria – outer, inner, intermembrane, matrix </li></ul><ul><li>Cytoplasm - (cytosol) </li></ul><ul><li>Aerobic (Acr) </li></ul><ul><li>Anaerobic (AnCR) </li></ul>01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  5. 5. Key Vocabulary <ul><li>ADP </li></ul><ul><li>ATP </li></ul><ul><li>NAD + </li></ul><ul><li>FAD </li></ul><ul><li>Glucose </li></ul><ul><li>G3P </li></ul><ul><li>Pyruvic Acid </li></ul><ul><li>Acetyl acid </li></ul><ul><li>CoA </li></ul><ul><li>Acetyl-CoA </li></ul><ul><li>Citric Acid </li></ul><ul><li>Oxaloacetate </li></ul><ul><li>ATP synth ase </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon Dioxide </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul>01/09/12 21:25 cottingham <ul><li>lactic acid </li></ul><ul><li>ethanol </li></ul>
  6. 6. Key Vocabulary – THE PROCESSES <ul><li>Glycolysis </li></ul><ul><li>Oxidative Decarboxylation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex (PDC) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) </li></ul><ul><li>Electron Transport Chain </li></ul><ul><li>________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Fermentation – (anaerobic) </li></ul>01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  7. 7. Metabolism <ul><li>2 parts: </li></ul><ul><li>Catabolism – breaking down food into carbs, fats, and protein </li></ul><ul><li>Anabolism – to construct molecules from smaller units. </li></ul><ul><li>BREATHING + EATING = CELL RESPIRATION </li></ul>01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  8. 8. <ul><li>BREATHING + </li></ul><ul><li>EATING </li></ul><ul><li>= </li></ul><ul><li>CELL RESPIRATION </li></ul>01/09/12 21:25 cottingham Fig. 7.3(bottom)
  9. 9. Metabolism 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  10. 10. Making Energy 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  11. 11. 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham Page 120
  12. 12. ATP, ADP and Glucose <ul><li>ATP </li></ul><ul><li>Usable cellular energy </li></ul><ul><li>High energy in the bond that holds the 3 rd phosphate to the molecule. </li></ul><ul><li>ADP </li></ul><ul><li>Has 2 phosphate groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Lower energy </li></ul><ul><li>Glucose </li></ul><ul><li>Has 90x the amount of “potential” energy than ATP has. </li></ul><ul><li>Cells can use glucose to “charge” ADP to ATP. </li></ul>01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  13. 13. Oxidation and Reduction <ul><li>Oxidize – TO LOSE ELECTRONS and LOSE Hydrogen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any molecule containing carbon (1 st 3 parts) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reduce – TO GAIN ELECTRONS and GAIN HYDROGEN. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electron Carriers: NAD+ and FAD </li></ul></ul><ul><li>OIL RIG </li></ul>01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  14. 14.
  15. 15. NAD+ and FAD <ul><li>ARE COENZYMES </li></ul><ul><li>Every time a molecule GAINS electrons it is reduced : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NAD+ and FAD are electron carriers and hydrogen acceptors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All electrons carried by NAD+ or FAD will be taken to the Electron Transport Chain to undergo CHEMIOSMOSIS! </li></ul>01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  16. 16. 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham Fig. 7.4
  17. 17. PHOSPHORYLATION – whenever any molecule is a recipient of a phosphate (P i ) group! ADP to ATP 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  18. 18. 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham Fig. 7.6
  19. 19. Mitochondria 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham Outer membrane – encloses mitochondria, contains protein channels. Inner membrane – folds into CRISTAE that encloses the MATRIX (the internal fluid of the mitochondria). KREBS CYCLE TAKES PLACE IN THE MATRIX! ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN IN THE INNER MEMBRANE! Intermembrane Space – used in the ETC to hold hydrogen ions.
  20. 20. Cell Respiration –the equation (the absolute minimum you need to know) <ul><li>C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 --> 6H 2 O + 6 CO 2 + 36 ATP </li></ul><ul><li>OCCURS IN A SERIES OF SMALL REACTIONS USED TO MAXIMIZE THE PRODUCTION OF ENERGY. </li></ul><ul><li>OPERATES USING CHEMICAL REACTIONS AND ENZYMES: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enzyme + substrate ----- product + enzyme </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>TWO PHASES: </li></ul><ul><li>ANAEROBIC(no oxygen required) – in CYTOPLASM </li></ul><ul><li>AEROBIC(requires oxygen) - in MITOCHONDRIA </li></ul>01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  21. 21. Cell Respiration – an overview 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  22. 22. Location of Specific Steps of Respiration 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  23. 23. Location of Specific Steps
  24. 24. GLYCOLYSIS – overview <ul><li>Anaerobic phase – occurs in cytoplasm . </li></ul><ul><li>Common to nearly all living organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Breaks down glucose into two smaller molecules (two pyruvates) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose is OXIDIZED by NAD+ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produces two ATP’s (net) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates high energy electrons. </li></ul></ul>01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  25. 25.
  26. 26. Glycolysis 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham Glycolysis animation
  27. 27. Glycolysis <ul><li>Occurs in CYTOPLASM: </li></ul><ul><li>2 ATP needed to break GLUCOSE into: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two - 3 – CARBON COMPOUNDS – G3P </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>ANOTHER REACTION FURTHER “ BREAKS DOWN ” the 3C compound (oxidized) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Removes high energy electrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Removes 2 HYDROGEN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2NAD+ to 2NADH (electron carrier): REDUCTION </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PHOSPHORYLATES 4 ATP MOLECULES </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Leaves: Two – 3 CARBON COMPOUNDS: PYRUVATE </li></ul><ul><li>Because of energy released to start Glycolysis: NET ATP made= 2 molecules </li></ul>01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  28. 28. 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham Fig. 7.7.b
  29. 29. Glycolysis: Inputs and Outputs 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  30. 30. Oxidative Decarboxylation & The Krebs Cycle <ul><li>Most Important Reminder </li></ul><ul><li>Since the diagrams represent 1 pyruvate: ALL NUMBERS MUST BE DOUBLED!!!! </li></ul>01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  31. 31. Oxidative Decarboxylation 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham <ul><li>Also called: </li></ul><ul><li>Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex </li></ul><ul><li>Link Reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Preparatory Reaction </li></ul>
  32. 32. Oxidative Decarboxylation <ul><li>A transition step --- in the matrix! </li></ul><ul><li>FOR EACH PYRUVATE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each pyruvate loses one carbon (it goes off as CO 2 )– A WASTE PRODUCT! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pyruvate is converted to a 2-carbon molecule(2C) = Acetate. (oxidized) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2C is picked up by CoA to form Acetyl CoA – can enter the Krebs Cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NAD+ is reduced to NADH </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NO ATP made </li></ul></ul></ul>01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  33. 33. The Krebs Cycle <ul><li>ANIMATIONS </li></ul>01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  34. 34.
  35. 35. The Krebs Cycle 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham the Krebs cycle
  36. 36. The Krebs Cycle <ul><li>FOR EACH PYRUVATE: </li></ul><ul><li>Oxaloacetate(4C) joins Acetyl(2C) to form Citric acid(6C). </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Co enzyme A leaves reaction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Citric acid is broken down from 6C to 5C to 4C </li></ul><ul><li>Along the way: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 more CO 2 are released </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3 more NAD+ are reduced to NADH </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 FAD is reduced to FADH 2 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 ADP is phosphorylated to ATP </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Oxaloacetate is recycled. </li></ul>01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  37. 37. Citric Acid Cycle 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  38. 38. Krebs Cycle Totals For 2 Pyruvates! 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  39. 39. Oxidative Decarboxylation & The Krebs Cycle <ul><li>Most Important Reminder </li></ul><ul><li>Since the diagrams represent 1 pyruvate: ALL NUMBERS MUST BE DOUBLED!!!! </li></ul>01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  40. 40. Electron Transport Chain <ul><li>Animations </li></ul>01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  41. 41.
  42. 42. The Electron Transport Chain 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham Electron Transport System and ATP Synthesis
  43. 43. 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham Fig. 7.9
  44. 44. ETC <ul><li>Inner Membrane of Mitochondria: </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons from NADH and FADH 2 are passed into the ETC. (Oxidation) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Electrons are passed from one carrier protein to the next losing energy . </li></ul><ul><li>3. This “lost” energy pumps H+ ions across the membrane (by active transport) creating a + charge in the intermembrane and – charge in the matrix. </li></ul>01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  45. 45.
  46. 46. ETC <ul><li>4. “Leftover” electrons combine with H+ ions. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen combines with oxygen to form water! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>THEN: </li></ul><ul><li>5. H+ in the intermembrane space diffuse back into matrix thru ATP synthase . </li></ul><ul><li>6. This process releases energy causing ADP to phosphorylate into ATP…… </li></ul>01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  47. 47. Chemiosmosis <ul><li>Hydrogen ions (H+) pass through the membrane…down the gradient… </li></ul><ul><li>Energy is released… </li></ul><ul><li>ADP is phosphorylated to ATP. </li></ul><ul><li>Chemiosmotic Oxidative Phosphorylation </li></ul>01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  48. 48. Counting the ATP <ul><li>For every NADH that is produced, 3 ATP’s can be generated through chemiosmosis. </li></ul><ul><li>For every FADH 2 that is produced 2 ATP’s can be generated through chemiosmosis. </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s Do the math… </li></ul>01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  49. 49. Process NADH FADH2 ATP from Electron Transport Chain Direct ATP from process glycolysis Oxidative Decarboxylation Krebs Cycle
  50. 50. Energy Yield per Glucose Molecule 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  51. 51. Inside the Mitochondria 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  52. 52. Protein and Fat Respiration 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  53. 53. 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham Fig. 7.1
  54. 54. <ul><li>PROTEIN – </li></ul><ul><li>Amino acid – without nitrogen can enter </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glycolysis – as pyruvate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ox. Decarb. – as acetyl </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Krebs cycle – as acetyl </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>FAT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glycerol – can enter as G3P (Triose) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fatty Acid – can enter as Acetyl </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Very Hard to break bonds to smaller molecules </li></ul></ul></ul>01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  55. 55. RESPIRATION WITHOUT OXYGEN 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  56. 56. Without Oxygen: <ul><li>Without oxygen, no more NAD + ’s are generated. </li></ul><ul><li>Without NAD + ’s the Krebs cycle shuts down. </li></ul><ul><li>Pyruvate cannot convert to Acetyl CoA </li></ul><ul><li>Does glycolysis continue? </li></ul><ul><li>Yes, but how? … </li></ul>01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  57. 57. 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  58. 58. 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  59. 59. 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  60. 60. Fermentation <ul><li>Anaerobic Respiration </li></ul><ul><li>Glycolysis occurs BUT… </li></ul><ul><li>Pyruvate is REDUCED to either lactic acid or ethanol </li></ul><ul><li>2CO2 and 2NAD(oxidized) are released in Alcohol Fermentation. Ethanol(2C) </li></ul><ul><li>2 NAD reduced: Lactic Acid(3C) Fermentation </li></ul><ul><li>2 ATP generated </li></ul>01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  61. 61. 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham Page 126
  62. 62. 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  63. 63. 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham 2
  64. 64. 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham 2 2
  65. 65. 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham 2 2 34
  66. 66. 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham
  67. 67. 01/09/12 21:25 cottingham

×