We surveyed over 400 fans in MLS, representing each team. The rivalry survey data is available at www.KnowRivalry.com. Regarding their favorite team, each respondent was asked about the importance of 11 elements of rivalry, according to Tyler and Cobbs, 2015. Statistical tests reveal that fans are significantly more discriminatory toward rival fans on four measures of animosity when either the antecedent of cultural difference or unfairness is important to the rivalry, compared to fans of rivalries where theses two antecedents were unimportant or neutral. Yet, this same pattern did not repeat itself for the other 9 antecedents of rivalry.
Learn from those who have gone before you Old Firm: Final mtg before Rangers relegated (4 horsemen)
Belgrade Eternal derby in Serbia; Red Star (Serb nationalism, people’s team [communist]) vs. Partizan (Army, federalist team favoring unified Yugoslavia), first mtg 1947. Skopje derby (Macedonia) between FK Vardar and Sloga Jugomagnat is largely viewed as Macedonian Christians versus Albanian Muslims Majumdar (2008) noted that in India, the fans of Mohun Bagan traditionally represent the region’s original settlers and hold a perceived bias against the newcomer immigrant fans of East Bengal, who pose a threat to the original settlers’ socioeconomic establishment.
Need to include some demo of sample (e.g., 91% male; 22.4 years old (SD 7.76))
When we relate importance of antecedents to acrimonious outcomes…(Ask crowd)
Our data on Trillium Cup: Crew 15 to Toronto (48 to Chicago); Toronto 17 to Crew (55 to Montreal).
Rivalry in Major League Soccer: Antecedents to rival fan discrimination
Rivalry in Major League Soccer:
Antecedents to rival fan discrimination
Joe Cobbs, Northern Kentucky University
B. David Tyler, Western Carolina University
What is Rivalry?
A rival is "a highly salient outgroup that poses acute threat
to ingroup identity and/or esteem." (Tyler & Cobbs, 2017)
• Social Identity Theory
o People associate with others similar to self to reinforce self-image and position
in society (Mael & Ashforth, 2001; Tajfel, 1974; Turner, 1975)
o Pleasure in others’ misfortune (Dalakas & Melancon, 2012; Havard, 2014).
• Bias in Relationships
o Highly identified fans are more likely to commit acts of aggression against a
rival (Wann et al., 2003; Wann et al., 1999).
• Positive effects
o Self-concept: esteem, cohesion, distinctiveness (Berendt & Uhrich, 2016)
o Match attendance, TV ratings (McDonald & Rascher, 2000; Tainsky & Jasielec, 2014)
Eternal Derby (Belgrade)
Skopje derby (Macedonia):
FK Vardar (Christians)
vs. Sloga Jugomagnat
(Muslims) (Dmowski, 2013)
vs. East Bengal
Red Star vs. Partizan
Create 3 groups per Element
Cell N range 48-192
e.g. “I would be less likely to marry a(n) [Rival Team] fan than a fan of the typical team.”
e.g. “I will feel joy if a player from the [Rival Team] gets suspended for a year, even if
the suspension was not completely deserved.”
e.g. “When someone criticizes the [Rival Team], it feels like a personal compliment.”
e.g. “[Rival Team’s] fans are more obnoxious than the fans of a typical team.”
What Elements Spark
“I can tell you that my distaste for LA goes well beyond soccer, I find them
culturally plastic, materialistic, vapid, and shallow. “
“Extremely proud of French heritage. Toronto loathes our French-ness”
“Dempsey skipping allocation order, made up league rules”
“'Those bastards got Dempsey!”
“League caters heavily to facilitate NYRBs success”