•Derived from Equine Areteritis virus
•Spherical virions
•50-70 nm in diameter
•Enveloped
•Linear positive sense
•Single-stranded RNA
•13-15 kb in size
•Infecti...
•Single
nucleocapsid
protein-N
• 6 enveloped
proteinsE,GP2,GP3,GP
4
GP5,M
•Large enveloped
gycoprotein
Order: Nidovirales
Family: Arteriviridae
Genus: Arterivirus
Species: Equine Arterivirus
Lactate Dehydrogenase
Elevating
vi...
•Replicate mostly in macrophages
•Very minimal in other cell types
•Host range is highly restricted
•Can subvert protectiv...
•Receptors for PRRS
1. CD163
2.Sialoadhesin
3. Heparin Sulfate
Glycosaminoglycans
CYTOPLASMIC
•Attachment to host
receptors mediates
clathrin-mediated
endocytosis of the
virus into the host
cell.
•Fusion of virus
membrane with the
endosomal
membrane.
•ssRNA(+) genome
is released into the
cytoplasm.
•Synthesis and
proteolysis of
replicase
polyproteins.
•Replication occurs
in viral factories.
•A dsRNA genome is
synthesiz...
•dsRNA
genome
is
transcribed
thereby
proiding
ssRNA(+) genomes.
•Synthesis
of
structural
proteins
encoded
by
subgenomic
mR...
•Assembly and buddi
ng at the membranes
of ER, intermediate
compartments,
and/or
Golgi
complex.
•Release
of
new
virions.
1. Equine Viral Arteritis
2. Porcine Reproductie and
Respiratory Syndrome
3. Lactate Dehydrogenase Elevating
Disease
4. Si...
PINK EYE
SCROTAL EDEMA
•1st designated as “mystery swine
disease”
•“lelystad virus”-Netherland
•Causative virus first appeared-US,
Asia, Europe
•Infects only domestic and wild pigs
•initially characterized by
•Anorexia
•Fever
•Lethargy
•Affected animals:
•Dyspnea/ hyperpnea
•Transient hyperemia
•Cyanosis of the extremities
Dry sows-first month of infection
•Short periods of inappetence
•The body temperature may be
elevated
•Transient discoloration (blueing) of the
ears
•Premature births
•Sows in late gestation
•Abortion
•Premature births
•Stillbirths
•Mummified fetuses
stillbirth

Mummified fetuses
•More diarrhoea.
•Less viable piglets.
•Increase in respiratory infections
Diarrhea in infected
piglets
•Period of slight inappetence.
•Mild coughing.
•Hairy wasting pigs.
•In some herds there are no symptoms.
weakness

Rough hair coat
•Inappetence
•Increased body temperature
•Lethargy
•Loss of libido
•Lowered fertility
•Poor litter sizes
•Lowered sperm ou...
•Droplet contamination
•Nasal secretions, saliva, feces and
urine
•Permanently populated houses
•Movement of carrier pigs.
•Airborne transmission
•Mechanical means via faeces, dust,
droplets and contaminated equipment,
etc.
•Contaminated boots a...
•Mortality is high
•Direct contact
•Through secretions
•Excretions
•Transplacental transmission
PATHOGENESIS
• virus replicates in the macrophages
of the lungs, lymphoid tissue and
endothelial cells
•Viremia-24 hours
Lesions of acute infection
•Lymph node enlargement
•Intestinal pneumonia
DISEAS CAUSATI
ES
VE
AGENT

SAMPLE/S

DIAGNOSTIC
TEST

NASOPHARYNGEAL
SWABS, BLOOD

RT-PCR

EQUINE
VIRAL
ARTERITIS

EQUINE...
•Infected pigs are immune to reinfection
•Vaccination-live attenuated, inactivated
•limit the frequency of seed stock
intr...
•Boars introduced into negative herds
should be quarantined for 60-90 days
after purchase and confirmed negative
serologic...
•depopulate, clean and disinfect the
facilities and, after a few weeks,
repopulate with stock free of PRRS
•Control is by exclusion
•no specific treatment
•Broad-spectrum antibiotics.
•Anti-inflammatory products (e.g.
aspirin)
• Other helpful techniques
• Early weaning and isolation of piglets
•Regular serologic monitoring
• Testing (ELISA, PCR an...
Arteriviridae
Arteriviridae
Arteriviridae
Arteriviridae
Arteriviridae
Arteriviridae
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Arteriviridae

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Arteriviridae

  1. 1. •Derived from Equine Areteritis virus
  2. 2. •Spherical virions •50-70 nm in diameter •Enveloped •Linear positive sense •Single-stranded RNA •13-15 kb in size •Infectious genomic RNA
  3. 3. •Single nucleocapsid protein-N • 6 enveloped proteinsE,GP2,GP3,GP 4 GP5,M
  4. 4. •Large enveloped gycoprotein
  5. 5. Order: Nidovirales Family: Arteriviridae Genus: Arterivirus Species: Equine Arterivirus Lactate Dehydrogenase Elevating virus Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus
  6. 6. •Replicate mostly in macrophages •Very minimal in other cell types •Host range is highly restricted •Can subvert protective host innate immune responses •Apoptosis •IFN signaling pathways
  7. 7. •Receptors for PRRS 1. CD163 2.Sialoadhesin 3. Heparin Sulfate Glycosaminoglycans
  8. 8. CYTOPLASMIC •Attachment to host receptors mediates clathrin-mediated endocytosis of the virus into the host cell.
  9. 9. •Fusion of virus membrane with the endosomal membrane. •ssRNA(+) genome is released into the cytoplasm.
  10. 10. •Synthesis and proteolysis of replicase polyproteins. •Replication occurs in viral factories. •A dsRNA genome is synthesized from the genomic ssRNA(+).
  11. 11. •dsRNA genome is transcribed thereby proiding ssRNA(+) genomes. •Synthesis of structural proteins encoded by subgenomic mRNAs.
  12. 12. •Assembly and buddi ng at the membranes of ER, intermediate compartments, and/or Golgi complex. •Release of new virions.
  13. 13. 1. Equine Viral Arteritis 2. Porcine Reproductie and Respiratory Syndrome 3. Lactate Dehydrogenase Elevating Disease 4. Simian Hemorrhagic Fever
  14. 14. PINK EYE
  15. 15. SCROTAL EDEMA
  16. 16. •1st designated as “mystery swine disease” •“lelystad virus”-Netherland •Causative virus first appeared-US, Asia, Europe
  17. 17. •Infects only domestic and wild pigs •initially characterized by •Anorexia •Fever •Lethargy
  18. 18. •Affected animals: •Dyspnea/ hyperpnea •Transient hyperemia •Cyanosis of the extremities
  19. 19. Dry sows-first month of infection •Short periods of inappetence •The body temperature may be elevated
  20. 20. •Transient discoloration (blueing) of the ears •Premature births
  21. 21. •Sows in late gestation •Abortion •Premature births •Stillbirths •Mummified fetuses
  22. 22. stillbirth Mummified fetuses
  23. 23. •More diarrhoea. •Less viable piglets. •Increase in respiratory infections
  24. 24. Diarrhea in infected piglets
  25. 25. •Period of slight inappetence. •Mild coughing. •Hairy wasting pigs. •In some herds there are no symptoms.
  26. 26. weakness Rough hair coat
  27. 27. •Inappetence •Increased body temperature •Lethargy •Loss of libido •Lowered fertility •Poor litter sizes •Lowered sperm output
  28. 28. •Droplet contamination •Nasal secretions, saliva, feces and urine •Permanently populated houses •Movement of carrier pigs.
  29. 29. •Airborne transmission •Mechanical means via faeces, dust, droplets and contaminated equipment, etc. •Contaminated boots and clothing. •Vehicles. •Artificial insemination
  30. 30. •Mortality is high •Direct contact •Through secretions •Excretions •Transplacental transmission
  31. 31. PATHOGENESIS • virus replicates in the macrophages of the lungs, lymphoid tissue and endothelial cells •Viremia-24 hours
  32. 32. Lesions of acute infection •Lymph node enlargement •Intestinal pneumonia
  33. 33. DISEAS CAUSATI ES VE AGENT SAMPLE/S DIAGNOSTIC TEST NASOPHARYNGEAL SWABS, BLOOD RT-PCR EQUINE VIRAL ARTERITIS EQUINE ARTERIVIRUS PORCINE REPRODUCT IE AND RESPIRATO RY SYNDROME PORCINE REPRODUCTIE AND RESPIRATORY SYNDROME VIRUS TISSUES LACTATE DEHYDROGE GENASE ELEVATNG DISEASE LACTATE DEHYDROGENA SE ELEVATNG VIRUS BLOOD SEROLOGICAL EXAMINATION SIMIAN SIMIAN WHOLE BLOOD REVERSE PLACENTAL TISSUES AND FLUIDS FROM FETAL LUNG, LIVER, LYMPHORECTICULAR TISSUES IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL TESTING HISTOCHEMICAL STAINING BLOOD SEROLOGICAL EXAMINATION
  34. 34. •Infected pigs are immune to reinfection •Vaccination-live attenuated, inactivated •limit the frequency of seed stock introductions to the sow herd •assure that the replacement gilts be well-acclimatized to the PRRS virus
  35. 35. •Boars introduced into negative herds should be quarantined for 60-90 days after purchase and confirmed negative serologically
  36. 36. •depopulate, clean and disinfect the facilities and, after a few weeks, repopulate with stock free of PRRS
  37. 37. •Control is by exclusion •no specific treatment •Broad-spectrum antibiotics. •Anti-inflammatory products (e.g. aspirin)
  38. 38. • Other helpful techniques • Early weaning and isolation of piglets •Regular serologic monitoring • Testing (ELISA, PCR and IFA) •Removal of persistent carriers in herds •improving biosecurity.

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