Conditionals

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Conditionals

  1. 1. Type Zero Tense – if clause Tense- main clause Present Simple/continuous Use Present to talk about Simple/continuous common states or events If / when water boils, it changes into steam. First Present Simple/continuous If he hurries, he will be in time. Second Past simple/ continuous Will/ to be going to/ present simple/ continuous To talk about possible states or events would + infinitive without to To talk about a situation which is hypothetical or very unlikely to happen If I had lot of money, I would go abroad. If I were a bird, I would be very happy. Third Past perfect would have + past participle If I had seen her last year, I would have married her. To talk about the past and say that now it is impossible to do anything about it
  2. 2. Summary If-clause Present Simple Past Simple Past Perfect Main clause Future simple Future in the past Future Perfect in the past
  3. 3. If the weather is too bad, we won’t go for a picnic. Should the weather be too bad, we won’t go for a picnic.
  4. 4. If you see Kimtan, tell him I want to visit. Should you see Kimtan, tell him I want to visit.
  5. 5. If you find it, please send it to me. Should you find it, please send it to me.
  6. 6. If they went, I would give them money. If they were to go, I would give them money. Were they to go, I would give them money.
  7. 7. If it weren’t so late, she would telephone me. Were it not so late, she would telephone me.
  8. 8. If they were here, they would tell me. Were they here, they would tell me.
  9. 9. If I had known her address, I would have visited her. Had I known her address, I would have visited her.
  10. 10. If he had had much money, he would have bought a new car. Had he had much money, he would have bought a new car.
  11. 11. If + s.+ will +, s. + will + v.inf Polite request If you will come this way, the manager will see you now. Please come this way
  12. 12. If + s.+ would +, s. + will + v.inf More polite request If you would take a seat, the doctor will see you in 5 minutes. If you wouldn’t mind taking a seat
  13. 13. If + s.+ will +, s. + will + v.inf To talk about future result Example: If it will save our marriage, I’ll try to give up drinking.
  14. 14. ‘Insist on’ Example: If you will smoke twenty a day, it is not surprising you have a hacking cough. If you insist on smoking so much,
  15. 15. If + s.+ should + v.inf , imperative Example: If you should change your mind about coming to the beach tomorrow, give me a ring. I don’t really expect
  16. 16. 1.) If + s.+ were to + infinitive imaginary future situations If you passed the exam, he would be astonished. If you were to pass the exam, he would be astonished.
  17. 17. 2.) If + s.+ were not for, would +v.inf = but for + n., would + v.inf If it were not for his bad hand, he would carry it himself. If he didn’t have a bad hand, he would carry it himself.
  18. 18. 3.) If + s.+ would, would +v.inf If you would stop singing, I would be able to study. I would be very grateful if you would pay your bill. polite request
  19. 19. If + s + hadn’t been for + n, s + would have + v.3 If it hadn’t been for the storm, we should have arrived earlier. If he hadn’t been for his laziness, he could have been rich. We can use was/were not for or had not been for to say that one situation is dependent on another situation or person.
  20. 20. If-equivalent Unless = if… not (= except when) ….. , , You will fail unless you work harder. You will fail if you do not work harder.
  21. 21. If-equivalent If there is no rain, the flowers will die. Unless there is some rain, the flower will die.
  22. 22. If-equivalent Even if = , Even if I had no money, I wouldn’t borrow any from my friends. Marry never hurries even if she is very late.
  23. 23. If-equivalent Supposing (that) Suppose (that) On condition (that) Providing (that) Provided (that) So long as , In case
  24. 24. If-equivalent You can stay with us as long as you share the expenses. You may take two days off on condition that you work on the weekend. Supposing you lost your job, what would you do?
  25. 25. Rewrite the following sentences so that the second sentence has a similar meaning to the first. Begin with the word (s) given. 1. The reason why the dog attacked them was because they hit it with a stick. If If they had not hit the dog with a stick, it would not have attacked them.
  26. 26. 2. I would have visited you if I had known that you were in the hospital last week. Had Had I known that you were in the hospital last week, I would have visited you. 3. You can borrow my bike, but you must promise to take good care of it. As long as As long as you promise to take good care of my bike, you can borrow it.
  27. 27. 4. If the weather weren’t so cold today, we would spend the day outside. Were Were the weather not so cold today, we would spend the day outside. 5. If you don’t know what you’re talking about, you had better keep quiet. Unless Unless you know what you’re talking about, you had better keep quiet.
  28. 28. 6. You may face unpleasant side effects if you don’t follow your doctor’s instructions. Should Should you not follow your doctor’s instructions, you may face unpleasant side effects. 7. If you don’t change your attitude , I’ll stop Unless being friends with you. Unless you change your attitude, I’ll stop being friends with you.
  29. 29. 8. You don’t think about your decision carefully, and now you’re regretting it. If If you had thought about your decision carefully, you would not be regretting it now. 9. She must do her homework, otherwise her parents won’t let her go to the party. On condition that On condition that she does her homework, her parents will let her go to the party.

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