Dynamic Knowledge-Base Alignment for
Coreference Resolution
Jiaping Zheng, LukeVilnis, Sameer Singh,
Jinho D. Choi,Andrew ...
Coreference Resolution
2
The Chicago suburb of Arlington Heights is the first stop
for George W. Bush today. The Texas gove...
Coreference Resolution
• Identify mentions that refer to the same entity.
2
The Chicago suburb of Arlington Heights is the...
Coreference Resolution
• Identify mentions that refer to the same entity.
2
The Chicago suburb of Arlington Heights is the...
Coreference Resolution
• Identify mentions that refer to the same entity.
2
The Chicago suburb of Arlington Heights is the...
Coreference Resolution
• Identify mentions that refer to the same entity.
• Useful in relation extraction, question answer...
Coreference Resolution
• Determine the entity in a reference knowledge-base for
textual mentions.
3
Thursday, August 8, 13
Coreference Resolution
• Determine the entity in a reference knowledge-base for
textual mentions.
3
… George W. !
Bush ......
Coreference Resolution
• Determine the entity in a reference knowledge-base for
textual mentions.
3
… George W. !
Bush ......
Entity Linking
4
Thursday, August 8, 13
Entity Linking
• Provides global context for coreference resolution.
4
Thursday, August 8, 13
Entity Linking
• Provides global context for coreference resolution.
• Linking a mention to one knowledge-base entity.
4
T...
Entity Linking
• Provides global context for coreference resolution.
• Linking a mention to one knowledge-base entity.
- H...
Entity Linking
• Provides global context for coreference resolution.
• Linking a mention to one knowledge-base entity.
- H...
Entity Linking
• Provides global context for coreference resolution.
• Linking a mention to one knowledge-base entity.
- H...
Entity Linking
• Provides global context for coreference resolution.
• Linking a mention to one knowledge-base entity.
- H...
Entity Linking
• Provides global context for coreference resolution.
• Linking a mention to one knowledge-base entity.
- H...
Dynamic Alignment
5
Thursday, August 8, 13
Dynamic Alignment
1. Compute initial ranked list of knowledge-base entities
for named entities.
5
Thursday, August 8, 13
Dynamic Alignment
1. Compute initial ranked list of knowledge-base entities
for named entities.
- List of Wikipedia articl...
Dynamic Alignment
1. Compute initial ranked list of knowledge-base entities
for named entities.
- List of Wikipedia articl...
Dynamic Alignment
1. Compute initial ranked list of knowledge-base entities
for named entities.
- List of Wikipedia articl...
Dynamic Alignment
1. Compute initial ranked list of knowledge-base entities
for named entities.
- List of Wikipedia articl...
Dynamic Alignment
1. Compute initial ranked list of knowledge-base entities
for named entities.
- List of Wikipedia articl...
Dynamic Alignment
1. Compute initial ranked list of knowledge-base entities
for named entities.
- List of Wikipedia articl...
Dynamic Alignment
6
… about navigation charts
that he had ordered from a
company based in
Washington …
… opened one of the...
Dynamic Alignment
6
… about navigation charts
that he had ordered from a
company based in
Washington …
… opened one of the...
Dynamic Alignment
6
… about navigation charts
that he had ordered from a
company based in
Washington …
… opened one of the...
Dynamic Alignment
6
… about navigation charts
that he had ordered from a
company based in
Washington …
… opened one of the...
Dynamic Alignment
6
… about navigation charts
that he had ordered from a
company based in
Washington …
… opened one of the...
Dynamic Alignment
6
… about navigation charts
that he had ordered from a
company based in
Washington …
… opened one of the...
Dynamic Alignment
6
… about navigation charts
that he had ordered from a
company based in
Washington …
… opened one of the...
Dynamic Alignment
6
… about navigation charts
that he had ordered from a
company based in
Washington …
… opened one of the...
Experiments
7
Thursday, August 8, 13
Experiments
• ACE 2004 dataset.
7
Thursday, August 8, 13
Experiments
• ACE 2004 dataset.
• Baseline.
- Pairwise classification system.
- No external knowledge sources.
- A rich set...
Experiments
• ACE 2004 dataset.
• Baseline.
- Pairwise classification system.
- No external knowledge sources.
- A rich set...
Experiments
• ACE 2004 dataset.
• Baseline.
- Pairwise classification system.
- No external knowledge sources.
- A rich set...
Experiments
8
76.5
78
79.5
81
82.5
79.3
75.8
80.4
75.8
80.8
81.8
77.05
81.12
76.18
81.66
78.01
82.21
MUC
B-CUBE
Culotta’07...
Experiments
9
79.9
80.8
81.7
82.6
83.5
83.03
79.77
82.5
80.25
83.06
81.13
83.32
Transcripts
Non-Transcripts
Bengston & Rot...
Experiments
10
un
di-
on-
ns
ti-
in-
lu-
ise
ith
our
5510 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
Top X% of Docs...
Conclusion
• Coreference resolution systems benefit greatly from
inclusion of global context.
• Linking mentions to a knowl...
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Dynamic Knowledge-Base Alignment for Coreference Resolution

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Coreference resolution systems can benefit greatly from inclusion of global context, and a number of recent approaches have demonstrated improvements when precomputing an alignment to external knowledge sources. However, since alignment itself is a challenging task and is often noisy, existing systems either align conservatively, resulting in very few links, or combine the attributes of multiple candidates, leading to a conflation of entities. Our approach instead maintains ranked lists of candidate entities that are dynamically merged and reranked during inference. Further, we incorporate a large set of surface string variations for each entity by using anchor texts from the web that link to the entity. These forms of global context enable our system to outperform a competitive baseline without a knowledge base by 1.09 B3 F1 points, and a state-of-the-art system by 0.41 points on the ACE 2004 data.

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Dynamic Knowledge-Base Alignment for Coreference Resolution

  1. 1. Dynamic Knowledge-Base Alignment for Coreference Resolution Jiaping Zheng, LukeVilnis, Sameer Singh, Jinho D. Choi,Andrew McCallum Presented at CoNLL 2013 University of Massachusetts Amherst Thursday, August 8, 13
  2. 2. Coreference Resolution 2 The Chicago suburb of Arlington Heights is the first stop for George W. Bush today. The Texas governor stops in Gore’s home state of Tennessee this afternoon ... Thursday, August 8, 13
  3. 3. Coreference Resolution • Identify mentions that refer to the same entity. 2 The Chicago suburb of Arlington Heights is the first stop for George W. Bush today. The Texas governor stops in Gore’s home state of Tennessee this afternoon ... Thursday, August 8, 13
  4. 4. Coreference Resolution • Identify mentions that refer to the same entity. 2 The Chicago suburb of Arlington Heights is the first stop for George W. Bush today. The Texas governor stops in Gore’s home state of Tennessee this afternoon ... Thursday, August 8, 13
  5. 5. Coreference Resolution • Identify mentions that refer to the same entity. 2 The Chicago suburb of Arlington Heights is the first stop for George W. Bush today. The Texas governor stops in Gore’s home state of Tennessee this afternoon ... Thursday, August 8, 13
  6. 6. Coreference Resolution • Identify mentions that refer to the same entity. • Useful in relation extraction, question answering, machine translation, etc. 2 The Chicago suburb of Arlington Heights is the first stop for George W. Bush today. The Texas governor stops in Gore’s home state of Tennessee this afternoon ... Thursday, August 8, 13
  7. 7. Coreference Resolution • Determine the entity in a reference knowledge-base for textual mentions. 3 Thursday, August 8, 13
  8. 8. Coreference Resolution • Determine the entity in a reference knowledge-base for textual mentions. 3 … George W. ! Bush ...! Thursday, August 8, 13
  9. 9. Coreference Resolution • Determine the entity in a reference knowledge-base for textual mentions. 3 … George W. ! Bush ...! Entity! Attr! George W. Bush! ...! ...! Thursday, August 8, 13
  10. 10. Entity Linking 4 Thursday, August 8, 13
  11. 11. Entity Linking • Provides global context for coreference resolution. 4 Thursday, August 8, 13
  12. 12. Entity Linking • Provides global context for coreference resolution. • Linking a mention to one knowledge-base entity. 4 Thursday, August 8, 13
  13. 13. Entity Linking • Provides global context for coreference resolution. • Linking a mention to one knowledge-base entity. - High precision, but fewer alignments. 4 Thursday, August 8, 13
  14. 14. Entity Linking • Provides global context for coreference resolution. • Linking a mention to one knowledge-base entity. - High precision, but fewer alignments. - Ponzetto & Strube 2006. - Ratinov & Roth 2012. 4 Thursday, August 8, 13
  15. 15. Entity Linking • Provides global context for coreference resolution. • Linking a mention to one knowledge-base entity. - High precision, but fewer alignments. - Ponzetto & Strube 2006. - Ratinov & Roth 2012. • Linking a mention to multiple knowledge-base entities. 4 Thursday, August 8, 13
  16. 16. Entity Linking • Provides global context for coreference resolution. • Linking a mention to one knowledge-base entity. - High precision, but fewer alignments. - Ponzetto & Strube 2006. - Ratinov & Roth 2012. • Linking a mention to multiple knowledge-base entities. - Higher recall, but conflates entities. 4 Thursday, August 8, 13
  17. 17. Entity Linking • Provides global context for coreference resolution. • Linking a mention to one knowledge-base entity. - High precision, but fewer alignments. - Ponzetto & Strube 2006. - Ratinov & Roth 2012. • Linking a mention to multiple knowledge-base entities. - Higher recall, but conflates entities. - Rahman & Ng 2011. 4 Thursday, August 8, 13
  18. 18. Dynamic Alignment 5 Thursday, August 8, 13
  19. 19. Dynamic Alignment 1. Compute initial ranked list of knowledge-base entities for named entities. 5 Thursday, August 8, 13
  20. 20. Dynamic Alignment 1. Compute initial ranked list of knowledge-base entities for named entities. - List of Wikipedia articles. 5 Thursday, August 8, 13
  21. 21. Dynamic Alignment 1. Compute initial ranked list of knowledge-base entities for named entities. - List of Wikipedia articles. - Querying knowledge-based bridge (Dalton & Dietz, 2013). 5 Thursday, August 8, 13
  22. 22. Dynamic Alignment 1. Compute initial ranked list of knowledge-base entities for named entities. - List of Wikipedia articles. - Querying knowledge-based bridge (Dalton & Dietz, 2013). 2. Merge entity lists when mentions are coreferenced. 5 Thursday, August 8, 13
  23. 23. Dynamic Alignment 1. Compute initial ranked list of knowledge-base entities for named entities. - List of Wikipedia articles. - Querying knowledge-based bridge (Dalton & Dietz, 2013). 2. Merge entity lists when mentions are coreferenced. 3. Re-rank the merged list. 5 Thursday, August 8, 13
  24. 24. Dynamic Alignment 1. Compute initial ranked list of knowledge-base entities for named entities. - List of Wikipedia articles. - Querying knowledge-based bridge (Dalton & Dietz, 2013). 2. Merge entity lists when mentions are coreferenced. 3. Re-rank the merged list. 4. Attributes are extracted from the top ranked entity. 5 Thursday, August 8, 13
  25. 25. Dynamic Alignment 1. Compute initial ranked list of knowledge-base entities for named entities. - List of Wikipedia articles. - Querying knowledge-based bridge (Dalton & Dietz, 2013). 2. Merge entity lists when mentions are coreferenced. 3. Re-rank the merged list. 4. Attributes are extracted from the top ranked entity. - Surface string variations from the web. 5 Thursday, August 8, 13
  26. 26. Dynamic Alignment 6 … about navigation charts that he had ordered from a company based in Washington … … opened one of them to discover the absentee ballot of Steven H. Forrester of Bellevue, Wash. … … were not meaningful because counting in Washington State has been completed … Thursday, August 8, 13
  27. 27. Dynamic Alignment 6 … about navigation charts that he had ordered from a company based in Washington … … opened one of them to discover the absentee ballot of Steven H. Forrester of Bellevue, Wash. … … were not meaningful because counting in Washington State has been completed … Washington, DC Washington State Thursday, August 8, 13
  28. 28. Dynamic Alignment 6 … about navigation charts that he had ordered from a company based in Washington … … opened one of them to discover the absentee ballot of Steven H. Forrester of Bellevue, Wash. … … were not meaningful because counting in Washington State has been completed … Washington, DC Washington State Car Wash The Wash Thursday, August 8, 13
  29. 29. Dynamic Alignment 6 … about navigation charts that he had ordered from a company based in Washington … … opened one of them to discover the absentee ballot of Steven H. Forrester of Bellevue, Wash. … … were not meaningful because counting in Washington State has been completed … Washington, DC Washington State Car Wash The Wash Washington State Thursday, August 8, 13
  30. 30. Dynamic Alignment 6 … about navigation charts that he had ordered from a company based in Washington … … opened one of them to discover the absentee ballot of Steven H. Forrester of Bellevue, Wash. … … were not meaningful because counting in Washington State has been completed … Washington, DC Washington State Car Wash The Wash Washington State Thursday, August 8, 13
  31. 31. Dynamic Alignment 6 … about navigation charts that he had ordered from a company based in Washington … … opened one of them to discover the absentee ballot of Steven H. Forrester of Bellevue, Wash. … … were not meaningful because counting in Washington State has been completed … Washington, DC Washington State Car Wash The Wash Washington State Washington, DC Washington State Car Wash The Wash Thursday, August 8, 13
  32. 32. Dynamic Alignment 6 … about navigation charts that he had ordered from a company based in Washington … … opened one of them to discover the absentee ballot of Steven H. Forrester of Bellevue, Wash. … … were not meaningful because counting in Washington State has been completed … Washington, DC Washington State Car Wash The Wash Washington State Washington, DC Washington State Car Wash The Wash Thursday, August 8, 13
  33. 33. Dynamic Alignment 6 … about navigation charts that he had ordered from a company based in Washington … … opened one of them to discover the absentee ballot of Steven H. Forrester of Bellevue, Wash. … … were not meaningful because counting in Washington State has been completed … Washington, DC Washington State Car Wash The Wash Washington State Washington, DC Washington State Car Wash The WashWashington State Washington, DC Car Wash The Wash Thursday, August 8, 13
  34. 34. Experiments 7 Thursday, August 8, 13
  35. 35. Experiments • ACE 2004 dataset. 7 Thursday, August 8, 13
  36. 36. Experiments • ACE 2004 dataset. • Baseline. - Pairwise classification system. - No external knowledge sources. - A rich set of features. - Best link strategy. - L2-regularized SVM using hinge-loss. 7 Thursday, August 8, 13
  37. 37. Experiments • ACE 2004 dataset. • Baseline. - Pairwise classification system. - No external knowledge sources. - A rich set of features. - Best link strategy. - L2-regularized SVM using hinge-loss. • Static linking. 7 Thursday, August 8, 13
  38. 38. Experiments • ACE 2004 dataset. • Baseline. - Pairwise classification system. - No external knowledge sources. - A rich set of features. - Best link strategy. - L2-regularized SVM using hinge-loss. • Static linking. • Dynamic linking. 7 Thursday, August 8, 13
  39. 39. Experiments 8 76.5 78 79.5 81 82.5 79.3 75.8 80.4 75.8 80.8 81.8 77.05 81.12 76.18 81.66 78.01 82.21 MUC B-CUBE Culotta’07 Raghunathan’10 Bengston & Roth’08 Stoyanov & Eisner’12 Baseline Static linking Dynamic linking Thursday, August 8, 13
  40. 40. Experiments 9 79.9 80.8 81.7 82.6 83.5 83.03 79.77 82.5 80.25 83.06 81.13 83.32 Transcripts Non-Transcripts Bengston & Roth’08 Baseline Static linking Dynamic linking Thursday, August 8, 13
  41. 41. Experiments 10 un di- on- ns ti- in- lu- ise ith our 5510 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 Top X% of Docs by Number of Mentions ImprovementoverBaseline Dynamic Linking Static Linking Figure 2: Improvements on the top X% of docu- Thursday, August 8, 13
  42. 42. Conclusion • Coreference resolution systems benefit greatly from inclusion of global context. • Linking mentions to a knowledge base provides this context. • Maintaining a ranked list of entities outperforms previous fixed alignment approaches. 11 Thursday, August 8, 13

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