Beyond The Obvious - Why Substance Abuse Matters To Police, Probation, and Parole
Beyond the Obvious:Why Police, Parole, and Probation Officers Must Focus on Substance Abuse Among Offenders <br />Presented By: <br />The Center for Health & Justice <br />At TASC, Inc. <br />January 2011<br />
The Justice System is Growing<br />In 2007, 2,299,116 prisoners were held in federal or state prisons or in local jails<br />In 2008, 2,319,258 prisoners were held in federal or state prisons or in local jails<br />1,596,127 in prison, 723,131 in local jails<br />1 out of every 100 citizens for the first time in history<br />The number of adults who were being supervised on probation or parole at the end of 2006 reached 5,035,200<br /> 4,237,000 were on probation (84%)<br />798,200 were on parole (16%)<br />Source: Pew Center for the States, Bureau of Justice Statistics<br />
Drugs are a Major Growth Factor<br />The justice system is largest catchment area for people with addictions<br />In 2006, alcohol and other drugs were involved in these inmate offenses:<br />78 percent of violent crimes; <br />83 percent of property crimes; and <br />77 percent of public order, immigration or weapon offenses; and probation/parole violations.<br />Between 77-84% of these offenders were substance-involved<br />As many as 87% of arrestees tested positive for at least one illicit drug & 40% for more than one drug<br />Source: BJS Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Survey 2008; CASA, "Behind Bars II", February 2010<br />
Drugs are a Major Factor<br />Estimated Percentage of U.S. Adult Male Arrestees Testing Positive by Urinalysis for Illicit Drugs, 2008<br />Total testing positive in all ten of the ADAM cities: ~48,000 <br />Source: Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Study<br />
Drugs are a Major Growth Factor<br /><ul><li>Criminal justice populations include people who are addicted to drugs and/or alcohol as well as people who abuse and misuse these substances.
47.9% of state prison inmates met criteria for substance dependence.
43.7% of local jail inmates met criteria for substance dependence.
This is over 7 times greater than in the general population.
Female offenders are more likely to have substance abuse problems and more likely to meet criteria for dependence than male offenders.
Many CJS programs focus on drug law violators however:
Property crime offenders comprise 19.2% of the inmate population & 83.4% are substance involved. </li></ul>Source: CASA, "Behind Bars II", February 2010<br />
The “Revolving Door” and Public Safety<br />The criminal justice system is a “revolving door” – too many people cycle through the system too often<br /><ul><li>Over 2/3 re-arrested w/in 3 years of leaving prison</li></ul>Avg. cost per inmate per year to states in the U.S. <br />= $22,650<br />Successful CJS supervision may result in return to productive, healthy citizenship<br />No re-arrests<br />No re-incarceration<br />Building durable recovery <br />Building a pro-social life in the community<br />Sources: West & Sabol, 2008; Langan & Levin, 2002; Glaze & Bonczar, 2008; Mumola, 2000, Stephan, 2004<br />
The “Revolving Door” and Public Safety<br /><ul><li>Barriers contributing to high rates of re-offending and recidivism have been identified
Lack of family and community connection and support
Lack of health and adequate healthcare</li></li></ul><li>Why Clinical Solutions Are Relevant?<br />Recognizes the reality that most people who are arrested have substance use issues<br />With 80% of offenders using alcohol and drugs, universal interventions are needed<br />Difficult to tell from their charges what the nature, severity and duration of their issues are based on initial encounter<br />Need to triage between use, abuse and dependence groups<br />Evidence-based screening tools are needed<br />Brief interventions are needed for low-need, low-risk offenders<br />
SBIRT<br />*SBIRT = Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment<br />Developed in SAMHSA<br />Model developed to identify substance abuse in primary care<br />World Health Organization – screening tools<br />Extensive demonstration projects in the U.S. since 2003<br />ONDCP is interested in its application to the criminal justice system<br />
How Would This Work in the CJS?<br />Screening at all feasible points to get as close to universal intervention as possible<br />Police lock-up<br />Jail<br />Bond court<br />In courtrooms<br />Probation <br />Brief Intervention by specialized staff, again in all settings<br />Option: Require participation in alcohol/drug education classes<br />State’s Attorney’s Drug Abuse Program (Chicago) <br />85% of people are not re-arrested within 3 years<br />
Presenter Contact Information<br />Jac A. Charlier, M.P.A.<br />Director of External Training<br />TASC, Inc.<br />email@example.com<br />312-573-8302<br />