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Program and Change Management


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This workshop presentation knits together high impact best practices to help teams and managers through the entire program / project life-cycle. Using a DMAIC framework, we demonstrate how stakeholder management, value stream mapping, role definition, decision making, and escalation can be used to help all project types from product development to change management.

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Program and Change Management

  2. 2. 2 22 LEARNING OVERVIEW Program & Change Management training: helps strengthen core skills required to work effectively in leading and participating in cross functional process improvement initiatives. Organized within the Six Sigma DMAIC structure: consistent with the tenets of the Operational Excellence organization, and other trainings within this framework.
  3. 3. 3 33 LEARNING OBJECTIVES Training structured as both lecture and “lab” and organized as modules. After completion of 1-2 modules, breakout sessions will allow small teams to apply the tools. At the end of this training, you will be able to: • Apply at least one tool within each area of the DMAIC structure • Created a common language to apply these tools • Know how to access these tools easily and to apply them to process improvement initiatives
  4. 4. 4 44 THE DMAIC PROCESS Define Measure Analyze Improve Control
  5. 5. 5 55 TRAINING OVERVIEW: DMAIC Team Organization Value Stream Mapping Define Measure Analyze Improve Control Identifying Risks Organizational Change Stakeholder Analysis Schedule Predicting a Successful Outcome Setting Expectations for Progress Project Communication Root Cause Analysis Day 1 Day 2 Business Process Mapping
  6. 6. 6 66 TRAINING TOOLS Section Focus Tool Description Team Wheel Ensuring teams are properly staffed Circle Dot Matrix Clarifying responsibilities Stakeholder Analysis Attitude Influence Diagram Eliminating political roadblocks Value Stream Mapping Clarifying a process and eliminating waste Interview Guides Understanding the key stakeholders point of view Identifying Risks Risk Mind Map Creating a comprehensive overview of major risks Organizational Change Change Impact Matrix Understanding the consequences of change Root Cause Analysis Ishikawa Diagram Don't solve the wrong problem: distinguishing root causes from symptoms Schedule Team PERT Chart Reducing Schedule through team work Managing Risks Risk Management Matrix Managing & Mitigating Risks Gantt Chart Communicating project status Process Change Communications Tool 4 Critical questions to ensure organizational buy-in Predicting a successful outcome Predictive Metrics Tree Managing change by measuring behavior Setting Expectation for progressHalf Life Diagram Predicting the speed of improvement TEAM LEADERSHIP Soft Skills Emotional Intelligence Quiz The value of EQ in a high IQ world CONTROL Project Communications IMPROVE Team Organization DEFINE Using Qualitative Data ANALYZE MEASURE
  8. 8. 8 88 MODULE 1 LEARNING OBJECTIVES In Module 1, you will learn how to get improvement initiatives off to a good start: 1. Identifying the functional groups that will be involved and the specific team members 2. Clarifying the roles and contributions of each team member 3. Managing supporters and detractors of the initiative
  9. 9. 9 99 TOOLS FOR DEFINING YOUR PROJECT 1. Team Organization – identifying the right team members 3. Stakeholder Analysis – Effectively managing supporters and detractors 2. Circle Dot Chart – Clarifying roles and contributions These are tools to help you align and accelerate your initiative Project Team Wheel
  10. 10. 10 1010 PROJECT TEAM WHEEL What is the Tool? ▪ Identifies gaps in staffing and drives decision-making to mitigate risks ▪ Analyzes and identifies the team leadership, critical functions, and the individuals fulfilling these functions ▪ Snapshot that identifies by name the functional resources assigned to the project Ensuring Teams are Properly Staffed Project Team Wheel
  11. 11. 11 1111 PROJECT TEAM WHEEL Why use this tool? ▪ The Project Team Wheel helps to identify all team members and ensures that team members are available for your project ▪ A common root cause of project failures is the lack of adequate resources; the Team Wheel identifies resource gaps on a team ▪ The Project Team Wheel also: ▪ Provides a methodology for executives and project managers to identify risk areas and address them before trouble strikes ▪ Minimizes surprises (or project failure) attributed a lack of the right resources Project Team Wheel
  12. 12. 12 1212 HOW TO CREATE A PROJECT TEAM WHEEL Steps for constructing a Project Team Wheel ▪ Identify core team members; place the program manager in the center of the circle ▪ Identify both internal and external team members required to support the project ▪ Populate the wheel with the name of each team member and their function ▪ If your project requires a secondary team, identify those members ▪ Check for omissions: “Do we have the right people on the team? Do we have all the functions staffed?” ▪ Review Team Wheel with the Governance Committee Project Team Wheel
  13. 13. 13 1313 CIRCLE DOT CHART What is the tool? ▪ Illustrates the directly responsible individual and contributors for each key project deliverable ▪ Vertical axis identifies the key functional team members; the horizontal axis identifies the key project deliverables ▪ Tool enables the team to share a common understanding of who contributes to, and who owns, the delivery of these key milestones Clarifying Responsibilities
  14. 14. 14 1414 CIRCLE DOT CHART Why use this tool? ▪ Unclear responsibilities are one of the leading causes of program delays; when the team has a crisp picture of key deliverables tied to key functions the problem decreases ▪ Helps prevent missed deliverables by clarifying who does what ▪ Prevents wasted effort resulting from having two people working on the same task ▪ Helps the team create a common understanding of roles at the beginning of the project
  15. 15. 15 1515 HOW TO CREATE A CIRCLE DOT CHART Steps for Creating a Circle Dot Chart ▪ The project manager fills out a rough draft of the chart and holds a review with the team ▪ Identify key tasks (approximately 5-15) from the project plan and put them in time sequence across the top of the chart ▪ List the key functions responsible for delivering the program ▪ Differentiate between participants and those directly responsible for delivering the task ▪ Any functional group involved in a particular task is indicated by an open circle; the one function that is ultimately responsible for fulfilling the task is represented by a filled circle ▪ All tasks must have one, and only one, directly responsible individual
  16. 16. 16 1616 ATTITUDE INFLUENCE DIAGRAM Eliminate Organizational Obstacles What is the Tool? ▪ A scatter plot of your project’s supporters and detractors ▪ Applied early in the process, this tool provides you with the opportunity to manage detractors proactively ▪ In many cases, applying this tool can turn detractors into supporters
  17. 17. 17 1717 ATTITUDE INFLUENCE DIAGRAM Why use this tool? ▪ Detractors increase time-to-market because they tend to insist that the team provide more and more evidence to convince them that the project should move forward ▪ Pinpoints blocking managers who can disrupt your project ▪ Draw from proven change management techniques to deal with the most influential detractors ▪ Helps you do something about them before it affects the project and allows you to take into account the broader context around your project
  18. 18. 18 1818 ELIMINATE ORGANIZATIONAL OBSTACLES Steps for Creating an Attitude Influence Diagram ▪ Identify key individuals (typically outside the team) that may impact success ▪ Plot each individual: ▪ The horizontal axis shows how positive or negative an individual is about the project ▪ The vertical axis shows the level of influence the individual wields ▪ The size of the bubble rests on your subjective judgment of the difficulty of influencing the individual ▪ Develop action plans for each person in the upper left quadrant Challenging Individuals
  19. 19. 19 1919 WORKSHOP ONE Your company has launched an improvement initiative requiring participation and input from several cross functional teams. Your functional team has been asked to participate. Using the tools that your just learned: 1. Create a team wheel that illustrates the functional teams, and specific person that will be a contributing member of the team. Do an omissions check to ensure all the functional groups have been identified, and slot specific names into the wheel. Are all the right functions accounted for? Is the team wheel fully populated? 2. Create a Circle Dot matrix as a team, to ensure that it is clear how everyone contributes, for each critical element of the improvement initiative. Do you agree? Where are the gaps? 3. Create a Stakeholder Analysis for the initiative – who are your strongest supporters, detractors? Create a plan for effectively managing the detractors With the scenario provided, apply the team organization and stakeholder analysis tools.
  21. 21. 21 2121 MODULE 2 LEARNING OBJECTIVES In Module 2, you will learn: • How to measure your initiative using qualitative data • The technique of Value Stream Mapping
  22. 22. 22 2222 TOOLS TO MEASURE YOUR PROJECT 1. Value Stream Mapping – Using Qualitative Data A tool to help you define and map your processes.
  23. 23. 23 2323 VALUE STREAM MAPPING What is the Tool? ▪ Originally used by the Toyota Production System experts to study processes ▪ Used in manufacturing, engineering and administrative offices by lean experts to improve business processes ▪ Involves all the steps, both value added and non value added, required to complete a product or service from beginning to end Clarifying a process and eliminating waste Source: “Value stream mapping training,” by Justo Castellon (
  24. 24. 24 2424 VALUE STREAM MAPPING Why use this tool? ▪ Sources of waste and inefficiency are often invisible absent a clear process map ▪ Teams often do not have a common language to speak about issues and their resolution ▪ Value Stream Mapping helps solve these problems via a clear visual that enrolls people in process improvement ▪ Focuses on customers and their requirements ▪ Includes information flow and product movement ▪ Documents performance characteristics of both the Value Stream and the individual process steps Source: “Value stream mapping training,” by Justo Castellon (
  25. 25. 25 2525 HOW TO CREATE A VALUE STREAM MAPPING Steps for Creating a Value Stream Map ▪ Where feasible, physically walk the path of the process flow, beginning from each source of primary and secondary inputs required to support the operation ▪ Document each step observed; identify the communication points and how communication occurs ▪ Create your “current state” map including all pertinent data and information ▪ Identify limiting factors, deficiencies and losses associated with the current process ▪ Develop cost-effective solutions for each of the factors, deficiencies and losses that are limiting the effectiveness and efficiency of the current process ▪ Change the VSM to reflect the proposed changes; assure that all stakeholders are given the opportunity to review and comment on the new process ▪ Modify all affected procedures, such as bills of material and training materials to reflect the changes to be implemented; then implement changes Sources: “Value stream mapping training,” by Justo Castellon ( “Value Stream Mapping Process,” by Anand Subramaniam (; R. Keith Mobley,, “Best Practices for Using Value Stream Mapping as a Continuous Improvement Tool”
  26. 26. 26 2626 WORKSHOP TWO • Construct a scenario for your map • Work in small groups • Work for approximately 45 minutes, and then share with the other groups With the scenario provided, apply the Value Stream Mapping tool.
  28. 28. 28 2828 MODULE 3 LEARNING OBJECTIVES In Module 3, you will learn how to manage risk by: 1. Identifying and mapping the key risks 2. Creating action plans to mitigate the greatest and most likely risks 3. Understanding and mapping the consequences of change 4. Analyzing the root causes of outcomes
  29. 29. 29 2929 TOOLS FOR ANALYZING YOUR PROJECT 1. Risk Mind Map – Comprehensive Overview of Major Risks 3. Ishikawa Diagram – Determining the Root Cause of an Outcome 2. Change Impact Matrix – Understanding the Consequences of Change These are tools to help you analyze your situation and processes and make better decisions
  30. 30. 30 3030 RISK MIND MAP What is the Tool? ▪ The graphical diagram records a creative approach to risk assessment and management ▪ The tool is used for creative problem-solving, requirements generation, and product idea generation ▪ A map pre-populated with major risk categories can also be used to brainstorm risks for the program Comprehensive Overview of Major Risks
  31. 31. 31 3131 RISK MIND MAP Why use this tool? ▪ Allows the management team to anticipate risks sooner and prepare mitigation plans ▪ Provides an efficient method to view the whole spectrum of risks at a glance ▪ Gives the team an opportunity to identify which risks are the most probable and/or have the highest impact on project success ▪ Updateable as the project progresses
  32. 32. 32 3232 HOW TO CREATE A RISK MIND MAP Steps for constructing a Risk Mind Map ▪ Place the main theme in a bubble in the center ▪ Outer boxes are various classes of risks ▪ Lists next to boxes indicate specific risks, prioritized from 1 (high) to 4 (low) ▪ Risks without numbers are the lowest priority
  33. 33. 33 3333 CHANGE IMPACT MATRIX What is the Tool? ▪ A descriptive template that captures the details of what is going to change for everyone involved in a project ▪ Helps the project team prepare for change and enables them to better adjust to change ▪ Describes graphically the drivers behind many of the program steps Understanding the Consequences of Change
  34. 34. 34 3434 CHANGE IMPACT MATRIX Why use this tool? ▪ Preparing people for change is often the most difficult part of any initiative; this tool quickly targets the roles impacted by planned changes to process, hierarchy and technology ▪ Provides an at-a-glance understanding of high/medium/low change impacts ▪ Informs project leaders about areas requiring greater and lesser degrees of communication and training ▪ Informs those impacted about the degree of impact in advance of change
  35. 35. 35 3535 HOW TO CREATE A CHANGE IMPACT MATRIX Steps for constructing a Change Impact Matrix ▪ First column identifies the individual or stakeholder group that will be affected by changes ▪ Second and third columns describe the specific technology and process changes that will occur ▪ Four columns on the right indicate the magnitude of the impact of the changes on a given individual or group in four areas
  36. 36. 36 3636 ISHIKAWA DIAGRAM What is the Tool? ▪ A framework to support the discovery of the ultimate cause of an outcome ▪ Allows individuals or groups to discover root causes systematically ▪ Facilitates the use of root cause documentation because it is easy to share and archive Determining the Root Cause of an Outcome
  37. 37. 37 3737 ISHIKAWA DIAGRAM Why use this tool? ▪ Facilitates fact-based decision making and evidence-based management ▪ Saves time because the team does not repeat mistakes ▪ Ensures that the team will manage the actual root causes of issues and not just the symptoms ▪ Minimizes re-evaluation because the team does the formal exercise once at the beginning of a project ▪ Generates consensus because it is a cross-functional effort, and all the participants collaborate on the key takeaways of the process
  38. 38. 38 3838 HOW TO CREATE AN ISHIKAWA DIAGRAM Steps for constructing an Ishikawa Diagram ▪ Use "Post-it" notes to write down causes and move them around as you decide on categories ▪ On a white board write the problem to be solved (the EFFECT) as descriptively as possible on one side of the work space, then draw the "backbone of the fish" ▪ Decide how to categorize the causes by function or by process sequence ▪ Ask ”why” up to five times and list potential causes in categories ▪ Move past symptoms to the true root cause, and quantify the relationship between the Primary Root Causes and the Effect ▪ After creating your chart on a flip-chart or white board, you can replicate it using PowerPoint Source: “Fishbone Diagram” (
  39. 39. 39 3939 WORKSHOP THREE With the scenario you provide, apply the analysis tools. • Construct a scenario for your risk map or fishbone exercise • Work in small groups • Work for approximately 45 minutes, and then share with the other groups
  40. 40. 40 40 MODULE 4: IMPROVING EXECUTION 40
  41. 41. 41 4141 MODULE 4 LEARNING OBJECTIVES In Module 4, you will learn how to continue to improve processes by: 1. Optimizing teamwork 2. Reducing schedule
  42. 42. 42 4242 TOOLS FOR IMPROVING YOUR PROJECT 1. Team Pert Chart – Reducing Schedule Through Teamwork This is a tool to help systematically improve your projects.
  43. 43. 43 4343 TEAM PERT CHART What is the Tool? ▪ Generates a schedule and helps reduce time to market ▪ Supports the trend toward more collaborative team involvement ▪ Creating the chart using the team-based method gives you cross-functional buy-in and a schedule your team can support Reducing Schedule Through Teamwork
  44. 44. 44 4444 TEAM PERT CHART Why use this tool? ▪ Identifies the critical path and helps reduce their duration ▪ Empowers teams to create their own schedule ▪ Increases predictability by getting all the functional inputs into key milestones, ensuring that your team doesn’t inadvertently omit key tasks ▪ Ensures cross-functional alignment and buy-in to the tasks and timelines ▪ Provides accurate estimates of the time needed to complete each task
  45. 45. 45 4545 HOW TO CREATE A TEAM PERT CHART Steps for constructing a Team PERT Chart ▪ Identify key tasks between MRD and Concept Review for your project and plot the steps to get from one milestone to another ▪ Ask each team member to determine the time needed to complete each task (optimistic, typical, pessimistic) ▪ Summarize the duration estimates, check those that look out of line ▪ Make sure no key tasks were omitted ▪ Draw the critical path by making it darker than the other arrows connecting the tasks
  46. 46. 46 4646 HOW TO SHORTEN PROJECT TIME • Brainstorm how to shorten the critical path and integrate solutions into the diagram
  47. 47. 47 4747 CHANGE IMPACT MATRIX • Missing
  48. 48. 48 4848 WORKSHOP FOUR With the scenario you provide, apply improving projects. • Construct a scenario for your Team PERT chart • Work in small groups • Work for approximately 45 minutes, and then share with the other groups
  50. 50. 50 5050 MODULE 5 LEARNING OBJECTIVES In Module 5, you will learn how to predict and control processing by: 1. Using predictive metrics as an early warning system 2. Having predictive measures of the speed of improvement
  51. 51. 51 5151 TOOLS FOR CONTROLLING PROCESSES 1. Predictive Metrics Tree – Rapid Indicators for Early Warning 2. Half Life Diagram – Predicting the Speed of Improvement These are tools to help predict and control processes.
  52. 52. 52 5252 PREDICTIVE METRICS TREE What is the Tool? ▪ Provides a line of sight between the program goal and key metrics that will best predict the likelihood of achieving your desired goal ▪ Derived from a root cause analysis of barriers to achieving objectives, instead of a pre-populated list of metrics ▪ The hierarchical tree ensures you measure the right actions to achieve your program goal Rapid Indicators for Early Warning
  53. 53. 53 5353 PREDICTIVE METRICS TREE Why use this tool? ▪ Allows managers and teams to see where they really stand and where they are headed ▪ Helps align the organization and reduce waste because all initiatives are coordinated and tied to clear objectives ▪ Early indication that a program is heading for trouble helps leadership team make data-based decisions ▪ Supports the critical few measurements; enables project leadership to focus on the most critical areas
  54. 54. 54 5454 HOW TO CREATE A PREDICTIVE METRICS TREE Steps for constructing a Predictive Metrics Tree ▪ Project goal is defined at top of tree ▪ First row of shaded boxes represent key challenges (drivers); second row of shaded boxes represent initiatives to manage the challenges; bottom row describes associated metrics for each initiative
  55. 55. 55 5555 HALF LIFE DIAGRAM What is the Tool? ▪ Predicts how fast you can improve your organization based on complexity ▪ Uses estimated degrees of technical and organizational complexity to estimate the projected rate of improvement ▪ Generates a target curve that a project team can use to track its progress and take action before it’s too late. Predicting the Speed of Improvement
  56. 56. 56 5656 HALF LIFE DIAGRAM Why use this tool? ▪ Provides a target for improvement that accelerates initiatives ▪ Provides a weekly or monthly progress reporting tool if required ▪ Requires little upfront planning and can be applied to most improvement opportunities ▪ Provides a consistent fact-based guideline to achieve improvement goals ▪ Encourages teams to continually monitor progress and compare against a standard ▪ Reinforces an evidence-based culture that aligns teams and management
  57. 57. 57 5757 HOW TO CREATE A HALF LIFE DIAGRAM Steps for constructing a Half Life Diagram ▪ Vertical axis measures the degree of compliance ▪ Horizontal axis is a function of time ▪ The curve provides the trajectory for change
  58. 58. 58 5858 WORKSHOP FIVE With the scenario you provide, apply the predictive metrics tree and half-life diagrams • Construct a scenario for your diagrams • Work in small groups • Work for approximately 45 minutes, and then share with the other groups
  59. 59. 59 59 TCGen Inc. Menlo Park CA, 94025 +12 3456 789