Administración de la Cadena de Valor


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Administración de la Cadena de Valor

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Administración de la Cadena de Valor

  1. 1. Administración de la cadena de valor
  2. 2. Métodos de control <ul><li>EOQ: Economic quantity order </li></ul><ul><li>JIT: Just in time </li></ul><ul><li>MRP: Materials requirement planning </li></ul><ul><li>PERT: Program evaluation and review technique. </li></ul>Luis Felipe Torres Gómez 07/06/09
  3. 3. La productividad <ul><li>Productividad es un índice utilizado para determinar la razón (insumos-productos) entre el valor de los bienes producidos y el costo de los insumos utilizados en un período dado. </li></ul><ul><li>Aportación clásica al estudio de la productividad: Taylor, Gantt y Gilbreth, entre otros. Enfoque hacia la administración de la producción. </li></ul>Luis Felipe Torres Gómez 07/06/09
  4. 4. Administración de la producción vs. administración de operaciones <ul><li>Admón. de la producción: Enfoque centrado en las actividades necesarias para fabricar un producto. </li></ul><ul><li>Admón. de operaciones: Enfoque orientado a las actividades necesarias para producir y ofertar un producto o un servicio. Cómo los empleados de una organización convierten los insumos en productos, bienes o servicios. </li></ul>Luis Felipe Torres Gómez 07/06/09
  5. 5. Modelo de control de operaciones Luis Felipe Torres Gómez 07/06/09 Ambiente externo Insumos (recursos) Humanos Materiales Tecnología Información Capital Procesos de transformación Productos Bienes Servicios Información Retroalimentación Planeación Control Procesos de mejora
  6. 6. Técnicas para la mejora de la productividad <ul><li>Planeación y control de inventarios </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CEP: cantidad económica de pedido </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>JIT: justo a tiempo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MRP: planeación del requerimiento de materiales </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transferencia de actividades a proveedores externos: Outsourcing </li></ul><ul><li>Investigación de operaciones </li></ul><ul><li>Redes de tiempo-eventos </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PERT: programa de evaluación y técnica de revisión </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CPM: método de la trayectoria crítica </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ingeniería del valor </li></ul><ul><li>Administración de la calidad total </li></ul>Luis Felipe Torres Gómez
  7. 7. Calidad total <ul><li>Círculos de calidad </li></ul><ul><li>CAD/CAM: diseño y manufactura asistidos por computadora </li></ul><ul><li>MAP: protocolo de automatización de la manufactura </li></ul><ul><li>Lean manufacture: manufactura esbelta </li></ul>Luis Felipe Torres Gómez 07/06/09
  8. 8. Formas de crear la ventaja competitiva Luis Felipe Torres Gómez 07/06/09
  9. 9. Functional Strategies and Value-Chain Management <ul><li>Functional-level strategy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>plan of action to improve the ability of each of an organization’s departments to performs its task-specific activities in ways that add value to an organization’s goods and services </li></ul></ul>Luis Felipe Torres Gómez 07/06/09
  10. 10. Functional Strategies and Value-Chain Management <ul><li>Value chain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>coordinated series or sequence of functional activities necessary to transform inputs into finished goods or services customers value and want to buy </li></ul></ul>Luis Felipe Torres Gómez 07/06/09
  11. 11. Functional Activities and the Value Chain Luis Felipe Torres Gómez 07/06/09
  12. 12. Functional Strategies and Value-Chain Management <ul><li>Value-chain management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>development of a set of functional-level strategies that support a company’s business-level strategy and strengthen its competitive advantage </li></ul></ul>Luis Felipe Torres Gómez 07/06/09
  13. 13. Functional Strategies and Value-Chain Management <ul><li>Product development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>engineering and scientific research activities involved in innovating new or improved products that add value to a product </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Marketing function’s task is to persuade customers a product meets their needs and convince them to buy it </li></ul>Luis Felipe Torres Gómez 07/06/09
  14. 14. Functional Strategies and Value-Chain Management <ul><li>Materials management function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>controls the movement of physical materials from the procurement of inputs through production and into distribution and delivery to the customer </li></ul></ul>Luis Felipe Torres Gómez 07/06/09
  15. 15. Functional Strategies and Value-Chain Management <ul><li>Production function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>responsible for the creation, assembly or provision of a good or service, for transforming inputs into outputs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sales function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>plays a crucial role in locating customers and then informing and persuading them to buy the company’s products </li></ul></ul>Luis Felipe Torres Gómez 07/06/09
  16. 16. Functional Strategies and Value-Chain Management <ul><li>Customer service function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>provides after sales service and support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can create a perception of superior value by solving customer problems and supporting customers </li></ul></ul>Luis Felipe Torres Gómez 07/06/09
  17. 17. Improving Responsiveness to Customers <ul><li>Good value-chain management requires marketing managers to focus on defining the company business in terms of customer needs </li></ul>Luis Felipe Torres Gómez 07/06/09
  18. 18. What Do Customers Want? <ul><li>A lower price to a higher price </li></ul><ul><li>High-quality products </li></ul><ul><li>Quick service and good after-sales service </li></ul><ul><li>Products with many useful or valuable features </li></ul><ul><li>Products that are tailored to their unique needs </li></ul>Luis Felipe Torres Gómez 07/06/09
  19. 19. Customer Relationship Management <ul><li>Customer relationship management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>technique that uses IT to develop an ongoing relationship with customers to maximize the value an organization can deliver to them over time </li></ul></ul>Luis Felipe Torres Gómez 07/06/09
  20. 20. Impact of Increased Quality on Organizational Performance Luis Felipe Torres Gómez 07/06/09 Figure 9.4
  21. 21. Improving Quality <ul><li>An organization able to provide, for the same price, a product of higher quality than a competitor’s product is serving customers better </li></ul><ul><li>Higher product quality can increase efficiency </li></ul>Luis Felipe Torres Gómez 07/06/09
  22. 22. Total Quality Management <ul><li>Total quality management (TQM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>focuses on improving the quality of an organization’s products and stresses that all of an organization’s value-chain activities should be directed toward this goal </li></ul></ul>Luis Felipe Torres Gómez 07/06/09
  23. 23. Steps to Successful TQM Implementation <ul><li>Build organizational commitment to quality </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on the customer </li></ul><ul><li>Find ways to measure quality </li></ul><ul><li>Set goals and create incentives </li></ul><ul><li>Solicit input from employees </li></ul>Luis Felipe Torres Gómez 07/06/09
  24. 24. Steps to Successful TQM Implementation <ul><li>Identify defects and trace to source. </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce just-in-time (JIT) inventory systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Work closely with suppliers. </li></ul><ul><li>Design for ease of production. </li></ul><ul><li>Break down barriers between functions. </li></ul>Luis Felipe Torres Gómez 07/06/09
  25. 25. Focus on the Customer <ul><li>Identify what customers want from the good or service that the company provides </li></ul><ul><li>Identify what the company actually provides to customers </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the gap that exists between what the customers want and what they get (quality gap) </li></ul><ul><li>Formulate a plan for closing the quality gap </li></ul>Luis Felipe Torres Gómez 07/06/09
  26. 26. Facilities Layout, Flexible Manufacturing, and Efficiency <ul><li>Facilities Layout </li></ul><ul><ul><li>strategy of designing the machine-worker interface to increase production system efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flexible Manufacturing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>strategy based on the use of IT to reduce the setup costs associated with a product assembly process </li></ul></ul>Luis Felipe Torres Gómez 07/06/09
  27. 27. Luis Felipe Torres Gómez 07/06/09 Figure 9.5 Three Facilities Layouts
  28. 28. Facilities Layout <ul><li>Product layout </li></ul><ul><ul><li>machines are organized so that each operation is performed at work stations arranged in a fixed sequence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Process Layout </li></ul><ul><ul><li>self contained work stations not organized in a fixed sequence </li></ul></ul>Luis Felipe Torres Gómez 07/06/09
  29. 29. Facilities Layout <ul><li>Fixed-Position Layout </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the product stays in a fixed spot and components produced at remote stations are brought the product for to final assembly </li></ul></ul>Luis Felipe Torres Gómez 07/06/09
  30. 30. Changing a Facilities Layout Luis Felipe Torres Gómez 07/06/09 Figure 9.6
  31. 31. Flexible Manufacturing <ul><li>Aims to reduce time required to set up production equipment </li></ul><ul><li>By redesigning the process setup times and costs can be drastically reduced </li></ul><ul><li>Able to produce many more varieties of a product than before in the same amount of time </li></ul>Luis Felipe Torres Gómez 07/06/09
  32. 32. Just-in-Time Inventory and Efficiency <ul><li>Just-in-time (JIT) inventory system gets components to the assembly line just as they are needed to drive down costs </li></ul><ul><li>Major cost savings can result from increasing inventory turnover and reducing inventory holding costs </li></ul>Luis Felipe Torres Gómez 07/06/09
  33. 33. Self-Managed Work Teams and Efficiency <ul><li>Self-managed work teams produce an entire product instead of just parts of it </li></ul><ul><li>Team members learn all tasks and move from job to job </li></ul><ul><li>Can increase productivity and efficiency </li></ul>Luis Felipe Torres Gómez 07/06/09
  34. 34. Process Reengineering and Efficiency <ul><li>Process Reengineering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of the business process to achieve dramatic improvement in critical measures of performance </li></ul></ul>Luis Felipe Torres Gómez 07/06/09
  35. 35. Two Kinds of Innovation <ul><li>Quantum product innovation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>results in the development of radically different kinds of goods and services because of fundamental shifts in technology brought about by pioneering discoveries </li></ul></ul>Luis Felipe Torres Gómez 07/06/09
  36. 36. Two Kinds of Innovation <ul><li>Incremental product innovation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>results in gradual improvements and refinements to existing products over time as existing technologies are perfected, and functional managers learn how to perform value-chain activities in better ways </li></ul></ul>Luis Felipe Torres Gómez 07/06/09