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Can Literacy and Numeracy be improved using computer games? Jonathan Reed and Misbah Khan
About me: Dr Jonathan Reed  <ul><li>Child Neuropsychology ;Study of child’s brain and psychological development and how th...
How the project came about <ul><li>Know quite a bit about how children develop  </li></ul><ul><li>Believe games and play a...
Reading – quick summary <ul><li>Reading- requires cracking the code between groups of symbols (letters) and sounds (phonem...
The case for phonics <ul><li>Children’s phonological awareness predicts reading ability in longitudinal studies (Maclean, ...
The Brain areas involved in reading <ul><li>3  main areas: </li></ul><ul><li>Parieto-temporal region for word analysis </l...
Intervention <ul><li>Meyler 2008 shows poor activation of left brain areas in poor readers.  </li></ul><ul><li>100 hours o...
Maths facts  <ul><li>Know the developmental stages in maths (Gelman & Gallistel 1978):  </li></ul><ul><li>Learn that numbe...
Brain Area  <ul><li>Neumerosities: Key concept: Automatically recognisisng the numbers in a set (Butterworth 2008). </li><...
Maths development  <ul><li>Following development of basic understanding – need to learn automatic number bonds. </li></ul>...
<ul><li>Therefore know quite a lot about how reading and maths develop </li></ul><ul><li>Why do so many children still hav...
Advantages of Computer games in learning  <ul><li>Motivation (games designers are experts at motivation) </li></ul><ul><li...
Neurogames  <ul><li>Created four games to help children develop maths and literacy  </li></ul>
Key Neurogame features <ul><li>Based on neuropsychological theory </li></ul><ul><li>Rewards at different levels  </li></ul...
Literacy 1 letter lilies
 
Reward page
Literacy word patch
 
Numeracy – Tomato tumble
 
Numeracy- Nutty Numbers
 
Misbah Khan  <ul><li>Need to research whether the games work. </li></ul><ul><li>Misbah undertaking a research degree . </l...
Aim/ Hypothesis <ul><li>Aims to investigate if short term exposure to the Neurogames, improves Reading and Mathematic abil...
Methodology 1 <ul><li>Materials:  </li></ul><ul><li>4 subtests of the WPPSI - to indicate IQ </li></ul><ul><li>WIAT Subtes...
Methodology 2 <ul><li>Ethics/ Information sheet, letters, consent form. </li></ul><ul><li>20 subjects given WPPSI (IQ) and...
Analysis <ul><li>Statistical Analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>A series of independent samples t-tests were conducted. </li></ul...
Analysis 2 <ul><li>Paired sample t-tests was conducted to compare mathematics scores and reading scores before and after e...
Table of pre and post test scores Pre-test  Post-test N 10 10 Mean Mathematics Score 102.20 123.70 SD 12.506 11.441 Mean R...
Analysis 3 <ul><li>Independent samples t-tests - to compare post test mathematic and reading scores between the experiment...
Scores of experimental group compared to control group Experimental Group Exposed to Neurogames Control Group Not exposed ...
Other Findings <ul><li>There was no significant </li></ul><ul><li>difference in changed </li></ul><ul><li>mathematic or re...
Conclusions <ul><li>Shows Neurogames are effective in improving reading and maths significantly after brief intervention. ...
<ul><li>Need to expand and replicate- small sample  </li></ul><ul><li>Need to try with children who find learning difficul...
Potential <ul><li>Idea of brain plasticity- some areas of the brain more open to intervention than others. </li></ul><ul><...
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Gbl neurogames

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Gbl neurogames

  1. 1. Can Literacy and Numeracy be improved using computer games? Jonathan Reed and Misbah Khan
  2. 2. About me: Dr Jonathan Reed <ul><li>Child Neuropsychology ;Study of child’s brain and psychological development and how they interact- see Reed and Warner Rogers – Child Neuropsychology 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Recolo – Child neuropsychological rehabilitation. </li></ul>
  3. 3. How the project came about <ul><li>Know quite a bit about how children develop </li></ul><ul><li>Believe games and play are important ways for children (everyone) to learn. </li></ul><ul><li>How to integrate these ideas and disseminate this knowledge </li></ul>
  4. 4. Reading – quick summary <ul><li>Reading- requires cracking the code between groups of symbols (letters) and sounds (phonemes). </li></ul><ul><li>There are 44 phonemes to learn in English </li></ul><ul><li>Need to blend the sounds together to read words </li></ul><ul><li>Need to automatically learn to recognise words to read fluently </li></ul>
  5. 5. The case for phonics <ul><li>Children’s phonological awareness predicts reading ability in longitudinal studies (Maclean, Bryant and Bradley 1987). </li></ul><ul><li>Training children in phonological awareness improves reading development by up to 12 months compared to controls – (Bradley and Bryant 1983) </li></ul><ul><li>Most European languages have a simple phonological structure CV- Children in Greece (98%) and Italy (95%) learn to read with almost 100 % accuracy in first year in school. This is compared to English which has complex phonological structure (only 34% accuracy in first year) </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Brain areas involved in reading <ul><li>3 main areas: </li></ul><ul><li>Parieto-temporal region for word analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Occipito-temporal region for word form </li></ul><ul><li>Inferior frontal gyrus for word articulation and analysis; Shaywitz 2003 </li></ul>
  7. 7. Intervention <ul><li>Meyler 2008 shows poor activation of left brain areas in poor readers. </li></ul><ul><li>100 hours of phonics training. </li></ul><ul><li>Activation in left brain areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Gains maintained 1 year later. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Maths facts <ul><li>Know the developmental stages in maths (Gelman & Gallistel 1978): </li></ul><ul><li>Learn that number words follow a set order </li></ul><ul><li>Learn that each number is only linked to one object (1 to 1 correspondence) </li></ul><ul><li>Learn that number of objects by the last number word (cardinal principal) </li></ul><ul><li>Learn to add on numbers </li></ul>
  9. 9. Brain Area <ul><li>Neumerosities: Key concept: Automatically recognisisng the numbers in a set (Butterworth 2008). </li></ul><ul><li>Present in very young children. </li></ul><ul><li>Associated with Intraparietal Sulcus </li></ul>
  10. 10. Maths development <ul><li>Following development of basic understanding – need to learn automatic number bonds. </li></ul><ul><li>This reduces reliance on working memory. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Therefore know quite a lot about how reading and maths develop </li></ul><ul><li>Why do so many children still have difficulties learning (e.g. 16% children have difficulties reading at KS1) </li></ul><ul><li>What can we do about it ? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Advantages of Computer games in learning <ul><li>Motivation (games designers are experts at motivation) </li></ul><ul><li>Allows a standardised evidence based approach </li></ul><ul><li>Disseminating information </li></ul><ul><li>Removing Social Anxiety (can learn at own pace) </li></ul><ul><li>Lends itself to research </li></ul>
  13. 13. Neurogames <ul><li>Created four games to help children develop maths and literacy </li></ul>
  14. 14. Key Neurogame features <ul><li>Based on neuropsychological theory </li></ul><ul><li>Rewards at different levels </li></ul><ul><li>Follows Developmental sequence </li></ul><ul><li>Based on error free learning technique </li></ul><ul><li>Bright engaging graphics </li></ul><ul><li>Designed by Media Kitchen </li></ul>
  15. 15. Literacy 1 letter lilies
  16. 17. Reward page
  17. 18. Literacy word patch
  18. 20. Numeracy – Tomato tumble
  19. 22. Numeracy- Nutty Numbers
  20. 24. Misbah Khan <ul><li>Need to research whether the games work. </li></ul><ul><li>Misbah undertaking a research degree . </li></ul><ul><li>Able to independently assess the games effectiveness. </li></ul>
  21. 25. Aim/ Hypothesis <ul><li>Aims to investigate if short term exposure to the Neurogames, improves Reading and Mathematic abilities </li></ul>
  22. 26. Methodology 1 <ul><li>Materials: </li></ul><ul><li>4 subtests of the WPPSI - to indicate IQ </li></ul><ul><li>WIAT Subtests - Literacy and Mathematics ability. </li></ul><ul><li>Neurogames – presented on a laptop </li></ul><ul><li>Participants: Twenty 4-6yrs Subjects. </li></ul>
  23. 27. Methodology 2 <ul><li>Ethics/ Information sheet, letters, consent form. </li></ul><ul><li>20 subjects given WPPSI (IQ) and WIAT tests. </li></ul><ul><li>10 matched subjects play the games for 6 weeks. </li></ul><ul><li>20 subjects re-tested with WIAT. </li></ul>
  24. 28. Analysis <ul><li>Statistical Analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>A series of independent samples t-tests were conducted. </li></ul><ul><li>Showed there was no significant difference in pre test mathematics, reading and IQ scores between the experimental groups and the control groups </li></ul>
  25. 29. Analysis 2 <ul><li>Paired sample t-tests was conducted to compare mathematics scores and reading scores before and after exposure to the Neurogames </li></ul><ul><li>This showed mathematics and reading scores significantly improved following exposure to the Neurogames. </li></ul>
  26. 30. Table of pre and post test scores Pre-test Post-test N 10 10 Mean Mathematics Score 102.20 123.70 SD 12.506 11.441 Mean Reading Score 101.70 114.19 SD 11.719 16.901
  27. 31. Analysis 3 <ul><li>Independent samples t-tests - to compare post test mathematic and reading scores between the experimental and control groups </li></ul><ul><li>Post test mathematic scores were significantly higher for the experimental group than the control group. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Post test reading scores were higher for the experimental group than the control group, however this difference was not significant </li></ul>
  28. 32. Scores of experimental group compared to control group Experimental Group Exposed to Neurogames Control Group Not exposed to Neurogames N 10 10 Mean post-test Mathematic score 123.70 109.90 SD 11.441 13.287 Mean post-test Reading score 114.90 109.10 SD 16.901 15.878
  29. 33. Other Findings <ul><li>There was no significant </li></ul><ul><li>difference in changed </li></ul><ul><li>mathematic or reading </li></ul><ul><li>scores between males </li></ul><ul><li>and females. </li></ul><ul><li>The initial IQ subtest </li></ul><ul><li>score did not significantly </li></ul><ul><li>correlate with either level </li></ul><ul><li>of improved reading or </li></ul><ul><li>mathematics scores. </li></ul>
  30. 34. Conclusions <ul><li>Shows Neurogames are effective in improving reading and maths significantly after brief intervention. </li></ul><ul><li>Can create games based on Developmental Neuropsychological theory. </li></ul><ul><li>By basing on theory also shown that they can be very effective in improving learning. </li></ul>
  31. 35. <ul><li>Need to expand and replicate- small sample </li></ul><ul><li>Need to try with children who find learning difficult- Dyslexia, dyscalculia, ADHD, Intellectual delay </li></ul><ul><li>Need to try with longer exposure -other intervention studies use 100 hours- this study based on approx 12 hours. </li></ul>
  32. 36. Potential <ul><li>Idea of brain plasticity- some areas of the brain more open to intervention than others. </li></ul><ul><li>We know more about some areas of neuropsychological development. </li></ul><ul><li>Key candidates: Vocabulary, Working memory, Attention, Visual Motor ability, knowledge (semantic memory). </li></ul><ul><li>How do we create games for younger children. Think developmentally. Repeat activities. Simple rewards. Touch screen – ipad. </li></ul>

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