Religion, Very Final

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Religion, Very Final

  1. 1. Chapter 17 Religion
  2. 2. Chapter Outline • The Sociological Study of Religion • Sociological Perspectives on Religion • World Religions • Types of Religious Organization • Trends in Religion in the United States • Religion in the Future
  3. 3. An Overview Of Religion • Religion is a system of beliefs and practices based on some sacred or supernatural realm, that guides human behavior, gives meaning to life, and unites believers into a single moral community. • The sociology of religion focuses on religious groups and organizations, on the behavior of individuals within those groups, and on ways religion is intertwined with social institutions.
  4. 4. Religion • Seeks to answer questions such as why we exist, why people suffer and die and what happens when we die. • Comprised of beliefs, symbols and rituals. • All known groups over the past 100,000 years have had some form of religion.
  5. 5. Religion • Faith is unquestioning belief that does not require proof or scientific evidence. • Sacred refers to those aspects of life that are extraordinary or supernatural.
  6. 6. Religion • Profane refers to the everyday, secular aspects of life. • Rituals are regularly repeated and carefully prescribed forms of behaviors that symbolize a cherished value or belief.
  7. 7. Sociological Perspectives Of Religion Functionalist Sacred beliefs and rituals bind people together and help maintain social control. Conflict Religion may be used to justify the status quo (Marx) or to promote social change. Symbolic Religion may serve as a reference group for Interactionist many people, but because of race, class, and gender people may experience it differently.
  8. 8. Durkheim on Religion • According to Emile Durkheim, all religions share three elements: 1. Beliefs held by adherents. 2. Practices (rituals) engaged in collectively by believers. 3. A moral community based on the group’s shared beliefs and practices pertaining to the sacred.
  9. 9. Four Categories of Religion • Simple supernaturalism - the belief that supernatural forces affect people's lives positively or negatively. • Animism - the belief that plants, animals, and elements of the natural world are endowed with spirits that impact events in society.
  10. 10. Four Categories of Religion • Theism - belief in a God or Gods. • Transcendent idealism - belief in sacred principles of thought and conduct, such as truth, justice, life and tolerance for others.
  11. 11. Secularization • The process by which religious beliefs, practices, and institutions lose their significance in sectors of society and culture.
  12. 12. Civil Religion • The set of beliefs, rituals, and symbols that makes sacred the values of the society and places the nation in the context of the ultimate system of meaning. • Civil religion is not tied to any one denomination or religious group.
  13. 13. Church • Throughout recorded history, churches and other religious bodies have provided people with a sense of belonging. • Members of this congregation show their unity as they visit with one another.
  14. 14. Major World Religions Christianity Islam Current 1.7 billion 1 billion Followers Founder Jesus Muhammad Date 1st century C.E. ca. 600 C.E
  15. 15. Major World Religions Hinduism Buddhism Current 719 million 309 million Followers No specific Siddhartha Founder founder Gautama 500 to 600 Date ca. 1500 B.C.E B.C.E.
  16. 16. Major World Religions Judaism Confucianism Current 18 million 5.9 million Followers Abraham, Isaac, Founder K’ung Fu-Tzu Jacob Date ca. 2000 B.C.E. 500 B.C.E
  17. 17. Separation of Church and State • Separation of church and state is often contested by people who believe religion should be a part of public life. • These workers are complying with a federal court order to remove a monument bearing the Ten Commandments from the Alabama State Judicial Building.
  18. 18. Symbolic Nature of Church and State Connection • Currency: “In God • Nativity Scenes and We Trust”; Menorah’s erected on Gov’t • Pledge of Allegiance Property; • Gov’t Events commence with prayer
  19. 19. --Jefferson on Religion Thomas Jefferson on Politics & Government http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/jefferson/quotations/jeff1370.htm "The want of instruction in the various creeds of religious faith existing among our citizens presents... a chasm in a general institution of the useful sciences. But it was thought that this want, and the entrustment to each society of instruction in its own doctrine, were evils of less danger than a permission to the public authorities to dictate modes or principles of religious instruction, or than opportunities furnished them by giving countenance or ascendancy to any one sect over another." --Thomas Jefferson: Virginia Board of Visitors Minutes, 1822. ME 19:414
  20. 20. "After stating the constitutional reasons against a public establishment of any religious instruction, we suggest the expediency of encouraging the different religious sects to establish, each for itself, a professorship of their own tenets on the confines of the university, so near as that their students may attend the lectures there and have the free use of our library and every other accommodation we can give them; preserving, however, their independence of us and of each other. This fills the chasm objected to ours, as a defect in an institution professing to give instruction in all useful sciences... And by bringing the sects together, and mixing them with the mass of other students, we shall soften their asperities, liberalize and neutralize their prejudices, and make the general religion a religion of peace, reason, and morality." --Thomas Jefferson to Thomas Cooper, 1822. ME 15:405
  21. 21. GOD’S IN NAMEHTTP://WWW.NYTIMES.COM/2006/10/08/BUSINESS/08RELIGIOUS.H TML?_R=1&PAGEWANTED=ALL As Exemptions Grow, Religion Outweighs Regulation By DIANA B. HENRIQUES Published: October 8, 2006
  22. 22. NAMEHTTP://WWW.NYTIMES.COM/2006/10/08/ BUSINESS/08RELIGIOUS.HTML? As Exemptions Grow, Religion Outweighs Regulation By DIANA B. HENRIQUES Published: October 8, 2006 EXEMPTIONS AVAILABLE Federal law gives religious organizations unique ways to challenge government restrictions on how they use their land or buildings. In Boulder County, Colo., the Rocky Mountain Christian Church is using a new federal law to fight a county decision preventing it from expanding on land designated for open space.
  23. 23. Some of the exceptions have existed for much of the nation’s history, originally devised for Christian churches but expanded to other faiths as the nation has become more religiously diverse. But many have been granted in just the last 15 years — sometimes added to legislation, anonymously and with little attention, much as are the widely criticized “earmarks” benefiting other special interests.
  24. 24. An analysis by The New York Times of laws passed since 1989 shows that more than 200 special arrangements, protections or exemptions for religious groups or their adherents were tucked into Congressional legislation, covering topics ranging from pensions to immigration to land use. New breaks have also been provided by a host of pivotal court decisions at the state and federal level, and by numerous rule changes in almost every department and agency of the executive branch.
  25. 25. The special breaks amount to “a sort of religious affirmative action program,” said John Witte Jr., director of the Center for the Study of Law and Religion at the Emory University law school. Professor Witte added: “Separation of church and state was certainly part of American law when many of today’s public opinion makers were in school. But separation of church and state is no longer the law of the land.”
  26. 26. changes reflect, in part, the growing political The influence of religious groups and the growing presence of conservatives in the courts and regulatory agencies. But these tax and regulatory breaks have been endorsed by politicians of both major political parties, by judges around the country, and at all levels of government. “The religious community has a lot of pull, and senators are very deferential to this kind of legislation,” said Richard R. Hammar, the editor of Church Law & Tax Report and an accountant with law and divinity degrees from Harvard.
  27. 27. As a result of these special breaks, religious organizations of all faiths stand in a position that American businesses — and the thousands of nonprofit groups without that “religious” label — can only envy. And the new breaks come at a time when many religious organizations are expanding into activities — from day care centers to funeral homes, from ice cream parlors to fitness clubs, from bookstores to broadcasters — that compete with these same businesses and nonprofit organizations. Religious organizations are exempt from many federal, state and local laws and regulations covering social services, including addiction treatment centers and child care, like those in Alabama.
  28. 28. Religion and Schools • Shown here is Dr. Kenneth Miller, a biology professor, during a discussion of the pros and cons of incorporating the teaching of intelligent design into the Ohio state science curriculum.
  29. 29. HTTP://WWW.NYTIMES.COM/2006/10/11/BUSI NESS/11RELIGIOUS.HTML?EX=1318219200&E IN GOD’S NAME By DIANA B. HENRIQUES Religion-Based Tax Breaks: Housing to Published: October 11, Paychecks to Books 2006 Monica Almeida/The New York Times The Rev. Rick Warren, who fought for tax breaks for clergy members, conducts an afternoon service at Saddleback Church in Lake Forest, Calif.
  30. 30. For tens of millions of Americans, the Rev. Rick Warren is best known for his blockbuster spiritual guide, “The Purpose Driven Life,” which has sold more than 25 million copies; his success as the founder of the 22,000-member Saddleback Church in Lake Forest, Calif.; and his efforts on behalf of some of the world’s neediest people. But for tens of thousands of ministers — and their financial advisers — Pastor Warren will also be remembered as their champion in a fight over the most valuable tax break available to ordained clergy members of all faiths: an exemption from federal taxes for most of the money they spend on housing, which typically represents roughly a third of their compensation. Pastor Warren argued that the tax break is essential to poorly paid clergy members who serve society.
  31. 31. The tax break is not available to the staff at secular nonprofit organizations whose scale and charitable aims compare to those of religious ministries like Pastor Warren’s church, or to poorly paid inner-city teachers and day care workers who also serve their communities. The housing deduction is one of several tax breaks that leave extra money in the pockets of clergy members and their religious employers. Ministers of every faith are also exempt from income tax withholding and can opt out of Social Security. And every state but one exempts religious employers from paying state unemployment taxes — reducing the employers’ payroll expenses but also leaving their workers without unemployment benefits if they are laid off.
  32. 32. How Much Do You Know About the Impact of Religion on U.S. Education? True or False? • Virtually all sociologists have advocated the separation of moral teaching from academic subject matter.
  33. 33. False • While contemporary sociologists hold strong opinions on many subjects; most do not think that it is their role to advocate specific stances. • Early sociologists were less inclined to believe that they had to be ―value free.‖ – Durkheim advocated that education should have a moral component and that schools had a responsibility to teach a commitment to the common morality.
  34. 34. How Much Do You Know About the Impact of Religion on U.S. Education? True or False? • The number of children from religious backgrounds other than Christianity and Judaism has grown steadily in public schools over the past three decades.
  35. 35. True • Although about 86% of those age eighteen and over in the forty-eight contiguous states of the United States describe their religion as some Christian denomination, there has still been a significant increase in those who adhere either to no religion (7.5%) or who are Jewish, Muslim/Islamic, Unitarian–Universalist, Buddhist, or Hindu.
  36. 36. How Much Do You Know About the Impact of Religion on U.S. Education? True or False? • Debates over the content of textbooks focus only on elementary education because of the vulnerability of young children.
  37. 37. False • Attempts to remove textbooks occur at all levels of schooling. • A recent case involved the removal of Chaucer’s ―The Miller’s Tale‖ and Aristophanes’s Lysistrata from a high school curriculum.
  38. 38. Prayer in the Classroom • Should prayer be permitted in the classroom? • On the school grounds? • At school athletic events? • Given the diversity of beliefs that U.S. people hold, arguments and court cases over prayer and schools will continue in the future.
  39. 39. www.cc.org - •Barack Obama promised Planned Parenthood that he would sign the pro- abortion “Freedom of Choice Act” (FOCA) – a bill that would end virtually ALL restrictions on abortion and provide an unlimited right to tax-payer funded, abortion-on-demand. Click here and join our campaign to “Stop FOCA” by signing our petition today. The time for pro-life Americans to act is NOW! Roberta Combs, President
  40. 40. College Students and Religion • College students may turn to religion for answers to important questions for which there are no easy answers. • Rituals help individuals outwardly express their beliefs and provide a sense of cohesion and belonging.
  41. 41. Sidebar Navigation About Us Join Donate Commentary Newsletter Press Room News Campaigns Online Store RSS Feeds
  42. 42. Obama administration to greatly damage charitable giving Top military officers say: "Keep law banning homosexuals" Black S.C. Democrat blasts his party for it's anti- choice position on education Pro-Life Senators' Open Letter to Obama Where is the fiscal restraint? He doth protest too much More
  43. 43. Action Alert •Defend Conscience Protections for Healthcare Workers Support CCA $25 $50 $100 $500 Other amount
  44. 44. CONNECT WITH US: twitter
  45. 45. In Theatres Now - The Cross: The Arthur Blessitt Story Christian Coalition condemns Iowa judges for making law on homosexual "marriage“ Coalition Guest Commentary - Pro-Life Senators' Open Letter to Obama Coalition Guest Commentary - Where is the fiscal restraint?
  46. 46. Pastor Warren Cancels ABC Interview and Will Not Talk About Prop 8
  47. 47. Gingrich Says the Obama Adminstration is "Anti-Religious"
  48. 48. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search For other organizations with similar names, see Christian Coalition. The Christian Coalition of America, originally called the Christian Coalition, Inc., is a US Christian advocacy group, which includes Christian fundamentalists, evangelicals, neo- evangelicals and charismatics. It once wielded great power within the Republican Party but membership has declined drastically in recent years. It claims to have 1,200,000 members.
  49. 49. Brief history [edit] Beginnings with Pat Robertson and Ralph Reed Following a well-funded but failed bid for the U.S. presidency in 1988, religious broadcaster and political commentator Pat Robertson used the remains of his campaign machinery to jump- start the creation of a voter mobilization effort dubbed the Christian Coalition. Americans for Robertson accumulated a mailing list of several million conservative Christians interested in politics. This mailing list formed the foundation for the new organization. However, despite public announcements that excitement among evangelical and Christian right voters prompted the creation of the Christian Coalition, the incorporation records of the State of Virginia reveal that the Christian Coalition, Inc. was actually incorporated on April 30, 1987, with the paperwork filed earlier, and with planning having begun before that. Thus the Christian Coalition was actually planned long before Pat Robertson's run for President began. Robertson's candidacy appears to have been planned from the start for launching the Christian Coalition.
  50. 50. After its founding, it was granted a grace period to operate as a 501(c)(4) tax-exempt organization before the IRS made its final determination. Forty- nine state chapters were also created as independent corporations within their states, including the Christian Coalition of Texas. A handful, including the Christian Coalition of Texas successfully obtained non-profit status as a 501(c)(4) tax-exempt organization, while the national group's application remained pending and unresolved.
  51. 51. In 1990, the national Christian Coalition, Inc., headquartered in Chesapeake, Virginia, began producing "non-partisan" voter guides which it distributed to conservative Christian churches, with 40 million being distributed in the 1992 and 1996 presidential election years. Under the leadership of Reed and Robertson, the Coalition quickly became the most prominent voice in the conservative Christian movement, landing Reed on the cover of Time in May, 1994, its influence culminating with an effort to support the election of a conservative Christian to the presidency in 1996 or 2000. Complaints that the voter guides were actually partisan led to the denial of the Christian Coalition, Inc.'s tax-exempt status in 1999. The Christian Coalition, Inc. filed a lawsuit against the IRS after which the IRS backed down for most of the years in question, holding out only on 1992. However, instead of pursuing legal action, Pat Robertson renamed the Christian Coalition of Texas, Inc. as the Christian Coalition of America, Inc., since the Texas chapter already enjoyed tax exempt status, and transferred the trademark and all operations to the Texas-based corporation
  52. 52. In 1998, an advocacy group for religious freedom Americans United urged the IRS to review the Coalition’s partisan political activities over the decade in which its tax-exempt status was pending. The following year, the IRS revoked the Coalition’s provisional tax-exemption, in view of the Coalition's distribution of "voter guides" which had a partisan bias. The revocation cost the Coalition up to $300,000 in back taxes and penalties. Following this, the Coalition reorganized as the Christian Coalition of America, as an effort to regain its tax-exempt status.[3][6] Churches that once embraced the Christian Coalition have disassociated themselves for fear of losing their own tax- exempt status.[6] After its tax-exempt status was denied, CCA was able to turn all of its attention to politics. In 2000 the coalition moved from its long-standing base of operations in the Chesapeake Bay area to an office on Capitol Hill in Washington, D.C.
  53. 53. In 2005, the Coalition concluded a settlement agreement with the Internal Revenue Service, ending its long-running battle with that agency regarding its tax exempt status.[4] As a result, the IRS has now recognized the Coalition as a 501(c)(4) tax-exempt organization, the first time in the Agency's history that it has granted a letter of exemption to a group that stated in its application that it would distribute voter guides directly in churches. The consent decree enforces limitations on the terminology that may be used in the Coalition's "voter guides".[4]
  54. 54. Conflict Perspective • According to Karl Marx, religion is the "opiate of the people." • Max Weber argued that religion could be a catalyst to produce social change.
  55. 55. Symbolic Interactionist Perspective • Religion serves as a reference group to help people define themselves. • Women’s versions of a certain religion usually differ from men’s versions.
  56. 56. Question • According to the functionalist perspective, religion offers meaning for the human experience by: A. providing an explanation for events that create a profound sense of loss on both an individual and a group basis. B. offering people a reference group to help them define themselves. C. reinforcing existing social arrangements. D. encouraging secularization.
  57. 57. Answer: A • According to the functionalist perspective, religion offers meaning for the human experience by providing an explanation for events that create a profound sense of loss on both an individual and a group basis.
  58. 58. Question • In regard to religion, Max Weber asserted that: A. church and state should be separated. B. religion could be a catalyst to produce social change. C. religion retards social change. D. the religious teachings of the Catholic Church were directly related to the rise of capitalism.
  59. 59. Answer: B • In regard to religion, Max Weber asserted that religion could be a catalyst to produce social change.
  60. 60. Question • The Anglican Church in England and the Lutheran church in Sweden are examples of a(n): A. church B. sect. C. denomination. D. ecclesia.
  61. 61. Answer: D • The Anglican Church in England and the Lutheran church in Sweden are examples of a(n) ecclesia.
  62. 62. Religion and Tradition • These Jews at the Western Wall in Jerusalem—a wall that holds special significance for all Jews—express their faith in God and in the traditions of their ancestors.
  63. 63. Fundamentalism • A traditional religious doctrine that is conservative, is typically opposed to modernity, and rejects “worldly pleasures” in favor of otherworldly spirituality.
  64. 64. Hindusim • According to Marx and Weber, religion serves to reinforce social stratification in a society. • According to Hindu belief, a person’s social position in his or her current life is a result of behavior in a former life.
  65. 65. Buddhism • Worshippers at this Buddhist temple in Los Angeles celebrate the Thai New Year.
  66. 66. Confucianism • Confucianism is based on the ethical teachings formulated by Confucius, shown here in a portrait created by a Manchu prince in 1735.
  67. 67. Islam • The Muslim women shown here pray at a mosque courtyard in Bangladesh during the fasting month of Ramadan. • According to Muslim teaching, Ramadan marks God’s revelation of the Qur’ and to the Prophet Muhammad.
  68. 68. Christianity • Christians around the world have been drawn to cathedrals such as the Basilica of Sacré Coeur in Paris (built between 1875 and 1914) to worship God and celebrate their religious beliefs.
  69. 69. Original Locations of the World’s Major Religions
  70. 70. Characteristics of Churches and Sects Organization Membership Open to all; Large, bureaucratic members usually Church organization,led by from upper and professional clergy middle classes Small group,high Guarded Sect degree of lay membership, usually participation from lower classes
  71. 71. Characteristics of Churches and Sects Worship Salvation Church Formal, orderly Granted by God Informal, Achieved by moral Sect spontaneous purity
  72. 72. Characteristics of Churches and Sects Attitude Toward Other Religions Church Tolerant Sect Intolerant
  73. 73. Cult • This mass wedding ceremony brought widespread media attention to the Reverend Sun Myung Moon and the Unification Church, which many view as a cult.
  74. 74. Major U.S. Denominations That Self- identify As Christian Religious Body Members Churches Roman Catholic 67,260,000 19,431 Southern Baptist 16,440,000 42,972 Convention United Methodist 8,251,000 35,102 Church of God in Christ 5,500,000 15,300 Church of Jesus Christ 5,503,000 12,112 of Latter Day Saints
  75. 75. Major U.S. Denominations That Self- identify As Christian Religious Body Members Churches Evangelical Lutheran 4,985,500 10,657 Church in America National Baptist 5,000,000 9,000 Convention,USA National Baptist 3,500,000 N.A. Convention of America Presbyterian Church 3,241,000 11,064 (U.S.A.) Assemblies of God 2,730,000 12,222
  76. 76. U.S. Religious Bodies Membership Religious Body Members Protestants 91,500,000 Roman Catholics 63,683,000 Muslims 6,000,000 Jews 5,602,000 Orthodox Christians 5,631,000 Buddhists 1,864,000 Hindus 795,000
  77. 77. Churches in Low Income Areas • Churches in converted buildings such as this seek to win new religious followers and to offer solace and hope to people in low-income areas.
  78. 78. Quick Quiz
  79. 79. 1. According to Sociologists, religion attempts to: A. bridge the gap between the known and the unknown. B. have a personal relationship with God. C. all of the choices. D. save every soul.
  80. 80. Answer: A • According to Sociologists, religion attempts to bridge the gap between the known and the unknown.
  81. 81. 2. Who said "religion is the opiate of the masses?” A. Emile Durkheim B. Karl Marx C. Max Weber D. Talcott Parsons
  82. 82. Answer: B • Karl Marx said "religion is the opiate of the masses?”
  83. 83. 3. A relatively small religious group that has broken away from another religious organization to renew what it views as the original version of the faith is referred to as: A. an ecclesia B. Catholicism C. a sect D. a denomination
  84. 84. Answer: C • A relatively small religious group that has broken away from another religious organization to renew what it views as the original version of the faith is referred to as a sect.
  85. 85. 4. Unquestioning belief that does not require proof or scientific evidence is: A. sacred B. profane C. taboo D. faith
  86. 86. Answer: D 4. Unquestioning belief that does not require proof or scientific evidence is faith.

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