This paper considers on aspect of the deficit faced by the U. S. economy. It considers the contribution to this deficit made by the taxpayers that do not fully report taxable income and/or do not pay taxes on their income. The gap between what is owed in tax and the amount of tax actually paid is estimated at $310 billion. The study reported in this paper attempted to measure the perceptions of US citizens as to the seriousness of tax evasions relative to other crimes and violations. The results show that tax evasion ranked 11th among the twenty-one offences surveyed. This means that the average person views tax evasion as only somewhat serious. Compared to other white collar crimes it ranked below accounting fraud, violation of child labour laws and insider trading, and equal to welfare fraud and higher than violation of minimum wage laws.
As can be seen from Table 4, with two exceptions (shoplifting and bike theft), crimes involving victims were perceived as more severe than crimes without victims. The two exceptions are likely due to the perceived low nominal dollar value involved in the theft. In effect, its wrongfulness is high but its harmfulness is minimal. When you compare perceived severity of violations, every victim violation is rated significantly higher than a victimless violation.
Today the U. S. economy faces the largest deficit in its history. There are many factors that contribute to this problem. One of those factors is the vast number of taxpayers that do not fully report taxable income and/or do not pay taxes on their income. The difference between the amount of tax that is theoretically owed versus the amount of tax actually paid is called the ‘tax gap’. The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) estimated that the tax gap was $95 billion in 1992 and $275 billion in 1998 (IRS, 1996, 2002). More recently, the National Taxpayer Advocate, Nina Olson suggested that the single largest part of the estimated $310 billion tax gap is attributable to self-employed non-compliance (Tax Notes, 2004).
Between 1991 and 2007, enforcement of federal immigration laws became a growing priority in response to undocumented immigration.1 By 2007, immigration offenses represented nearly one-quarter (24%) of all federal convictions, up from just 7% in 1991. Among those sentenced for immigration offenses in 2007, 80% were Hispanic. This heightened focus on immigration enforcement has also changed the citizenship profile of federal offenders. In 2007, Latinos without U.S. citizenship represented 29% of all federal offenders. Among all Latino offenders, some 72% were not U.S. citizens, up from 61% in 1991. By contrast, a much smaller share of white offenders (8%) and black offenders (6%) who were sentenced in federal courts
Deviance, Class 8, Part Ii
Deviance and Crime
Chapter Outline <ul><li>What Is Deviance? </li></ul><ul><li>Functionalist Perspectives on Deviance </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict Perspectives on Deviance </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolic Interactionist Perspectives on Deviance </li></ul><ul><li>Postmodernist Perspectives on Deviance </li></ul>
Chapter Outline <ul><li>Crime Classifications and Statistics </li></ul><ul><li>The Criminal Justice System </li></ul><ul><li>Deviance and Crime in the U.S. in the Future </li></ul><ul><li>The Global Criminal Economy </li></ul>
Deviance <ul><li>Any behavior, belief, or condition that violates social norms in the society or group in which it occurs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>drinking too much </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>robbing a bank </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>laughing at a funeral </li></ul></ul>
Criminal Justice System <ul><li>More than 55,000 local, state, and federal agencies that enforce laws, adjudicate crimes, and treat and rehabilitate criminals. </li></ul><ul><li>Employs more than 2 million people in 17,000 police agencies, nearly 17,000 courts, more than 8,000 prosecutorial agencies, about 6,000 correctional institutions, and more than 3,500 probation and parole departments. </li></ul>
Crime and Delinquency <ul><li>A crime is a behavior that violates criminal law and is punishable with fines, jail terms, and/or other negative sanctions. </li></ul><ul><li>Juvenile delinquency , refers to a violation of law or the commission of a status offense by young people. </li></ul>
Deviance is Relative <ul><li>An act becomes deviant when it is socially defined as such. </li></ul><ul><li>Definitions of deviance vary widely from place to place, from time to time, and from group to group. </li></ul><ul><li>Deviant behavior ranges from mild transgressions of folkways, to serious infringements of mores, to very violations of the law. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The Nature of Deviance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Every society has countless norms governing behavior; occasional violations are unavoidable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes from society to society and in different situations (divorce; killing; Sundays; prostitution) </li></ul></ul>
Question What theories have been proposed to explain deviance?
Perspective Theory Questions Functionalist How do individuals respond to culturally approved goals and the legitimate means of achieving them? (conformity, innovation, ritualism, retreatism, rebellion) Strain Conflict What is the result of competition and social inequality? (deviance) Who decides what is deviant? (ruling classes) Conflict Interactionist Why do people conform to norms? (strength of social ties determines conformity) Control How do people learn conformity or deviance? (through socialization, or interaction with others) Where does this learning mainly occur? (primary groups) Cultural Transmission How do people become identified as deviant? (through secondary deviance, or being detected as deviant) Labeling
<ul><li>Modes of Adaptation (Merton)- culturally accepted goals and means of achieving them </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conformity - accept goals and means of achieving them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Innovation - accept goals NOT means of achieving them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ritualism - reject the goals accept means of achieving them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retreatism - reject both (withdraw from society) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rebellion - reject and replace both goals and means of achieving them </li></ul></ul>Section 1: Deviance
Merton’s Strain Theory <ul><li>The Scary Guy (now his legal name) is covered from head to foot with tattoos. Which of Merton’s modes of adaptation might best explain The Scary Guy’s views on social life? </li></ul>
Postmodern Perspective Theory Key Element Knowledge is power Power, knowledge, and social control are intertwined. Example : In prisons, methods of surveillance make prisoners think they are being watched all the time, giving officials a form of power over the inmates.
Criminology <ul><li>The study of crime and the criminal justice system, including police, courts, and prisons. </li></ul>
How the Law Classifies Crime <ul><li>Crimes are divided into felonies and misdemeanors . </li></ul><ul><li>A felony is a serious crime such as rape, homicide, or aggravated assault, for which punishment ranges from more than a year’s imprisonment to death. </li></ul><ul><li>A misdemeanor is a minor crime that is typically punished by less than one year in jail. </li></ul>
How Sociologists Classify Crime <ul><li>Conventional (street) crime </li></ul><ul><li>Occupational (white-collar) and corporate crime </li></ul><ul><li>Organized crime </li></ul><ul><li>Political crime </li></ul>
QUESTION <ul><li>Which of the behaviors below is referred to as a morals (AKA Victimless) crime? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>illegal gambling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>illegal drugs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>prostitution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>all of these choices </li></ul></ul></ul>
Answer D <ul><li>The following behaviors are referred to as a morals crime: illegal gambling , illegal drugs and prostitution . </li></ul><ul><li>Issue: Are there victims associated with these crimes? </li></ul>
Violent Crime — includes murder, robbery; most victims are African Americans Crime Against Property — includes burglary, larceny, vehicle theft; more common than violent crimes Victimless Crime — includes prostitution, gambling, illegal drug use; offender is the only victim
White Collar Crime — committed by high-status individuals in the course of their professions; includes fraud, tax evasion, embezzlement Organized Crime — the pursuit of crime by a large-scale organization as a big business
TABLE 4: RELATIVE SEVERITY OF VICTIM/VICTIMLESS OFFENCES Crime/Victim Crime/Victimless Murder 5.0 DWI 3.9 Rape 4.9 Welfare Fraud 3.3 Child Molestation 4.8 Tax Evasion 3.3 Robbery 4.0 Prostitution 2.8 Carjacking 3.8 Smoking Marijuana 2.3 Accounting Fraud 3.7 Shoplifting 2.8 Bike Theft 2.3 Violation/Victim Violation/Victimless Child Labour Law 3.8 Running a Red Light 2.6 Minimum Wage 3.3 Speeding 2.1 Insider Trading 3.3 Ticket Scalping 1.8 Illegal Parking 1.5 Jay Walking 1.3
CONCLUSION It is important to understand why people do not report taxable income and/or pay their income taxes. Prior research indicates that one reason may be that they do not perceive tax evasion to be a serious crime. This study surveyed 364 peopleto see how serious they perceived tax evasion to be. They found that in a list of twenty-one crimes, tax evasion was ranked 11th and rated only as somewhat serious. They also found that tax evasion was considered to be less serious than the white collar crimes of accounting fraud and violation of child labour laws. They also confirmed that offences involving victims are perceived as more serious than victimless crimes. This would lead to the tax policy concept that if the tax evasion crime could be personalized more, then the perception of its severity might be increased with a concomitant higher tax compliance rate.
http://bjsdata.ojp.usdoj.gov/dataonline/Search/Crime/State/statebystaterun.cfm?stateid=52 BJS Home Page Data for Analysis Data Online Crime Trends State Level State-by-State Results from State-level crime trends database in Data Online Query date: March 23, 2009
The Coming Crime Wave By INVESTOR'S BUSINESS DAILY | Posted Monday, January 12, 2009 4:20 PM PT Law And Order: It was the one issue left undebated during a campaign full of debates. But crime, along with the economy,may be one of the biggest issues this new administration faces.
In fact, the two issues may be connected. The FBI is already blaming the bad economy for a rash of armed bank robberies around the country. And bandits, quiet for years, have become more brazen. In the Los Angeles area, which has seen a spike in robberies, they've pistol-whipped tellers. In North Carolina, Maryland and Kentucky, armed robbers have even kidnapped bank workers and their kids and forced the employees to help in heists. The FBI is also seeing a trend of entire ATMs being swiped.
Solving bank robberies is what the FBI does best. But it's preoccupied with a politically motivated witch hunt against "predatory" bankers — not robbers — right now. That has to change.In another sign of the times, shoplifting is on the rise, with some major retailers reporting a record 20% surge in store theft. Violence is also escalating, breaking out even at Chuck E. Cheese's, a popular restaurant for celebrating kids' birthdays. Adult brawls have been reported at sites in Pennsylvania, Wisconsin,Kansas, Ohio and Michigan. In New York, in the first such killing in more than 25 years, a bus driver was stabbed to death by a passenger who refused to pay his fare.
In fact, President-elect Obama's hometown is the new murder capital of the U.S., surpassing New York with close to 500 homicides last year. Many of the murders are taking place on the city's South Side, mirroring a trend across the nation's inner cities. Black teen murders have exploded at twice the rate of increase among white teens. Crime experts cite a spreading gangster prison culture.
Most crime is a state and local issue, but federal policies have an impact. Take public housing for the poor. In Antioch, Calif., poor families receiving federal rental assistance have been moving in, partly because of the housing crisis. As a result, violent crime has shot up 20% in the San Francisco suburb. The new arrivals, most of whom don't work, brought pit bulls, blaring car radios, prostitution, drug dealing and muggings of school kids with them, the Associated Press reports. Antioch, like many cities across the country, was hit hard by foreclosures, and landlords sought a guaranteed source of income. So they began offering their homes to low-income tenants in the HUD Section 8 housing program, which pays most of their rent via vouchers. Unfortunately, the incoming HUD secretary is a big fan of such rent subsidies. Shaun Donovan, a former Clinton housing official, wants to dramatically expand funding for the Section 8 program — while easing eligibility rules. His goal is to de-concentrate inner-city poverty. He may just end up shifting crime to the suburbs. According to AP, Antioch police "discovered that a large number of the troublemakers were receiving federal subsidies." Obama may have to deal with a crime wave the likes of which we haven't seen in decades.
Section 2: Crime AMERICAN CRIMINAL-JUSTICE SYSTEM Police Have the most control over who is arrested for crimes Courts Determine the accused’s guilt or innocence in a court trial and then assign a punishment Corrections Sanctions used to punish those found guilty of crimes Juvenile-Justice System Applies to offenders younger than 18
Age-Specific Arrest Rates and Race-Specific Arrest Rates for Selected Offenses, 1993-2001 Uniform Crime Reporting Program Federal Bureau of Investigation November 2003 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE STUDY http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/adducr/age_race_specific.pdf
How Much Do You Know About Peer Cliques, Youth Gangs,and Deviance? <ul><li>True or False? </li></ul><ul><li>Persons aged 15 to 24 account for more than half of all arrests for property crimes such as burglary, larceny, arson, and vandalism. </li></ul>
True <ul><li>This age group accounts for about 54% of all arrests for property crimes, the most common crimes committed in the United States. </li></ul>
Homicide Victimization by Race <ul><li>In 2005, homicide victimization rates for blacks were 6 times higher than the rates for whites </li></ul>
Homicide offending by race <ul><li>For the years 1976-2005 combined - </li></ul><ul><li>Black victims are over represented in homicides involving drugs. Compared with the overall involvement of blacks as victims, blacks are less often the victims of sex-related homicides, workplace killings, and homicide by poison. </li></ul><ul><li>Race patterns among offenders are similar to those among victims. </li></ul>
The Pew Hispanic Center is a nonpartisan research organization that seeks to improve public understanding of the diverse Hispanic population in the United States and to chronicle Latinos' growing impact on the nation. It does not take positions on policy issues. The center is part of the Pew Research Center, a nonpartisan "fact tank" based in Washington, D.C., and it is funded by The Pew Charitable Trusts, a Philadelphia-based public charity. All of the Center’s reports are available at www.pewhispanic.org. The staff of the Center is: Paul Taylor, Director Rakesh Kochhar, Associate Director for Research Mark Hugo Lopez, Associate Director Richard Fry, Senior Research Associate Jeffrey S. Passel, Senior Demographer Gretchen Livingston, Senior Researcher Ana Gonzalez-Barrera, Senior Analyst Daniel Dockterman, Research Assistant Mary Seaborn, Administrative Manager
Sharp growth in illegal immigration and increased enforcement of immigration laws have dramatically altered the ethnic composition of offenders sentenced in federal courts. In 2007, Latinos accounted for 40% of all sentenced federal offenders—more than triple their share (13%) of the total U.S. adult population. The share of all sentenced offenders who were Latino in 2007 was up from 24% in 1991, according to an analysis of data from the United States Sentencing Commission (USSC) by the Pew Hispanic Center, a project of the Pew Research Center.
In 1991, three times as many Hispanics were sentenced in federal courts for drug crimes (60%) as for immigration crimes (20%). By 2007, that pattern had reversed; among Hispanic offenders sentenced in federal courts, 48% were sentenced for an immigration offense and 37% for a drug offense.
<ul><li>The use of personal judgment by police officers, prosecutors, judges, and other criminal justice system officials regarding how to proceed in a given situation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example : The police have the power to selectively enforce the law and have been accused of being too harsh or too lenient on alleged offenders. </li></ul></ul>
Race-related crime statistics released 11 July 2006 The government released figures today on race and criminal justice, and vowed to continue working to tackle race crime and racism in the justice system. Figures for 2005 released by the government today showed that members of black and minority ethnic (BME) groups were more likely to be arrested, or stopped and searched, than white people. The total number of stop and searches conducted by police increased by 14% in 2005, with terrorism-related searches increasing by 9%. Black people were six times more likely to be stopped and searched by police than white people and there were nearly twice as many searches of Asian people than white people. The statistics also showed that racist incidents recorded by the police had increased by 7% in 2005. Black and minority ethnic groups are, however, becoming better represented as employees in the criminal justice agencies, but the police service remains the agency with the poorest representation of BME groups – 3.5% of police officers were from BME groups (as at March 2005), compared with 4.4% for prison officers and 10.9% for probation staff. http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/about-us/news/race-related-crime-stats
Social Control <ul><li>Practices that social groups develop to encourage conformity to norms, rules, and laws and to discourage deviance. </li></ul><ul><li>Internal social control - when individuals internalize and follow norms and values. </li></ul><ul><li>External social control - negative sanctions that proscribe certain behaviors and punish rule breakers. </li></ul>
External Social Control <ul><li>Negative sanctions by police and other law enforcement officials encourage conformity to laws and discourage deviant behavior. How does this differ from internal social control? </li></ul>
Punishment and Corrections <ul><li>Punishment is any action designed to deprive a person of things of value because of some offense the person is thought to have committed. </li></ul>
Functions of Punishment <ul><li>Retribution - the punishment should fit the crime. </li></ul><ul><li>Social protection - restrict offenders so they can’t commit further crimes. </li></ul>
Functions of Punishment <ul><li>Rehabilitation - return offenders to the community as law-abiding citizens. </li></ul><ul><li>Deterrence - reduce criminal activity through a fear of punishment. </li></ul>
Boot Camps <ul><li>Military-style boot camps are an alternative to prison for nonviolent offenders under age 30. Critics argue that structural solutions—not measures such as these camps—are needed to reduce crime. </li></ul>
The Death Penalty <ul><li>The death penalty has been used in the United States as a response to very serious crimes. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2006, 53 inmates were executed and more than 3,300 people awaited execution. </li></ul><ul><li>The largest percentage of those on death row are in southern states, including Alabama, Florida, North Carolina, Oklahoma, and Texas. </li></ul>
Four Types of Political Deviance <ul><li>Secrecy and deception designed to manipulate public opinion. </li></ul><ul><li>Abuse of power. </li></ul><ul><li>Prosecution of individuals due to their political activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Official violence, such as police brutality against people of color or the use of citizens as unwilling guinea pigs in scientific research. </li></ul>
Global crime <ul><li>The 1994 United Nations Conference on Global Organized Crime estimated that about $500 billion per year is accrued in the global trade in drugs alone. </li></ul><ul><li>Today, profits from all kinds of global criminal activities are estimated to range from $750 billion to more than $1.5 trillion a year. </li></ul>
Global Crime <ul><li>Reducing global crime will require a global response, including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperation of law enforcement agencies, prosecutors, and intelligence services across geopolitical boundaries. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulation by the international community to control international money laundering and trafficking in people and controlled substances such as drugs and weapons. </li></ul></ul>