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Model-driven Round-trip Engineering of REST APIs

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Discovering, composing, testing and modeling web APIs , especially OpenAPI, REST and OData ones

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Model-driven Round-trip Engineering of REST APIs

  1. 1. Model-driven Round-trip Engineering of REST APIs Hamza Ed-douibi May 13, 2019 Supervised by : Jordi Cabot and Javier Luis Cánovas Izquierdo
  2. 2. 1 AGENDA 3 4 5 MOTIVATION APPROACH CONTRIBUTIONS SUMMARY & FUTURE WORK 2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
  3. 3. MOTIVATION
  4. 4. REST Representational state transfer (REST) ProgrammableWeb: more than 21 000 APIs
  5. 5. 5 Motivation
  6. 6. 6 Motivation Not easy to understand Hard to maintain No automatization
  7. 7. 7 REST APIs D e s c r ip t i o n f o r m a t s / p r o t o c o l s OData
  8. 8. …consortium of forward-looking industry experts who recognize the immense value of standardizing on how REST APIs are described… …is focused on creating, evolving and promoting a vendor neutral description format… https://www.openapis.org
  9. 9. 9 OpenAPI E x a m p l e http://petstore.swagger.io/v2/pet/123GET "info": { "description": "This is … ", "version" : "1.0.0", "title": “…", "contact": {…},… } Metadata { "swagger": "2.0", "info": { "version": "1.0.0", "title": "Swagger Petstore", "license": { "name": "MIT" } }, "host": "petstore.swagger.io", "basePath": "/v1", "schemes": [ "http" ], "consumes": [ "application/json" ], "produces": [ "application/json" ], "paths": { "/pets": { "get": { "summary": "List all pets", "operationId": "listPets", "tags": [ "pets" ], "parameters": [ { "name": "limit", "in": "query", "description": "How many items to return at one time (max 100)", "required": false, "type": "integer", "format": "int32" } ], "responses": { "200": { "description": "An paged array of pets", "headers": { "x-next": { "type": "string", "description": "A link to the next page of responses" } }, "schema": { "$ref": "#/definitions/Pets" } }, "default": { "description": "unexpected error", "schema": { "$ref": "#/definitions/Error" } } } }, OpenAPI definition "paths":{ "/pet/{petId}":{ "get":{ "parameters":[ { "name":"petId", "in":"path",... } ], "responses":{ "200":..., },... },... }, Operations "definitions":{ "Pet":{ "type":"object", "properties":{ "id":..., "category":..., "name":..., ... } } Schema { "id": 123, "category": { "id": 1, "name": "dogs" }, "name": "doggie", "photoUrls": [ "http://example.com" ], "tags": [ { "id": 1, "name": "black" } ], "status": "available" }
  10. 10. 10 OpenAPI A d v a n t a g e s Generate code Generate documentation Swagger UISwagger Codegen Holistic view of functionality Automatization
  11. 11. PROBLEM STATEMENT
  12. 12. 12 Problem statement Composition Awesome!….but Many resources without APIs Many APIs without OpenAPI definitions Testing REST APIs is hard Limited support for generating REST APIs Limited composition approaches NO APIfication Discovery Testing Generation Composition
  13. 13. APPROACH
  14. 14. 14 Approach uses
  15. 15. 15 Model-driven Engineering M D E - b a s e d s o f t w a r e d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s Original model … CODE Software code1 refinementst n refinementth Model-to-model Transformation Model-to-text Transformation CODE CODE
  16. 16. 16 Approach uses
  17. 17. 17 OpenAPI T h e O p e n A P I m e t a m o d e l
  18. 18. 18 OpenAPI T h e O p e n A P I p r o f i l e
  19. 19. CONTRIBUTIONS
  20. 20. APIDiscoverer Example-driven discovery of Web API specifications
  21. 21. 21 APIDiscoverer
  22. 22. 22 APIDiscoverer M o t i v a t i o n Machine-readable description (barely) Human-readable descriptions
  23. 23. 23 APIDiscoverer A p p r o a c h APIDiscoverer Discovery & Enrichment Generation OpenAPI model Example 1 call 1 response 1 Example provision Example 2 call 2 response 2 Example provision Example n call n response n Example provision OpenAPI definition
  24. 24. 24 APIDiscoverer G e n e r a l v i e w o f t h e a p p r o a c h OpenAPI definition Structural Discoverer Behavioral Discoverer OpenAPI metamodel OpenAPI model UML modelJSONDiscoverer UML2Schema Conforms to OpenAPI generator Example Provision Discovery Generator API call examples { "request": { "method" : "POST" , "url" : "http://petstore... ", "body" : { ... } }, "response" : { "status" : 200, "body" : { ... } } } { "request": { "method" : "GET" , "url" : "http://petstore... ", "body" : { ... } }, "response" : { "status" : 200, "body" : { ... } } } { "request": { "method" : "GET" , "url" : "http://petstore... ", "body" : { ... } }, "response" : { "status" : 200, "body" : { ... } } }
  25. 25. 25 APIDiscoverer D i s c o v e r y OpenAPI definition Structural Discoverer Behavioral Discoverer OpenAPI metamodel OpenAPI model UML modelJSONDiscoverer UML2Schema Conforms to OpenAPI generator Example Provision Discovery Generator API call examples
  26. 26. 26 APIDiscoverer D i s c o v e r y & E n r i c h m e n t Behavioral Discoverer Source Target host basepath protocol API relativePath Path httpMethod request-body response-body Operation Query relative-Path request-Body Parameter response-Code Response request-body response-body Schema http://petstore.swagger.io/v2/pet/123GET { "id": 123, "category": { "id": 1, "name": "dogs" }, "name": "doggie", "photoUrls": [ "http://example.com" ], "tags": [ { "id": 1, "name": "black" } ], "status": "available" }
  27. 27. 27 APIDiscoverer D i s c o v e r y & E n r i c h m e n t Structural Discoverer JSONDiscoverer Behavioral Discoverer Source Target host basepath protocol API relativePath Path httpMethod request-body response-body Operation Query relative-Path request-Body Parameter response-Code Response request-body response-body Schema { "id": 123, "category": { "id": 1, "name": "dogs" }, "name": "doggie", "photoUrls": [ "http://example.com" ], "tags": [ { "id": 1, "name": "black" } ], "status": "available" }
  28. 28. 28 APIDiscoverer D i s c o v e r y & E n r i c h m e n t
  29. 29. 29 APIDiscoverer O p e n A P I g e n e r a t o r OpenAPI definition Structural Discoverer Behavioral Discoverer OpenAPI metamodel OpenAPI model UML modelJSONDiscoverer UML2Schema Conforms to OpenAPI generator Example Provision APIDiscoverer Generator API call exxamples {"swagger":"2.0", "info":{ }, "host":"petstore.swagger.io","basePath":"/v2", "tags":[ "pet" ],"Schemes":[ "http" ], "paths":{ "/pet/{petId}":{ "get":{ "produces":["application/json"], "parameters":[{"name":"petId","in":"path","type":"integer"}], "responses":{ "200":{ "description":"OK", "schema":{"$ref":"#/definitions/Pet" }}}} }}, "definitions":{ "Pet":{ "type":"object", "properties":{ "id":{"type":"integer"}, "category":{"$ref":"#/definitions/Category"}, "name":{"type":"string"}, "photoUrls":{"type":"array","items":{"type":"string"}}, "tags":{"type":"array","items":{"$ref":"#/definitions/Tag"}}, "Status":{"type":"string"}}, }}}
  30. 30. 30 APIDiscoverer T o o l s u p p o r t
  31. 31. 31 Discover other aspects: non-functional properties, semantic definitions, security mechanisms Discovery extensions Textual analysis of API documentation websites to infer call examples Generation of call examples Support OpenAPI 3OpenAPI 3 APIDiscoverer F u t u r e w o r k
  32. 32. APITester Specification-based generation of test cases for REST APIs John Greim—Getty Images
  33. 33. 33 APITester
  34. 34. 34 APITester M o t i v a t i o n
  35. 35. 35 APITester M o t i v a t i o n Leveraging OpenAPI for testing • High coverage level • Parameter input generation Limited coverage level Limited parameter input generation
  36. 36. 36 APITester A p p r o a c h OpenAPI definition OpenAPI metamodel TestSuite metamodel Testing preparation Model Extraction Model trans. Code Gen. CODE CODE Java Junit tests
  37. 37. 37 APITester A p p r o a c h OpenAPI definition OpenAPI metamodel TestSuite metamodel Testing preparation Model Extraction Model trans. Code Gen. CODE CODE Java • Simple parameter (examples, default values, enums) • Dummy parameter • Complex parameter (response of an operation) Inference rules Junit tests
  38. 38. 38 APITester A p p r o a c h
  39. 39. 39 APITester A p p r o a c h OpenAPI definition OpenAPI metamodel TestSuite metamodel Testing preparation Model Extraction Model trans. Code Gen. CODE CODE Java Junit tests
  40. 40. 40 APITester T e s t S u it e m e t a m o d e l
  41. 41. 41 APITester A p p r o a c h OpenAPI definition OpenAPI metamodel TestSuite metamodel Testing preparation Model Extraction Model trans. Code Gen. CODE CODE Java Junit tests
  42. 42. 42 APITester A p p r o a c h GR 1. Nominal test case GR 2. Faulty test case
  43. 43. 43 APITester A p p r o a c h GR 1. Nominal test case GR 2. Faulty test case
  44. 44. 44 APITester A p p r o a c h OpenAPI definition OpenAPI metamodel TestSuite metamodel Model Extraction Model Extraction Model trans. Code Gen. CODE CODE Java Junit tests
  45. 45. 45 APITester A p p r o a c h
  46. 46. 46 Increase coverage levels by improving our parameter inference technique Coverage Support OpenAPI 3 Integration testing APITester F u t u r e w o r k
  47. 47. APIComposer Model-based composition of REST APIs John Greim—Getty Images
  48. 48. 48 APIComposer
  49. 49. 49 APIComposer OData request OData response End-users OpenAPI OData
  50. 50. 50 OData OData is a standardized protocol for creating and consuming data APIs Resources are defined in a data model D a t a m o d e l URIs to identify resources and query data Q u e r y JSON and XML/Atom to de/serialize data S e r i a l i z a t i o n OData
  51. 51. 51 APIComposer P r o c e s s
  52. 52. GET http://restcountries/alpha/ES GET Battuta.medunes.net/region/ES/all {"@odata.context":"$metadata#Country", "name": "Spain", "code": "ES", "population": 46538422,.... "regions":[ {"name": "Andalucia"}, {"name": "Aragon"}, {"name":"Canary Islands"},,...] } "name": "Spain", "code": "ES", "population": 46538422,.... {"name": "Andalucia"}, {"name": "Aragon"}, {"name":"Canary Islands"},...]
  53. 53. 53 Extend the matching strategy: Semantic, Non-functional properties Matching strategy Support data modification operations Data modification Support other formats: GraphQL, OpenAPI 3Other formats APIComposer F u t u r e w o r k
  54. 54. 54 Side effects O p e n A P It o U M L Visualization of OpenAPI definitions as UML Class diagrams Better visualization and understanding of the data model and operations of a REST API. Easier integration of REST APIs in all kinds of model-based processes.
  55. 55. 55 Side effects O p e n A P It o U M L
  56. 56. SUMMARY & FUTURE WORK
  57. 57. 57 Summary
  58. 58. 58 Publications ICWE 2018 OData profile ICWE 2017 SAC 2016 ECFMA 2017 RCIS 2018 ESOCC 2018 EDOC 2018 International conferences (full research papers) 4 International conferences (short and demo papers) 3 National conferences 1
  59. 59. 59 A case study to validate the contributions of the thesis in a single industrial scenario All-in-One Smart cities are a potential direction to apply to the work presented in this thesis Smart cities Extend our work to support non-functional requirements Non-functional requirements Extend our work to support GraphQLGraphQL Future work
  60. 60. Thank you! Model-driven Round-trip Engineering of REST APIs Hamza Ed-douibi Supervised by : Jordi Cabot and Javier Luis Cánovas Izquierdo

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