Pitts Library Digitization Initiatives


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Powerpoint presentation from a preconference workshop given at the 2009 ATLA Annual Conference in St Louis, June 17, 2009.

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  • In preparing for digitization, projects must develop a good knowledge of the collections to be digitized and the uses to be made of the digital resources created. Projects should be aware of large-scale digitization initiatives and methods for cost reduction such as outsourcing, automating digitization and metadata creation, streamlining workflow, continuous improvement and quality assurance. Projects should be aware of the NISO/IMLS Framework of Guidance for Building Good Digital Collections <http://www.niso.org/publications/rp/framework3.pdf> Available 2008-09-01.(http://www.minervaeurope.org/publications/MINERVA%20TG%202.0.pdf), page 23
  • Pitts Library Digitization Initiatives

    1. 1. Planning and Managing the Digitization of Library and Archives Materials<br />A Multi-model<br /> Approach<br />Facilitators:<br />Kim Abrams<br />Pat Graham<br />John Weaver<br />
    2. 2. Objectives<br />This workshop will enable you to<br />Identify different models and methods for digitizing library and archival materials<br />Identify the relative advantages and disadvantages of these models<br />Define and evaluate a potential digitization project at your library<br />• Identify key considerations in planning and funding a digitization project<br />Identify and develop management and production processes for different types of digitization projects.<br />Discover additional, relevant resources for planning and managing digitization projects<br />
    3. 3. Topics<br />I. Overview of Projects at Pitts<br />II. Strategic Decision Making<br />III. Guidelines and Applications<br />
    4. 4. Part 1: Overview of Digital Projects at Pitts Theology Library <br />
    5. 5. 1.1. The Digital Image Archive<br />Overview:<br />
    6. 6. http://www.pitts.emory.edu/dia/woodcuts.htm<br />
    7. 7.
    8. 8.
    9. 9. 1.2. DigiBooks: Scans of Embrittled, pre-1923 Circulating Collection<br />Overview:<br />
    10. 10.
    11. 11.
    12. 12. 1.3. SCILLA(SPECIAL Collections ILL Access)<br />Overview:<br />
    13. 13.
    14. 14. 1.4. KIRTAS Mass Digitization Project @ Emory<br />Overview:<br />
    15. 15. Kirtas Technologies Inc.<br /> To increase accessibility to aging materials, and ensure their preservation, Emory purchased a Kirtas robotic book scanner, which can digitize as many as 50 books per day, transforming the pages from each volume into an Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) file. <br />
    16. 16.
    17. 17. Volumes Scanned in FY 2008<br />
    18. 18.
    19. 19. Amazon BookSurge<br />BookSurge is an Amazon Group and is a leader in Print on Demand services<br />BookSurge is a partner with Kirtas to make rare books available through different venues<br />
    20. 20.
    21. 21. Reflections for Discussion:<br />These examples are illustrative of digital collections at Pitts, see also:<br />Thomas Merton Red Diary http://beck.library.emory.edu/merton/index<br />Thanksgiving Day Sermons<br />http://www.library.emory.edu/uhtbin/KW/Joint%20CDRI%20project<br />These projects illustrate both good practices, and not-so-good practices. <br />These examples invite comparison to past/current digitization projects at your library.<br />
    22. 22. Part 2: Strategic Decision Making<br />
    23. 23. 2.1. Selecting Materials for Digitization<br />Decision Making:<br />“Collections Principle 1: A good digital collection is created according to an explicit collection development policy that has been agreed upon and documented before building the collection begins.”<br /> -- NISO, A Framework of Guidance for Building Good Digital Collections, (2007). http://framework.niso.org/node/9.<br />
    24. 24. NISO/IMLS Framework of Guidance for Building Good Digital Collections <br />9 Collection Principles<br />
    25. 25. What should we digitize? And why?<br />http://www.flickr.com/photos/87581328@N00/115858002/<br />
    26. 26. Criteria for Selection <br />Rebecca L. Mugridge, Managing Digitization Activities. ARL Spec Kit 294. (Washington D.C.: ARL, 2006), 48.<br />
    27. 27. Rebecca L. Mugridge, Managing Digitization Activities. ARL Spec Kit 294. (Washington D.C.: ARL, 2006), 48.<br />
    28. 28. Library of Congress Selection Criteria http://www.loc.gov/preserv/prd/presdig/presselection.html<br />Harvard Decision Making Matrix<br />http://www.clir.org/pubs/reports/hazen/matrix.html<br />
    29. 29. Workshop Exercise:<br />Describe at least one potential digitization project in your library and score it/them (see handout: “Scorecard for ranking”)<br />
    30. 30. NISO/IMLS Framework of Guidance for Building Good Digital Collections <br />9 Collection Principles<br />
    31. 31. 2.2. Example: Selecting Materials for Kirtas<br />
    32. 32. Content Requirements<br />Directly supports faculty and student teaching and research<br />Provides materials for funded library or faculty digital projects and programs<br />Adds to Emory collections through acquisition of digital copies of materials held by other repositories<br />Creates preservation copies of significant works that would be damaged through continued research use<br />
    33. 33. Copyright Requirements<br />All works must be in the public domain which includes:<br />Works published in the U.S. before 1923<br />Works published in countries other than the U.S. before 1909<br />U.S. government documents not containing materials otherwise under copyright<br />The proposal will also be reviewed if Emory owns the copyright, or has obtained the appropriate licenses.<br />
    34. 34. Size Qualifications<br />For the Kirtas machine all items must pass the following physical qualifications<br />Page Dimension: 4.5” x 7”-11”-14”<br />Paper Thickness: 13 lbs.-80 lbs. <br />Binding Thickness: Up to 4”<br />
    35. 35. Condition Assessment<br />Items may be deselected for the following condition reasons:<br />Brittle<br />More than a few pages are falling-out<br />Pages are uncut<br />Cover is detached from the text block<br />Binding is mutilated<br />Binding is oversewn<br />
    36. 36. Part 3: Digitizing Collections<br />
    37. 37. 3.1. Project Planning and Funding<br />Digitizing Collections<br />
    38. 38. What was the source of the funds for digitization activities? <br />Source: Rebecca L. Mugridge, Managing Digitization Activities. ARL Spec Kit 294. (Washington D.C.: ARL, 2006), 40. Cf. Primary Research Group. International Survey of Library & Museum Digitization Projects. New York: Primary Research Group, 2008.  <br />
    39. 39. If there is a dedicated budget, please estimate the % allocated to each:<br />Rebecca L. Mugridge, Managing Digitization Activities. ARL Spec Kit 294. (Washington D.C.: ARL, 2006), 41-42.<br />
    40. 40. Recent Grants for Digitization at Pitts<br />ATLA/Luce Foundation<br />http://www.atla.com/cdri_ob/<br />The E. Rhodes and Leona B. Carpenter Foundation<br />http://erlbcarpenterfoundation.org/<br />Thrivent Financial for Lutherans<br />https://www.thrivent.com/<br />
    41. 41. Resources for Funding Digitization<br />OCLC, Grants Writing and Funding Resources. http://www.oclc.org/digitalpreservation/resources/default.htm<br />California Digital Library, Sources for Funding Digitization Projects http://www.cdlib.org/inside/diglib/resources/onres_dig_funding.html<br />
    42. 42. 3.2. Managing a Digitization Project<br />Digitizing Collections<br />
    43. 43. Managing A Digitization Project<br />Project Planning<br />Managing the Digitization Process<br />Equipment<br />Images: Technical Details<br />Formats and Technology Standards<br />Quality Assurance and Quality Control<br />Metadata<br />Preservation of Digital Assets<br />
    44. 44. NISO/IMLS Framework of Guidance for Building Good Digital Collections <br />9 Collection Principles<br />
    45. 45. 3.3. The Digital Image Archive<br />Practices:<br />
    46. 46. Project Planning<br />
    47. 47. Managing the Digitization Process<br />Staffing and human resources<br />Project management<br />Selection, evaluation, preparation of originals<br />Digitization activities<br />Technical support<br />Post-digitization activities (e.g., evaluation, delivery, and marketing)<br />Long term management of digital resources<br />
    48. 48. Organizational Chart for Pitts Theology Library<br />Dean of Candler School of Theology<br />Director of Pitts Theology Library<br />Head of Public Services & Reference Librarian<br />Curator of Archives & Manuscripts<br />Head of Cataloging<br />Senior Desktop Consultant<br />Reference Librarian<br />Catalog Librarian<br />Periodicals & Reference Librarian<br />Financial Manager<br />Circulation Specialist<br />Web Development Specialist<br />Special Collections <br />Reference Assistant<br />Catalog Librarian<br />Interlibrary Loan Specialist<br />Department Computing Specialist<br />Acquisitions Assistant<br />Cataloging Assistant<br />Pubic Services Assistant<br />Scanning Technician<br />Reserves & Circulation Specialist<br />Library Volunteers<br />Circulation Students<br />Archives Student Assistant<br />Cataloging Students <br />MLIS Interns <br />Director’s Student<br />
    49. 49.
    50. 50. Monitoring<br />
    51. 51. Monitoring<br />
    52. 52. Reporting<br />
    53. 53. Equipment<br />Epson Perfection V700 Photo Scanner<br />($500-700)<br /><ul><li>6400 x 9600 dpi </li></ul>PowerMac G5<br /><ul><li>1.8 GhZ; Dual Core
    54. 54. 2 GB RAM
    55. 55. 250 GB Hardrive
    56. 56. $2400</li></ul>Epson Expression 1640XL<br /><ul><li>1600 x 3200 dpi hardware resolution
    57. 57. Large-format scanning capability
    58. 58. ColorTrue II Imaging System and 42-bit color depth ; ~$2,500</li></li></ul><li>IBM ThinkCentre S50, <br />1 Gig RAM<br />Epson Perfection V700 Photo Scanner<br />($500-700)<br /><ul><li>6400 x 9600 dpi </li></li></ul><li>Resources for Selection of Equipment<br />Hardware and Software Reviews, Canadian Heritage Information Network (CHIN)<br /> &lt;http://www.chin.gc.ca/English/Digital_Content/Hardware_Software/index.html&gt;<br />Available 2009-06-10.<br />JISC Digital Media, Still Image Capture: Hardware and Software &lt;http://www.jiscdigitalmedia.ac.uk/stillimages/advice/still-image-capture-hardware-and-software/)&gt; <br />Available 2009-06-10<br />
    59. 59. Images: Technical Details<br />Especially helpful resources for recommended file formats and image specifications. <br />MinervaEC, Technical Guidelines for Digital Content Creation Programmes. Version 2.0 (2008) http://www.minervaeurope.org/publications/MINERVA%20TG%202.0.pdf<br />Technical Guidelines for Digitizing Archival Materials for Electronic: Creation of Production Master Files--Raster Images. Washington, D.C: Digital Library Federation, 2005.  <br />Standards for DIA:<br />TIFF images scanned at 1200 dots per inch (dpi) for 8-bit greyscale images and 600 dpi for 24-bit color. <br />
    60. 60. Metadata<br />“In order to facilitate potential exchange and interoperability between services, projects should be able to provide item level descriptions in the form of simple, unqualified Dublin Core metadata records.”<br />Source: MinervaEC, Technical Guidelines for Digital Content Creation Programmes. Version 2.0 (2008) http://www.minervaeurope.org/publications/MINERVA%20TG%202.0.pdf<br />
    61. 61. 15 Elements of the Dublin Core<br />Contributor<br />Coverage<br />Creator<br />Date<br />Description<br />Format<br />Identifier<br />Language<br />Publisher<br />Relation<br />Rights<br />Source<br />Subject<br />Title<br />Type<br />Source: http://dublincore.org/documents/dces/<br />Cf: http://dublincore.org/documents/usageguide/<br />
    62. 62. Metadata Input Fields for DIA<br />
    63. 63. DIA Microsoft SQL Database<br />
    64. 64. DIA Storage on Servers<br />Images are scanned into .TIFF format then compressed to .ZIP and store on the server, 3.9 terabytes of storage.  We used .ZIP because it is a loss-less data compression data algorithm that allows the exact original data to be reconstructed from the compressed data.<br />Our data are stored on a hot-swappable RAID-5 disk array (Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks). We also back the compressed files/folders to an off-site storage. We purchased the network storage through Emory’s Network Attached Storage team. <br />Server: <br />Apple X-server 10.5 <br />Runs on two 80 GB hard drive and set up as RAID-1<br />Disk Array: <br />Apple X-RAID<br />Controller-1 has 7 hard drives (1.8 terabytes)--RAID-5<br />Controller-2 has 3 hard drives (2.1 terabytes) --RAID-5<br />
    65. 65. Marketing the Digital Image Archive<br />Determine the primary audience<br />Production departments for publishers of religious and theological publications, especially Lutheran<br />Editors of Lutheran serials<br />Academics with a focus on the reformation and/or the art of the period<br />Create a press kit to inform the primary audience about the collection<br />
    66. 66.
    67. 67.
    68. 68.
    69. 69.
    70. 70. 3.4. Kirtas<br />Practices<br />
    71. 71. Pre-Digitization Technical Services Workflow<br />Generate a pull list based on selection criteria<br />Stacks Team pulls circa 50-100 titles/week<br />Technical Services staff compares books pulled against bibliographic records and updates, if necessary, the date, place of publication, language and language.<br />Technical Services staff verifies that a book falls under public domain, putting aside questions for IP Rights staff<br />Technical Services enters the appropriate bibliographic fields<br />
    72. 72. Creating a Pull List From an ILS<br />Technical Services generates a pull list based on selection criteria<br />Run an Excel compatible report through your library’s integrated library system<br />
    73. 73.
    74. 74.
    75. 75. Updating Metadata<br />Technical Services staff compares books pulled against bibliographic records and updates, if necessary, the date, place of publication, and language.<br />If upon examination the work does not meet IP regulations then it is deselected at this stage.<br />The fixed fields are important because post-digitization they are elements necessary for automated public domain validation.<br />
    76. 76. MARC Record Updates<br />The following fields will be updated in the MARC record, if appropriate:<br />Fixed field for date of publication<br />Fixed field for place of publication<br />Fixed field for language<br />041 for language code<br />260 for place and date of publication<br />590 for public note: The online edition of this book in the public domain, i.e., not protected by copyright, has been produced by the Emory University Digital Library Publications Program. <br />
    77. 77. 583 Field<br />If book is digitized:<br />583 1# $a digitized $c 2007 $2 pda $5 GEU $x public domain<br />If book is not digitized:<br />583 1# $a will not digitize $c 2007 $l in copyright $2 pda$5 GEU <br />583 1# $a will not digitize $c 2007 $l mutilated $2 pda$5 GEU<br />583 1# $a will not digitize $c 2007 $l brittle $2 pda$5 GEU <br />583 1# $a will not digitize $c 2007 $l oversize for APT BookScan $2 pda$5 GEU <br />583 1# $a will not digitize $c 2007 $l lacking data for pd decision $2 pda$5 GEU <br />
    78. 78.
    79. 79. Item Tracking<br />Planning Process<br />Determine what are the most important elements to track progress and keep data organized<br />Choose the appropriate program to track information such as Excel<br />Adopt ideas from other tracking systems, such as the Kirtas tracking software<br />
    80. 80. Tracking Procedure<br />
    81. 81. Individual Book Tracking Page<br />
    82. 82. Rights Validation<br />Validation check of public domain status will be completed during ingest.<br />Year of publication (from fixed field)<br />Place of publication (from fixed field)<br />Year scanned (from 583 $c)<br />Copyright status (from 583 $x)<br />The automated rights check is the reason why the bibliographic fields are updated prior to digitization.<br />
    83. 83. Access<br />Emory decided to allow for open access for all materials<br />Pitts has decided that images in the DIA are freely available for non-commercial purposes<br />What are the advantages and disadvantages of providing open access for materials that are costly to the library?<br />
    84. 84. 3.5. SCILLA(SPECIAL Collections ILL Access)<br />Practices:<br />
    85. 85.
    86. 86. Workflow<br />
    87. 87.
    88. 88. Equipment<br />Fujitsu fi-4220C2 Scanner<br /><ul><li>Fast, 25-ppm
    89. 89. 600-dpi optical resolution</li></li></ul><li>
    90. 90.
    91. 91.
    92. 92.
    93. 93. 3.6. DigiBooks<br />Practices<br />
    94. 94. Equipment<br />Canon <br />DR-5080C <br />Drum Scanner <br />
    95. 95. Summary<br />Digital initiatives at Pitts are focused on Special Collections and out-of-copyright materials<br />Focused on images of text and illustration (not text encoding)<br />Maximize use of student assistants, library volunteers, and grant funded staff, distributing other responsibilities across regular staff.<br />
    96. 96. Question: What other important principles and considerations should inform/reform the digitization practices at Pitts Library and/or your library?<br />
    97. 97. Let’s talk now and later!<br />Pat Graham <br />libmpg@emory.edu<br />Kim Abrams<br />kabram@emory.edu<br />John Weaver<br />weaverjohnb@gmail.com<br />Marcus Taylor (Web-developer)<br />marcus.taylor@emory.edu<br />