St1213 notes1

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Introduction to science and technology.

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St1213 notes1

  1. 1. The Nature of Science
  2. 2. What is the goal of science?Science is the application of human intelligence to figuringout how the world works. Science is based on theassumption that the basic rules are everywhere the same inthe universe.The patterns observed in nature can be understood andstudied. A scientific theory is the best explanation of aparticular phenomena. A scientific theory is always testable. Scientific theories help us make predictions about the worldaround us.
  3. 3. How is science done?In science, the testing, revising, and occasional discardingof theories, new and old, never ends. This ongoing processleads to a better understanding of how things work in theworld but not to absolute truth.Investigations are conducted for different reasons,including to explore new phenomena, to check onprevious results, to test how well a theory predicts,and to compare theories.Investigations involve asking questions, makingobservations, collecting data, interpreting data, andcomparing conclusions with those of others.
  4. 4. Inquiry Process
  5. 5. Inquiry Process Vocabulary Term Definition Investigation n. A search for an answer... looking for and making sense of clues. Observation n. Using the senses to gather information Using the senses to gather information about the quality of something...withoutQualitative Observation numbers, such as hardness, shape, color.Quantitative Observation Using the senses with tools for measuring and gathering numerical information Problem A question which calls for an investigation. Data Information, mostly numbers with units
  6. 6. Inquiry Process Vocabulary The guess at the answer to the problem, stated in two parts, "IfHypothesis _________(suspected cause), then _______(expected response)." A test of the hypothesis, seeing if two variables have a cause andExperiment effect relationship. Variable Things that change or can be changed. The changes an experimenter purposefully makes. The believedIndependent cause in the experiment. Written in the first part of the hypothesis variable after the "If___"Treatment The different measures of the independent variable. Trial Each test of a treatment.
  7. 7. Inquiry Process Vocabulary Repeated trial When a treatment is tested more than once. Control Trials that have no treatment. Constants Possible variables that are kept from changing during the experiment. The response to the experimenters puposefull changes. The effect.Dependent variable Written in the second part of the hypothesis, after the "then, ________" An organized chart on which to keep data from the independent and Data Table dependent variables. Analysis A study of data for patterns, error and meaning
  8. 8. Inquiry Process Vocabulary Tells whether the data does or does not support the hypothesis and Conclusion how. Attempts to explain the meaning of strange data. Suggests improvements to the experiment to avoid errors in data. the best explanation of a particular phenomena. A scientific theory isScientific Theory always testable Inference a conclusion reached on the basis of evidence and reasoning

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