2011 AP US PP - Reformers 1800 - 1850


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2011 AP US PP - Reformers 1800 - 1850

  1. 1. Social Reforms and Reformers <ul><li>By: Clark Harmon & Trenton Billings </li></ul>
  2. 2. The Second Great Awakening <ul><li>Started in the early 1800’s as a response to liberalism in religion. The Second Great Awakening stayed alive all the way to the 1870’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Began in the Southern frontier and spread North, West, and East as it enveloped all of America. It left a greater impression on Americans than the first Great Awakening. 1 </li></ul><ul><li>This not only started new churches but revived old one especially the Methodist and Baptist who appealed to all with their emphasis on personal conversion. </li></ul><ul><li>On the frontier people met in large groups called “camp meeting.” These meetings were the basis for the revival because many were saved and boosted national church attendance. 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Men know as “circuit riders” were traveling frontier preachers, that would travel many miles a day and preach to bring the gospel to the lost on the frontier. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Charles Grandison Finney 1792-1875 <ul><li>The leading preacher of the Second Great Awakening </li></ul>2
  4. 4. Finney <ul><li>Finney was one of the first public figures to condemn alcohol and slavery and push for it to be abolished. He also was one of the first to advocate for women to pray aloud in church. 3 </li></ul><ul><li>He preached specifically in the North with his most famous revivals in Rochester and New York City in 1830 and 1831. </li></ul><ul><li>His preaching style was considered old school but also adaptive. He had many ideas such as “anxious bench” and for more involvement of women in the church. 3 </li></ul>
  5. 5. Joseph Smith 1805-1844 4 <ul><li>In 1830, he claimed that he had received “golden plates” from an “angel” and that it was a message from God. He deciphered these “golden plates” and on April 6, 1830, the Church of Latter Day Saints was established for what was to be called Mormonism. 5 </li></ul><ul><li>His Book of Mormon was published in March of 1830. 6 Although mormonism had many attractive aspects to allow it to grow it did not go unopposed. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1844, in Carthage, Illinois Joseph and his brother were killed by an angry mob. Mormonism began to die off as Brigham Young took over as the leader of the religion. 7 </li></ul>
  6. 6. Mormonism <ul><li>Mormonism caused controversy in the religious community. It was the first religion to claim Jesus but have controversial beliefs and their own holy book. </li></ul><ul><li>Mormonism advocated Polygamy, believe in modern prophets, prohibition, the trinity, and have many books they consider to be holy. 8 </li></ul><ul><li>Mormons headquarters are in Salt Lake City, Utah, and many mormons fled to Utah from persecution on the Mormon Trek. 9 </li></ul><ul><li>Mormons voted as one unit which caused more anger toward them as they gained political power. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Deism <ul><li>Deism is the belief that humans are inherently good, there is one supreme being and that he created a universe in which humans have their own moral choices and they reject the idea that Jesus was God. </li></ul><ul><li>They relied on logic, reason, and science instead of emotions and the Bible. Many important men, even founding fathers such as Ben Franklin and Thomas Jefferson are thought to be deist. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Thomas Paine <ul><li>1737-1809 10 </li></ul>10
  9. 9. Paine <ul><li>He was a strong deist who wrote The Age of Reason in 1794. This was when deism was first truly defined. </li></ul><ul><li>In this book he opposed the church and rejected everything about the Bible’s divinity and God. 10 </li></ul><ul><li>He suffered from poverty and being a drunk in his late years and died ostracized from society. 10 </li></ul>
  10. 10. Seneca Falls Convention & Women's Rights <ul><li>Was the start of the movement for women's rights. The Declaration of Sentiments was a contract that came out of the convention that was to allow women the right to vote. 11 </li></ul><ul><li>Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony were two main fighters for women’s rights. The fought to be equal with men in the workplace, courts, and politics. 12 </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell broke a barrier for women when she was the first woman to graduate from a medical college. 12 </li></ul>
  11. 11. Transcendentalism <ul><li>Transcendentalism was a movement that was seen in the arts in the 1830’s which allowed people to cast off the chains of the strict Puritanism of the time and become more free minded. </li></ul><ul><li>The transcendentalist refuse to believe John Locke’s idea of intelligence comes from sense. Rather they believe that truth “transcends” and is found in oneself not on purely observation. 13 </li></ul><ul><li>Transcendentalist held themselves to “self reliance, self culture, and self discipline.” 13 </li></ul>
  12. 12. Ralph Waldo Emerson (where’s Waldo?) <ul><li>He was born in the city of Boston and lived from 1803-1882. 13 He was trained to become a Unitarian minister but ended up becoming a philosopher and poet as well as a leader in the transcendentalist movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Emerson wanted Americans to developed their own style of writing and break away from European influence. He expressed this in his speech at Harvard College, “The American Scholar.” 13 </li></ul><ul><li>He was an advocated against slavery and appealed to Americans largely in the 1850’s with his line of philosophy and his essays. 13 </li></ul>
  13. 13. Horace Mann <ul><li>“The Father of Education” </li></ul>14
  14. 14. Mann <ul><li>He lived from 1796 to 1859. He went to Brown and became a lawyer once he graduated. He excelled in politics and was a representative and a senator. 15 </li></ul><ul><li>He became head of the Board of Education in Massachusetts. 15 </li></ul><ul><li>He made many reforms at the helm of education, such as, public libraries, higher wages for teachers, and a stronger public school education system. 15 </li></ul>
  15. 15. Notes <ul><ul><ul><li>2.David Thorne, “Christian Arrow Head... Charles G. Finney”. < http://www.christianarrowhead.org.uk/reason/finney.html >(28 October 2011) </li></ul></ul></ul>4. PBS, <http:// www.pbs.org/americanprophet/joseph-smith.html > (28 October 2011) 8. Religion Facts, < http://www.religionfacts.com/mormonism/fast_facts.htm> (28 October 2011) 10. Steven Kreis, “Thomas Paine, 1737-1809,” October 11 2006. < http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/paine.html > (28 October 2011) 1. David M. Kennedy, Lizabeth Cohen, and Thomas A. Bailey, The American Pageant 13 th Edition (Boston, Ma: Houghten Mifflin Co., 2006),321. 3.Kennedy, Cohen, and Bailey, American Pageant , 322. 5. Kennedy, Cohen, and Bailey, American Pageant. 323 6. PBS, <http:// www.pbs.org/americanprophet/joseph-smith.html > 7. Kennedy, Cohen, and Bailey, American Pageant. 323 9. Kennedy, Cohen, and Bailey, American Pageant. 323, 325
  16. 16. Notes cont. 11. Martin Kelly, < http://americanhistory.about.com/od/womenssuffrage/a/senecafalls.htm > (28 October 2011) 14. Daily Learner, < http://www.dailylearners.com/2008/07/horace-mann.html > (28 October 2011) 15. North Carolina State, “Horace Mann.” < http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/agexed/aee501/mann.html > (28 October 2011) 12. Kennedy, Cohen, and Bailey, American Pageant. 331 13. Kennedy, Cohen, and Bailey, American Pageant. 341