Conclusions, must, have got to, may, might, could, can't


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Conclusions, must, have got to, may, might, could, can't

  1. 1. Conclusions: Must,11 Have (got) to, May, Might, Could, Can’t A Visit to the Doctor Focus on Grammar 3 Part VIII, Unit 37 By Ruth Luman, Gabriele Steiner, and BJ Wells Copyright © 2006. Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. Am I OK? So, what There areWell, I have seems to be several What could the problem? We’ll need to possibilities.terrible painthe problem take some in my be? X-rays and stomach. do some tests to find out.
  3. 3. MeaningWe often make guesses and draw conclusions aboutpresent situations using the information we have.Positive 100% Certain Negativemust can’t, couldn’t We use modals to show howhave (got) to certain must not we are or uncertainmay about our conclusions. may notmight, could might not 0% Certain
  4. 4. Affirmative Conclusions When we are almost 100% certain, we use must, have to, or have got to to state affirmative conclusions. I looked Jonesthe test Mr. at all mustresults,haveIan ulcer. the and talked to patient. I believe that… He has to be in pain. He’s got to be very uncomfortable.
  5. 5. PossibilitiesWhen we are less certain about our conclusion, we use may,might, or could to express that something is possible.I see something Mr. Jones could unusual. have an ulcer. He may have an infection. He might be very sick.
  6. 6. Look at each part of the photograph one Practice 1 at a time. Try to guess what it is. Increase the certainty of your guesses by using the appropriate modals. 100% Certain This might be …musthave (got) tomaymight, could 0% Certain An X-ray of the heart and lungs.
  7. 7. Negative Conclusions 1 Use can’t and couldn’t when you are almost 100% certain that something is impossible. Use must not when you are slightly less certain. It can’t be an The X-rays infection. look good.The patient couldn’t have heartburn. It must not be serious.
  8. 8. Negative Conclusions 2Use may not and might not when you areeven less certain. Your illness might not be serious. You may not need to stay in the hospital.
  9. 9. QuestionsUse can and could in questions. What can theThe test results problem be?are not clear.Could the patient need surgery?
  10. 10. Look at the objects under a Practice 2 microscope. Ask and answer questions about possibility. Use positive and negative modals. Example: 1. 2. 5.It may be a It can’t be What could skin. Itfeather. must be it be?cotton fibers. 3. 4.stomach of a spider (#5) eye of an insect (#2) a feather (#3)cotton fibers (Example) tongue of a snail (#4) skin (#1)
  11. 11. Short Answers In short answers, use a modal alone. Does the Does heHe may not. not patient need aThe surgeon have a He has to. to cast? might brokenHe was in aoperate first. bone? serious accident.
  12. 12. Be Careful! Use be in short answers to questions that include be. Could that I’m not sure. Oh wait. Itbe an image It might be. has to be.of my brain? I see the brain stem.
  13. 13. Ask and answer questions Practice 3 about the X-rays. Use short answers.Possible Questions Possible Answers Could that X-rayCould X-ray # ___ be a ___? It has to be./It’s got to be. be a knee? It might be.Can X-ray #___ be a ___? It may/might/could be.1. 2. Example: knee shoulder brain
  14. 14. ReferencesCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education andits licensors. All rights reserved.