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Adjective Clauses 1Use adjective clauses to identify or give additionalinformation about nouns (people, places, or things). He lived in the state of Gujarat, Gandhi was a manWestern India. peace. which is in who worked for The clause The clause who worked for peace which is in Western India identifies the man we are gives additional talking about. information about Gujarat.
Adjective Clauses 2Adjective clauses can also identify or describe indefinitepronouns such as one, someone, somebody,something, another, and other(s). George Washington Carver is someone someone who was a famous botanist. The adjective clause directly follows the noun (or pronoun) it is identifying.
Adjective Clauses 3 Sentences with adjective clauses can be seen as a combination of two sentences. Beethoven was a Florence Nightingale was a nurse. composer. + +His music is still enjoyed by manymodern healthcare methods. She developed people. = = Beethoven was aFlorence Nightingale was a nurse who composer whosemusic is still enjoyed by many people. developed modern healthcare methods.
Relative Pronouns 1 Adjective clauses begin with relative pronouns. Subject relative pronouns can be who, that, which, and whose. Abraham Lincolnis a painting which The Mona Lisa was an American Use whose to refer to people’s possessions. fought against slavery. possessions president who slavery is known throughout the world. world ORThomas Edison, whose inventions Edison Abraham Lincolnis a painting that The Mona Lisa was an Americanchanged the world, was born in 1847. world is known throughout the world. world president that fought against slavery. slavery Use That is less formal than to Use which or that to refer who or that to who places or and used and which refer to people. things. people more in conversation.
Be Careful!Do not use a subject pronoun (I, you, he, she, it, we,they) and a subject relative pronoun in the sameadjective clause. William Shakespeare is an Englishman who he wrote many well-known plays. William Shakespeare is an Englishman who wrote many well-known plays.
Combine the groups of sentences into Practice 1 one sentence with an adjective clause. Use the appropriate relative pronouns.Example:Example: a) Albert Einstein was aaphysicist. who/that Albert Einstein was physicist b) He won the Nobel Prize Physics in in 1921. won the Nobel Prize in in Physics 1921.1. a) Ang San Su Kyi is a Burmesepeace activist in Myanmar peace activist in Myanmar. Ang San Su Kyi Albert Einstein was a physicist who won is a Burmese b) Myanmar is a thelocatedPrize in Southeast Asia. which is a country Nobel in Southeast Asia.1921. Asia country located in Physics in 1921 OR2. a) Diego Rivera was a Mexican painter. Diego Rivera was a Mexican painter whose work is displayed is displayed Einstein was a physicist that won Albert b) His workin many famous museums. museums. museums in many famous the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1921. 19213. a) Mother Teresa was a Catholic nun. Mother Teresa was a Catholic nun who/that devoted her b) She the poor.her life to the poor. life to devoted poor
Relative Pronouns 2Relative pronouns have the same form whether theyrefer to singular or plural nouns, or to males orfemales. Ferdinand Magellan was the man who led the first expedition to sail around the world. Amelia Earhart was the woman who was the first female pilot to fly across the Atlantic. Pioneers are people who do things others think impossible.
Verbs in Adjective Clauses The verb in the adjective clause is singular if the subject relative pronoun refers to a singular noun. It is plural if it refers to a plural noun. singular verb Copernicus was an astronomer who is known for his theory that the world is round.Plato and Aristotle are ancient Greekmen who are known for philosophies. plural verb
Be Careful!When whose + noun is the subject of an adjectiveclause, the verb agrees with the subject of theadjective clause. Jane Austen was an English novelist whose novels is read by many students. Jane Austen was an English novelist whose novels are read by many students. subject
Two Kinds of Adjective Clauses There are two kinds of adjective clauses, identifying and nonidentifying. The adjective clause The adjective clause is notThe books which are onidentifies which books the The books,to identify the necessary which are onthe table belong to me. sentence talks about. the table, belong to me. which books are referred to.
Commas A nonidentifying adjective clause is separated from the rest of the sentence by commas. Do not use commas with an identifying adjective clause.The map, which is onNonidentifying Adjective The map which is on the Identifyingthe table, is new. Clause table is new. Clause Adjective
Be Careful! Do not use that to introduce nonidentifying adjective clauses. Use who for people and which for places clauses and things.Athens, that is the birthplace , that won the Nobel Prize, Marie Curieof the Olympics, is in Greece. radium. discoveredAthens, which is theMarie Curie, who won the Nobel Prize, birthplaceof the Olympics, is in Greece. radium. discovered
Find and correct the errors in the Practice 2 adjective clauses of the sentences. Discuss your answers with a partner. Example: Italy, which is the birthplace of opera, is a that is the birthplace of opera, is a opera opera fascinating country.• Louis Armstrong was a famous American musician who he made jazz popular. popular2. Frida Kahlo, whose paintings have recently become well- has recently become well- known, was a Mexican painter. known lives in South Africa, fought against• Nelson Mandela, who live in South Africa, fought against Africa Africa apartheid.• Chinua Achebe is a Nigerian author who writes novels which writes novels about village life. life• Valentina Tereshkova,who was the first woman to travel into space, is Russian.