Sph 107 Ch 9


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Sph 107 Ch 9

  1. 1. Chapter 9 Making Lasting Impressions: Introductions and Conclusions
  2. 2. Why are Introductions and Conclusions Important? <ul><li>The Opening and Closing of a speech can make or break it. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primacy-recency effect </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Give listeners a framework for grasping the topics and main points of your speech. </li></ul><ul><li>Clearly defined intro and conclusion can help reduce speaking anxiety by increasing your confidence. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Developing Effective Introductions <ul><li>Capturing Audience Interest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Your first sentence should capture your audience’s interest. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The attention catcher you choose for your introduction is crucial and must be unique enough to capture your audience’s attention. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Types of Attention Catchers <ul><li>Questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Questions are particularly useful when related to the audience or the topic. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use rhetorical questions or direct questions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct questions can be difficult because your audience might not know how to respond. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They can also increase your anxiety. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The benefit is that they physically involve your audience so they are more engaged and attentive. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Types of Attention Catchers <ul><li>Quotations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A quote can be a clever means of sparking the interest of your audience but only if it relates in a significant way to the topic of the speech. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An actual example of something that happened to a real person (you, your family, someone you read about in a newspaper) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A hypothetical example would be a story you made up to illustrate a point. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Types of Attention Catchers <ul><li>Startling Facts or Statistics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The fact should be both little known and shocking. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advertisers use this often to sell products. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using some kind of movement to illustrate a point. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Types of Attention Catchers <ul><li>Humor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A joke, an anecdote, or a story with a humorous twist. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be realistic, relevant, and repeatable. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Establishing a Rapport with The Audience <ul><li>Your introduction should help you establish a connection with your audience. </li></ul><ul><li>Give the audience a reason why they should care about your topic. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Establishing Your Credibility <ul><li>Explain why you are an authority on the subject in the introduction. </li></ul><ul><li>Your authority can come from you major, life experience, etc. </li></ul>
  10. 10. State Your Speech Topic <ul><li>Your introduction must include a thesis statement. </li></ul><ul><li>Grasping the thesis early in the speech will help your listeners follow the thinking and main points of your speech. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Previewing The Main Points <ul><li>Your thesis statement should be followed with a preview or brief statements of the main points of your speech. </li></ul><ul><li>Your preview should be brief and concisely stated. </li></ul><ul><li>Condense each main point to a single phrase. </li></ul><ul><li>You might also use parallelism, repeating words or grammatical structures, to emphasize the content of your preview. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Developing Effective Conclusions <ul><li>Provide a sense of closure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signaled through verbal and nonverbal communication. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Begin your conclusion with a phrase that indicates your are wrapping up. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonverbally slow your rate and pitch as you move through your closing remarks. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Developing Effective Conclusions <ul><li>Reinforce the main ideas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tell them what you told them. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restate your thesis. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Try to briefly summarize your main points in one sentence. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Developing Effective Conclusions <ul><li>Motivating Listeners to Remember </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Listeners are more likely to remember your speech if you follow the summary with a clincher, a sentence that reinforces your main points in a memorable way. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An effective clincher often refers back to the introduction, especially the attention catcher. </li></ul></ul>