Sph 107 Ch 6

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Sph 107 Ch 6

  1. 1. UNDERSTANDING YOUR AUDIENCE Chapter 6
  2. 2. Audience Analysis <ul><li>Used to mean making generalizations about an audience based on demographic characteristics. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demo characteristics include traits such as age, sex, gender, race, and socio-cultural background. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective audience analysis today also means examining the environmental characteristics of an audience. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological characteristics are those factors that motivate people to listen to and retain ideas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental characteristics influence why listeners attend and what they expect from a particular speech. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Demographic Characteristics <ul><li>Can be used to make inferences about your audience. </li></ul><ul><li>Try to discover connections that you have with your audience and play those up. </li></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impacts listeners attitudes, beliefs, values, interests, and knowledge. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age effects a listeners goals. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Demographic Characteristics <ul><li>Sex, Gender, and Sexual Orientation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some topics are more relevant to one of the sexes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender is the socialized tendencies to be masculine, feminine, or androgynous. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective public speakers respect the diversity of sexual orientations of their audience members and avoid offensive remarks that could marginalize people. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Demographic Characteristics <ul><li>Group Affiliation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thanks to the diversity of the United States, there are many different group affiliations that can be represented in your audience. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From religious affiliation to political affiliation, your speeches should be respectful of all possible group affiliations, even if your chosen topic challenges the views of these groups. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Demographic Characteristics <ul><li>Socio-economic factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The amount of money your audience earns can influence their beliefs and attitudes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If your listeners work in the same field, they are more likely to share experiences, skills, and perspectives. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The more educated your audience, the more likely they will be familiar with a large group of topics. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Socio-cultural Background </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determined by family and group affiliation while growing up. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influences values, beliefs, and attitudes. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Analysis of Psychological Characteristics <ul><li>Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Five levels: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physiological Needs- related to self-preservation: air, water, food, rest, avoidance of pain. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Safety Needs- relate to a need for order, stability, and security. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Love and belongingness needs- reflect our desire to share our lives with others. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Esteem needs- our desire for recognition and and self-respect. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self-actualization needs- desire to reach our personal potential. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We are motivated by our most basic unmet need. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Analysis of Psychological Characteristics <ul><li>Rhetorical Appeals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethos: appeals to the speaker’s credibility or competence and character. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pathos: appeal’s to emotion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logos: appeals to logic. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Try to appeal to all three to be an effective speaker. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Analysis of Psychological Characteristics <ul><li>Learning Styles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Watching Mode: use visual aides to appeal to this style. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doing Mode: make the audience engage in an activity to get your point across. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feeling Mode: use examples that place your points in a real-life context. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinking Mode: offer facts and statistics to support your points. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Methods for Audience Analysis <ul><li>Direct Methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most common methods are interviews, focus groups, and surveys. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviews: you ask a single person open and closed ended questions to determine their feelings about your subject. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus groups: like an interview with a small group of people. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Survey: a focus group on a much larger scale. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Methods for Audience Analysis <ul><li>Indirect Methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask others who have spoken to the group. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research. </li></ul></ul>

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