CHAPTER 1 Communication and Ethical Public Speaking
Why are you here? <ul><li>Public Speaking is often reported as people’s greatest fear. </li></ul><ul><li>To control this a...
What is Communication? <ul><li>The process of sending and receiving verbal and nonverbal messages to create shared meaning...
What is Communication? <ul><li>Communication is a dynamic process. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sent by one person (sender) and i...
What is Communication? <ul><ul><li>This much of the generated meaning in communication comes from cultural understanding. ...
Communication Contexts <ul><li>Five Primary Contexts of Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intrapersonal, impersonal, int...
Intrapersonal Communication <ul><li>Def.- communication with yourself. </li></ul><ul><li>Most occurs subconsciously. </li>...
Impersonal Communication <ul><li>Communication between two people about general information. </li></ul><ul><li>More intent...
Interpersonal Communication <ul><li>Communication between two people who already have and identifiable relationship with e...
Small Group Communication <ul><li>Communication that occurs in groups of three to ten. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. – Family, Fri...
Public Communication <ul><li>Communication to groups of 10 or more </li></ul><ul><li>Public Speaking is a sustained presen...
Mass Communication  <ul><li>Is communication produced and transmitted by media organizations to large publics. </li></ul><...
Models of Communication <ul><li>Linear Model of Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive Model of Communication </li></...
Linear Model of Communication <ul><li>A speaker encodes and sends a message to a receiver who decodes the message. </li></...
Interactive Model of Communication <ul><li>Based on the Linear Model. </li></ul><ul><li>Includes the concept of feedback s...
Transactional Model of Communication <ul><li>Expands both previous models by accounting for the simultaneous sending and r...
Seven Basic Elements of the Communication Process <ul><li>Situation </li></ul><ul><li>Sender </li></ul><ul><li>Message </l...
Situation <ul><li>Place, time occasion, and cultural context of the communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Can either help or hu...
Sender <ul><li>The person who initiates the communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Have the burden of credibility. </li></ul><ul...
Message <ul><li>Ideas the sender attempts to convey to the receiver </li></ul><ul><li>We use both verbal and nonverbal cha...
Receiver <ul><li>The person to whom the sender is communicating. </li></ul><ul><li>They bring with them a frame of referen...
Channel <ul><li>Pathways through which messages are communicated. </li></ul><ul><li>A visual channel is what the receiver ...
Feedback <ul><li>Consists of those messages that listeners send back to a speaker about the clarity and acceptability of a...
Interference <ul><li>Anything that poses a barrier to one’s message. </li></ul><ul><li>External interference happens outsi...
Ethical Public Speaking <ul><li>Consider your Topic and Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledge personal bias </li></ul><ul><l...
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SPH 107 Ch 1

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SPH 107 Ch 1

  1. 1. CHAPTER 1 Communication and Ethical Public Speaking
  2. 2. Why are you here? <ul><li>Public Speaking is often reported as people’s greatest fear. </li></ul><ul><li>To control this anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>To help you organize your ideas effectively. </li></ul><ul><li>Help you present ideas convincingly. </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is Communication? <ul><li>The process of sending and receiving verbal and nonverbal messages to create shared meaning. </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is Communication? <ul><li>Communication is a dynamic process. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sent by one person (sender) and interpreted by another (receiver) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meaning generation takes place between communicators. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal Messages consist of the words we use. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonverbal messages are the signals we send using body movements and vocal expressions. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. What is Communication? <ul><ul><li>This much of the generated meaning in communication comes from cultural understanding. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Communication Contexts <ul><li>Five Primary Contexts of Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intrapersonal, impersonal, interpersonal, small group, and public. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Intrapersonal Communication <ul><li>Def.- communication with yourself. </li></ul><ul><li>Most occurs subconsciously. </li></ul><ul><li>You use intrapersonal communication to adjust your message to the ever changing needs of your audience. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Impersonal Communication <ul><li>Communication between two people about general information. </li></ul><ul><li>More intentional than intrapersonal but still informal. </li></ul><ul><li>Done when you know little about the person and you exchange demographic and cultural information. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Interpersonal Communication <ul><li>Communication between two people who already have and identifiable relationship with each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. – talking with a friend, loved one, or one-on-one with anyone whom you have a preexisting relationship. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Small Group Communication <ul><li>Communication that occurs in groups of three to ten. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. – Family, Friends, Management Teams, etc. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Public Communication <ul><li>Communication to groups of 10 or more </li></ul><ul><li>Public Speaking is a sustained presentation made by a speaker to an audience. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. – Speaking to the class is considered Public Communication </li></ul>
  12. 12. Mass Communication <ul><li>Is communication produced and transmitted by media organizations to large publics. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.- Newspapers, Magazines, Television, etc. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Models of Communication <ul><li>Linear Model of Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive Model of Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Transactional Model of Communication </li></ul>
  14. 14. Linear Model of Communication <ul><li>A speaker encodes and sends a message to a receiver who decodes the message. </li></ul><ul><li>Encoding is the process of putting ideas into words that the listener can understand </li></ul><ul><li>Decoding is the process of attaching meaning to the symbols we see or hear. </li></ul><ul><li>Situation is the context in which the communication occurs. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Interactive Model of Communication <ul><li>Based on the Linear Model. </li></ul><ul><li>Includes the concept of feedback so that both sender and receiver create meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback is the verbal and nonverbal messages receivers send back to senders. </li></ul><ul><li>The model also accounts for internal and external interference. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Transactional Model of Communication <ul><li>Expands both previous models by accounting for the simultaneous sending and receiving of messages. </li></ul><ul><li>It also accounts for the numerous ways in which the communication situation might influence the interaction. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Seven Basic Elements of the Communication Process <ul><li>Situation </li></ul><ul><li>Sender </li></ul><ul><li>Message </li></ul><ul><li>Receiver </li></ul><ul><li>Channel </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Interference </li></ul>
  18. 18. Situation <ul><li>Place, time occasion, and cultural context of the communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Can either help or hurt the communication, so it is important to tailor you speech to the situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Communication rules change according to situation. Ex.- Some things can be said in private that shouldn’t be said in public. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Sender <ul><li>The person who initiates the communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Have the burden of credibility. </li></ul><ul><li>Must convey credibility to be effective. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Message <ul><li>Ideas the sender attempts to convey to the receiver </li></ul><ul><li>We use both verbal and nonverbal channels to convey message. </li></ul><ul><li>Nonverbal messages should reinforce your verbal message. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Receiver <ul><li>The person to whom the sender is communicating. </li></ul><ul><li>They bring with them a frame of reference that the sender must consider. </li></ul><ul><li>A frame of reference is made up of one’s goals, knowledge, experiences, values, and attitudes. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Channel <ul><li>Pathways through which messages are communicated. </li></ul><ul><li>A visual channel is what the receiver sees. </li></ul><ul><li>An auditory channel is what the receiver hears. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Feedback <ul><li>Consists of those messages that listeners send back to a speaker about the clarity and acceptability of a message. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Interference <ul><li>Anything that poses a barrier to one’s message. </li></ul><ul><li>External interference happens outside of the sender. </li></ul><ul><li>Internal interference may be physical or psychological and may occur within the speaker and listeners. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Ethical Public Speaking <ul><li>Consider your Topic and Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledge personal bias </li></ul><ul><li>Choose evidence fairly </li></ul><ul><li>Report sources of information </li></ul><ul><li>Use inclusive and respectful language. </li></ul>

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