The joint posi,on statement oﬀers guidance—based on research-‐based knowledge of how young children grow and learn—on both the opportuni,es and the challenges of the use of technology and interac,ve media.
“When used inten,onally and appropriately, technology and interac,ve media are eﬀec,ve tools to support learning and development.” NAEYC and Fred Rogers Center Joint PosiOon Statement (2011)
Literacy Aﬀordances Computer-‐based learning ac,vi,es in language ac,vi,es seemed to induce greater levels of collabora,on and discussions (Dickenson, 1986) The dynamic nature of mul,media seemed to help children to create mental models more eﬀec,vely and improved comprehension (Kamil et al., 2000) Using computer soOware seems to beneﬁt the learning of special popula,ons, such as ESL, learning disabili,es and young children (Kamil et al., 2000) The use of computers in reading and wri,ng seemed to mo,vate children more eﬀec,vely (Kamil et al., 2000) Aﬀordances of EducaOonal Technologies
Social Aﬀordances Children are highly mo,vated in computer environments and they enjoy sharing their experiences and strategies with each other (Blanton et al., 2000) Children exhibit a rich versa,lity of social interac,ons at the computer (HeO and Swaminathan, 2002) (Brooker, 2002) found that peers frequently supported each other in the learning process & children beneﬁted from “mutually suppor,ve collabora,on.” The manipula,on of shapes and symbols on screen represents a new form of symbolic play. Children treat digital ar,facts as “concretely” as they do physical play objects (Brooker, 2002) Aﬀordances of EducaOonal Technologies
SCAFFOLDING Numerous theories of reading development recommend scaﬀolding to promote literacy development .
Ebooks provide supports including • digital scaﬀolding supports (McKenna, Reinking, Labbo, & Kieﬀer, 1999), • word pronunciaOon tools to assist students with phonological awareness and decoding of text (Olson & Wise, 1992; Wise et al.,1989), • pictures cues and read aloud op,ons to enhance comprehension (Doty, Popplewell, & Byers, 2001; Greenlee-‐Moore & Smith, 1996; Maahew 1996; 1997).
Ebooks provide scaﬀolding through narra,ons, anima,ons and interac,ve media, which support young children who are developing emergent literacy skills.
Digital Features Designed to Provide Evidence-‐Based InstrucOon Emergent Literacy Skill Digital Feature Evidence-‐Based InstrucOonal Technique Alphabet Knowledge Computer oﬀers leaer pronuncia,on Adult names leaers Computer highlights and repeats leaers Adult points to leaers Print Awareness Computer provides wriaen text Adult reads and points to text Computer reads and highlights text Computer oﬀers click to turn page and read op,ons on each page Adult allows child to turn pages or reads requested words on the page Phonological Awareness Computer oﬀers word pronuncia,on Adult blends and segments words
Emergent Literacy Skill Digital Feature Evidence-‐Based InstrucOonal Technique Use and Understanding of Language Computer asks ques,ons about book (e.g., who, what, how, when, and where) Adults asks ques,ons about book (e.g., who, what, how, when, and where) Characters talk in various voices Adult uses voices to indicate diﬀerent characters Comprehension Computer deﬁnes words Adult explains word meaning Computer oﬀers anima,ons to support the text Adult oﬀers explana,on of what is happening within the story Computer oﬀers repeated readings of the storybook to support understanding of story plot Adult oﬀer repeated readings of text to support understanding of story plot Reading Engagement and Expansion Ac,vi,es Digital anima,ons, sounds, games, and ac,vi,es within play and read modes Adult voices, ques,ons, and facial expressions, and reading manipula,ves Digital Features Designed to Provide Evidence-‐Based InstrucOon
Akron SummitCommunity Action, Inc.Ebooks in Akron Ready Steps hap://akronreadysteps.ning.com/
Phase 1: Ebook Phase 2: Environment Phase 3: Engagement Phase 4: Instruc,on DESIGN PROCESS 4 phase study each phase for 6-‐8 weeks The goal of ‘pujng the lens down on each component’ and in the process developing tools that can help us look more systema,cally at each component.
eReaders (PDF) Web Apps (Flash/Java) Mobile Apps (iPad/Android) Digital Storybook Audio Storybook Video Storybook Interac,ve Storybook @brueckj23 EBOOK SPECTRUM
Physical Space (Classroom) Physical Space (Classroom) Digital Space Core Skills New Context Learning Space formal informal synchronous asynchronous Developed by Mr. David Jakes. Used with permission. OUR EDGE
Shared eBook Reading PlanTitle: Date:New Words:Instructional Segment Plan NotesNote pre-selectedscreens for instruction;information/ vocabularyto point out; organizationfor mobile readingBeforeUse pocket chart forintroducing target words• Point out title, author• Discuss what the storyis about• Highlight vocabularywords (Say; Tell; Do)During • Listen or Read Aloud• Pause to discuss• Highlight new words(as needed)After • Ask for favorite part• Repeat new words (asneeded)• Prepare for mobilereadingMobile • Distribute mobiledevices to individualsor pairs• Select place tobrowse/read• Monitor engagementObservationsNote: Keep vocabulary instruction short and simple. (1) Say target words and ask children tosay them. (2) Tell about the word meaning and encourage children to talk about the meaninga little bit. (3) Use a gesture (if possible) to help children remember the word; invitechildren to use the gesture + say the word.INSTRUCTIONAL RESOURCES
This small but growing body of lab-‐based and ﬁeld research suggests that the signature characterisOcs of ebooks do not appear to interfere with the emerging literacy skills of most children, and in fact may be promoOng essenOal skill development for some children. LESSONS LEARNED