NEASIS&T 2017: Service Co-Design

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Service Co-Design: Using Participatory Design methods to Empower Users

NEASIS&T Conference 2017
Service Design: The Holistic Experience
January 12th 2017

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  • We’ll cover:
    Core concepts in participatory design and service design - and how they intersect
    Basic participatory service design methods, including fundamental tools and exercises
    How to choose activities, frame design prompts, and facilitate participatory service design activities with to generate the best results
    How to use the outputs of these activities to create actionable insights
     
  • Buchanan’s conclusion was that the ultimate purpose of service design is to give people the INFORMATION and TOOLS needed to ACT — to be free to live as one would choose

    On one hand, services are viewed as performances: choreographed interactions manufactured at the point of delivery that form a process and coproduce value, utility, satisfaction, and delight in response to human needs

    On the other hand, activities or events in a service process are described as forming a perceivable set or ‘‘product’’ through interaction with designed elements or resources from representatives of the service organization, the customer, and any mediating technology
  • Participatory Mindset is different from more traditional Expert Mindset. One is no better than the other, but in North America in particular, we’ve focused mostly on Expert Mindset design… while a Participatory approach has only been explored and embraced more recently.
  • None of these is better than the others– all windows looking into the same room.
  • Participatory design methods can be used in the early discovery phases as a form of research augmentation, where it helps uncover latent needs, but when used later during generative phases and constructive activities are built in a way to facilitate “real” solution building, it can also help develop viable solution concepts
  • Recommended Books:
    Convivial Toolbox by Liz Sanders
    Universal Methods of Design by Bella Martin & Bruce Hanington
    The Service Innovation Handbook by Lucy Kimbell
  • Nurses designing an ideal workflow on a patient floor– the toolkit components are round, designed for this specific activity.

    Other examples: legos for building physical spaces, minecraft for kids, blocks, etc
  • Some folks equate participatory design session with “hackathon.” There are pros and cons to structuring design activities in this manner, and its not the only (or best) way to get people involved in the design process for their own benefit.
  • Collage/empathy map with images– code backs of images, create quantitative scoring system
  • NEASIS&T 2017: Service Co-Design

    1. 1. Jennifer Briselli Managing Director, Experience Strategy & Design @jbriselli jbriselli@madpow.com Service Co-Design Using Participatory Design Methods to Empower Users
    2. 2. What is Service Design? What is Participatory Design? How do they intersect? Why might you use this type of design in your own practice? What are some methods and activities, and how do you choose them? What does it look like? How do you do it? What do you do with the results of these methods? Q & A Overview
    3. 3. What is Service Design?
    4. 4. One one hand: “Performances. Choreographed interactions, manufactured at the point of delivery, forming a process and co-producing value, utility, satisfaction, and delight in response to human needs.” One the other hand: “Activities or events in a service process become a product, through interactions with designed elements or resources, from representatives of the organization, brand, customer, and mediating technology.” What is Service Design?
    5. 5. Richard Buchanan: The ultimate purpose of service design is to give people the information and tools needed to act, according to their own wishes and needs. What is Service Design?
    6. 6. (Stage) Design Experience (Seating/ Audience) Target Users/Customers/Patients (Ticket Office) Marketing and Awareness (Back Stage) Invisible Supporting elements
    7. 7. Journey Maps help us understand how customers’ needs, feelings, and activities vary over time, and allow us to identify gaps, pain points, and opportunities. Experience Journey Maps & Blueprints
    8. 8. Traditional Journey Maps focus on the customer’s firsthand experience and often illustrate the emotional highs and lows as well as behavioral triggers. Example: Journey Map
    9. 9. Service Blueprints are a type of Journey Map that illustrate not only the customer’s firsthand experience but also include information about interactions with an organization or brand, and behind-the-scenes operational or technical support processes. Example: Service Blueprint
    10. 10. What is Participatory Design?
    11. 11. What it is: An approach to design that invites all stakeholders (e.g. ‘end users,’ employees, partners, customers, citizens, consumers, patients, providers) into the design process as a means of better understanding, meeting, and sometimes preempting their needs. What it is not: • A way to “make your users do your job for you” • A single prescriptive method or tool • A rigidly defined process • (see also: co-design, co-creation, co-production, collaborative design…) • A holy grail What is Participatory Design?
    12. 12. Involving the people we’re serving through design as participants in the process. What is Participatory Design?
    13. 13. Design Process DISCOVER Adapted from “Double Diamond Model of Product Definition and Design” from UK Design Council
    14. 14. DISCOVER SYNTHESIZE Design Process Adapted from “Double Diamond Model of Product Definition and Design” from UK Design Council
    15. 15. DISCOVER SYNTHESIZE GENERATE Design Process Adapted from “Double Diamond Model of Product Definition and Design” from UK Design Council
    16. 16. DISCOVER SYNTHESIZE GENERATE FOCUS Design Process Adapted from “Double Diamond Model of Product Definition and Design” from UK Design Council
    17. 17. DISCOVER SYNTHESIZE GENERATE FOCUS EVALUATE Design Process Adapted from “Double Diamond Model of Product Definition and Design” from UK Design Council
    18. 18. DISCOVER SYNTHESIZE GENERATE FOCUS Adapted from “Double Diamond Model of Product Definition and Design” from UK Design Council Generates design principles & direction Generates viable solution concepts Where does participatory design fit in?
    19. 19. “Participatory design methods, especially generative or ‘making’ activities, provide a design language for non designers (future users) to imagine and express their own ideas for how they want to live, work, and play in the future.” - Liz Sanders In other words: It leads to better experiences & outcomes. Service Co-Design: Why it’s useful
    20. 20. Generative methods uncover latent needs. Image: Liz Sanders
    21. 21. Framing: Identifying goals, objectives, key questions, hypotheses Planning: Planning activities that answer these questions Facilitating: Ensuring & documenting productive participation Analyzing: Making sense of it all to identify actionable insights Service Co-Design: How to do it
    22. 22. Framing
    23. 23. Stakeholders, Co-creators, End Users Challenges & Goals Questions & Unknowns Assumptions & Hypotheses Choosing Activities Framing
    24. 24. Three categories of activity Narrate: Participants help us understand their needs via storytelling Create: Participants generate ideas and create prototypes of products, services, or experiences (these can be very realistic or completely unrealistic) • Sometimes participants create viable solution concepts • Sometimes participants create items that give designers insight & direction Prioritize: Participants make connections and judgments that help us understand the value of potential design solutions Choosing activities & methods
    25. 25. Telling stories helps participants express more detailed and emotionally resonant experiences. These activities are intended to elicit memories and help build empathy and understanding. Examples: • Journey mapping • Love letter/breakup letter • Collaging • Empathy mapping • Knowledge hunt • Reenactments ‘Narrate’ activities
    26. 26. Participants can provide a lot of insight when provided tools and opportunities to design without constraints or expectations. Examples: • Magic screen/button/object • Interface toolkit • Physical/paper/rapid prototyping • Fill in the blank • Ideal workflow • Ecosystem mapping ‘Create’ activities
    27. 27. These activities help participants and designers evaluate and understand the value of existing experiences or potential future design solutions. Examples: • Card sorting • Channel sorting • Value ranking • Storyboard/Concept speed dating • Bodystorming/Gamestorming • 2x2 grids ‘Prioritize’ activities
    28. 28. The design prompt sets the stage and ensures participants will focus their contributions on the goals, questions, or hypotheses you’ve identified. For example: “Use the items provided to create a perfect remote control.” “Draw an imaginary classroom that provides all your educational needs.” “Create a script for the ideal interaction between a student and counselor.” Design Prompts
    29. 29. 1. Identify a design goal or hypothesis to be explored 2. Create a design prompt for participants for each activity We’ll “try” a few activities today: • Collage • Journey Map • Magic Object • 2x2 Framing: Let’s Try It
    30. 30. Activity 1: Collage Ex: “Make a collage that represents what your library means to you.” Activity 2: Journey Map Ex: “Create a diagram that illustrates the process of finding and checking out a book, including how you feel throughout the process.” Activity 3: Magic Object Ex: “Use the items provided to create a tool, service, or magic object that would make the library experience better for you.” Activity 3: 2x2 Ex: “Place the items where you feel they most belong in the grid.” Framing: Let’s Try It
    31. 31. Planning
    32. 32. Where: office, school, home, outdoors, in context Who & how many: large group, small group, individual Observation methods: notes, video, photo, artifacts Materials: construction kits, legos, playdoh Logistics: recruiting (>2 weeks), honorarium, volunteers, observers Planning
    33. 33. Let’s plan the activities…
    34. 34. Collage This activity helps members’ express their experiences and needs in a way words can sometimes fail to describe. Participants will also put themselves at the center of the map, which allows us to understand how members’ conceive of their own agency (or lack thereof). How: Participants are provided a prompt and asked to spend 30-45 minutes creating a collage that describes their feelings about the prompt. Participants are then asked to share and discuss their collage. Facilitators may ask participants to elaborate to better elucidate examples and opportunities. Materials: paper, images, glue sticks or tape, writing utensils, post-its
    35. 35. Journey Map This activity helps members’ express their experiences and needs in a way words can sometimes fail to describe. Participants can be asked to express their current experience, or design an ideal future experience, or to compare and contrast both. How: Participants are provided a prompt and asked to spend 30-45 minutes creating a map or flow that illustrates a typical series of steps or tasks. Participants are then asked to share and discuss their journey map. Facilitators may ask participants to elaborate to better elucidate examples and opportunities. Materials: paper, post-its, glue sticks or tape, writing utensils
    36. 36. Magic Object Providing members with materials that allow them to engage in a making process can provide insights about potential design solutions as well as uncover latent needs. How: Participants are provided building materials and a prompt, and asked to spend 30-45 minutes creating the objects. Participants are then asked to share and briefly discuss their creations. Facilitators may ask members to elaborate on aspects of their explanation where appropriate to elucidate examples and opportunities. Materials: Paper, construction materials, glue sticks or tape
    37. 37. 2 x 2 This activity helps customers’ express priority and categorization; it’s a way to understand their mental model and allow customers to design ideal content structures, information architecture, or other experience structures at the same time. How: Participants are provided a labeled 2 x 2 grid and a series of words or images, and asked to spend 30-45 minutes placing the words or images within the grid wherever they make sense to the participant. They are then asked to share and discuss their creation. Materials: paper, labeled 2 x 2 grid, images or words printed on cards, glue sticks or tape,
    38. 38. Facilitating
    39. 39. Be prepared Be yourself Be flexible & adaptive Be reflective Be warm & friendly Facilitating: Participation
    40. 40. Document Document Document • Dedicated note taker(s) • Photograph • Record audio & visual when possible • Keep artifacts when possible Ask participants to tell you about what they create • Show & tell • Share a story • Write a commercial • Create a pitch What they create is often less important than how they describe its value. Facilitating: Capturing Value
    41. 41. Let’s Try it… Participating: Think about following the design prompt based on your own personal experiences, and what you think and feel as you try the activity. Facilitating: Think about what you see, hear, and notice as you observe others participating in the activities. If you were facilitating, what would you capture? What would you ask?
    42. 42. Analyzing
    43. 43. Cull: Cut irrelevant or incomplete information Normalize: get everything into a common format • excel • text documents • grids • post-its Review: Follow your instinct… analysis is as much art as science Expect to spend at least 2 hours of analysis for every hour facilitating. Analyzing
    44. 44. Raw Data • Notes • Photos • Videos • Audio • Artifacts Normalized Data • Spreadsheets • Post-its • Transcripts Participant Clusters Opportunity Clusters Theme/Affinity Clusters Identified Patterns Potential Output • Focus Areas • Design Characteristics • Design Principles • Solution Concepts • Prototype Ideas
    45. 45. Participant 1 Notes & Photos Participant 2 Participant 3 Opportunity 1 Opportunity 2 Pattern 1 Pattern 2 Opportunity 3
    46. 46. What are the most important takeaways for your organization? What are the most important questions we left unanswered? What are the aspects you are most and least confident about implementing in your own practice? Wrap Up / Q & A
    47. 47. Jennifer Briselli Managing Director, Experience Strategy & Design @jbriselli jbriselli@madpow.com Thanks!

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