History of darfur


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  • genocide
  • History of darfur

    1. 1. The History of Darfur
    2. 2. Darfur is located in Sudan Represents frontier between the Arab world and black Africa For 10 years, Sudan has hardly seen peace – regularly dealing with crises Darfur
    3. 3. <ul><li>Two distinct major cultures: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arab </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Black African </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hundreds of ethnic and tribal subdivisions and language groups </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>make effective collaboration a major political challenge </li></ul></ul></ul>Sudan’s population is one of the most diverse on the African continent.
    4. 4. Islamic Influence Fundamentalist Islamic law was instituted by Major General Gaafar Mohamed Nimeiri in 1983 Sudan proclaimed independence in 1956 from Egypt and Britain Series of unstable parliamentary governments established
    5. 5. Growing Differences Influenced by the National Islamic Front and southern rebels, and supported by the Sudan People’s Liberation Army, unending civil war erupted between government forces. Language Religion Political Power Ethnicity
    6. 6. A famine in the mid-1980s disrupted many societal structures Led to first significant fighting among people in Darfur Low level conflict continued for 15 years Government survived and armed &quot;Arab&quot; militias against its enemies Start of the Crisis
    7. 7. Fight for Resources The arid, mountainous soil is central to the conflict between African farmers and Arab herders There is an eternal fight for water, food, and shelter Below-normal rainfall and massive numbers of displaced people have led to water shortages in refugee camps
    8. 8. <ul><li>A secret group called “Tajamu al Arabi” </li></ul><ul><li>(Arab Gathering) emerged in the </li></ul><ul><li>Darfur region in the 1980s. </li></ul>This group created tensions between Muslims and Non-Arab Africans with violent attacks against the Non-Arab Africans.
    9. 9. <ul><li>The mentality behind the conflict stems from the 1960s and 1970s. The ideology of Arab supremacies grows in northern Africa. </li></ul>
    10. 11. In 2003, the Non-Arab Africans combined forces to protect themselves against the militia groups. The Sudanese government became involved in the 1990s, funding militia groups who were carrying out the attacks.
    11. 12. <ul><li>Capital : Khartoum </li></ul><ul><li>President : General Omar Hassan Ahmad Al-Bashir </li></ul><ul><li>Industries : Oil, Textiles, Cement, Sugar </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Resources : Oil, Iron Ore, Copper, Zinc </li></ul><ul><li>Per Capita GDP : 1,900 </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic Groups : Black 52%, Arab 39% </li></ul><ul><li>Capital : Washington D.C. </li></ul><ul><li>President : George W. Bush </li></ul><ul><li>Industries : Oil, Steel, Chemicals, Aerospace, Food Process </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Resources : Coal, Copper, Lead, Gold, Iron, and Nickel </li></ul><ul><li>Per Capita GDP : 40,100 </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic Groups : White 75.1%, Black 12.3%, Hispanic 12.5%, Asian 3.6% </li></ul>Sudan United States
    12. 13. <ul><li>TV Sets: 173/1000 </li></ul><ul><li>Newspaper: 27/1000 </li></ul><ul><li>Internet: 300,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Life Expectancy: 57.3 male, 59.8 female </li></ul><ul><li>Infant Mortality: 62.5/1000 </li></ul><ul><li>Education: mandatory ages 6-13 </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy: 61.1% </li></ul><ul><li>TV Sets: 844/1000 </li></ul><ul><li>Newspaper: 212/1000 </li></ul><ul><li>Internet: 161.6 million users </li></ul><ul><li>Life Expectancy: 74.9 male, 80.7 female </li></ul><ul><li>Infant Mortality: 6.5/1000 </li></ul><ul><li>Education: mandatory 6-17 </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy: 97% </li></ul>Sudan United States
    13. 14. Janjaweed Attack The Janjaweed, a rebel militia group, contribute to much of the violence in Sudan, which has created over 2.5 million refugees Mostly members of nomadic “Arab” tribes, long at odds with settled “African” farmers in Darfur Target non-Islamic Sudanese
    14. 15. “ The refugees are going to have to move. There’s going to be nothing here to sustain life.” - Palouma Ponlibae Agriculture and Natural-Resources Officer for CARE
    15. 16. Before crisis Save Darfur