Race, Ethnicity, Sex, and Gender(Chapter 10-11)Dr. Bradford
Race and Ethnicity• Race = a category of people who have beensingled out as inferior or superior, often on thebasis of real or alleged physical characteristicssuch as skin color, hair texture, eye shape, orother subjectively selected attributes• Ethnicity or Ethnic group = collection of peopledistinguished, by others or by themselves,primarily on the basis of cultural or nationalitycharacteristics
Race and Ethnicity• Race is NOT biologically Real! (Although it isculturally/socially very real)– How people are classified according to ‘races’ differsfrom place to place and changes over time.– *There is as much genetic variations within a racialcategory as there is differences between them.– Stated differently, two people of different races areas (likely to be as) genetically similar as two peoplewithin the same race.
Race and Ethnicity• Race is NOT biologically Real!(Although it is culturally/sociallyvery real)– There is no single physicalcharacteristic that all members ofa single race possess that no oneof any other race does notpossess.– Racial markers are notconcordant with (i.e. do notcorrelate with) either simpletraits (e.g. height, weight, eyecolor, etc.), nor any of thecomplex traits that mattersocially (e.g. intelligence, athleticability, etc.)
Prejudice• Prejudice: a hostile or negative attitudetoward people in a distinguishable group,based solely on their membership in thatgroup.• Three components:1. Cognitive2. Emotional (‘affective’);3. Behavioral (discrimination).
Prejudice (Cognitive)• Stereotype: a generalization about a group ofpeople, in which certain traits are assigned tovirtually all members of the group, regardlessof actual variation among the members.– Stereotypes can be positive or negative– Why do we stereotype? “The law of leasteffort”- because the world is complicated … formost things we rely on simple, sketchy beliefs.
Prejudice (Cognitive)• Positive Stereotypes– Example: African American athletic ability– In one study, students were asked to listento a 20-minute audio tape of a college basketball game and torate the performance of ‘Mark Flick.’ Students whowere told that ‘Mark Flick’ was African Americanconsistently rated his performance higher than thosewho were told he was caucasion.• Illusory correlation: the tendency to seerelationships, or correlations, between eventsthat are actually unrelated.
Prejudice (Behavioral)• Discrimination: an unjustified negative orharmful action toward the members of a groupsolely because of their membership in that group.• ‘micro-aggressions’: the slights, indignities, andput-downs that many minorities and people withdisabilities face.• In 1942, 98% of the white population supportedsegregation of schools. By 1988, only 3% ofwhites said they wouldn’t want their child toattend school with black children.
Modern Racism andOther Implicit Prejudices• Modern racism: outwardly acting unprejudicedwhile inwardly maintaining prejudiced attitudes.• Implicit Association Test (IAT):– Claim: if it takes whites longer to associate positivewords with black faces than negative words with blackfaces, then whites must harbor some implicitprejudice towards blacks.– However, other researchers showed they got asignificant effect when using nonsense words orneutral words, so whatever it is measuring, it mightnot be a stable prejudice, but how much the wordassociated with the target stands out, i.e. its salience.
Modern Racism andOther Implicit Prejudices• ‘Shooter-bias’ in a videogame• Findings: Participantswere especially likely topull the trigger when thepeople in the picture wereblack, whether or not theywere holding a gun.
Modern Racism andOther Implicit Prejudices• However, the book doesnot mention that this biasalso holds for black videogame players!• What does this mean?
Effects of Prejudice on the Victim• Self-fulfilling prophecy– In one study, White college undergraduates wereasked to interview candidates for a job. They acteddisinterested in African American candidates, satfarther away, tended to stammer, and ended theinterview sooner than compared to white candidates.– The ‘employers’ (actually confederates in the study),then interviewed only white applicants, actingtowards half of them the way they had acted towardsAfrican Americans.– Independent judges watching these interviewsevaluated those applicants who had been treated asthe African Americans had!
Effects of Prejudice on the Victim• Self-fulfilling prophecy– This study shows that how applicants wereevaluated, how competent they appeared to be,was largely influenced by something over whichthey had little control: the expectations of theinterviewer.
Effects of Prejudice on the Victim• Stereotype threat: the stress and apprehensionexperienced by members of a group that their behaviormight confirm a cultural stereotype.• Study: African and American and white students weregiven a difficult test: the GRE. Half of them were told itmeasured intellectual ability, and the other half were toldthe test was still being developed, wasn’t reliable, anddidn’t measure anything.• Findings: white students performed equally well (orpoorly) regardless of whether they thought they werebeing evaluated. African American students who thoughtthey were being evaluated performed much worse thanthose who were led to believe the test was meaningless,who also performed as well as whites.
How can prejudice be reduced?• Contact hypothesis: contact with people fromother groups tends to reduce your prejudiceagainst them.– Study: black students at majority whiteuniversities felt a greater sense of belonging andsatisfaction the more white friends they made.
How can prejudice be reduced?• NOT ALL CONTACT REDUCES PREJUDICE!• After all, slavery is also a kind of ‘contact.’
How can prejudice be reduced?Six Conditions in which Contact Reduces Prejudice:1. Mutual interdependence2. Having a common goal3. Equal status and power4. Must occur in friendly, informal setting5. Individual must learn that these out-groupmembers who they come to know are typical oftheir group6. Social norms that promote and support equalityamong groups are operating in the situation
Sex and Gender• Sex = biological, physicalcharacteristics; “Nature”• Gender = cultural roles orsocial expectations aboutthe attributes and behaviorof males and females;“Nurture”– ‘Gender is not something youhave, it is something you do’
Gender Gap RankingsCountry(top 10)OverallRankIceland 1Norway 2Finland 3Sweden 4New Zealand 5Ireland 6Denmark 7Lesotho 8Philippines 9Switzerland 10*USA *19• Ranking based on theextent to which womenhave achieved equalityin 4 areas:1. Economic participationand opportunity2. Education3. Health4. Political empowerment
Sex and Gender• What are some ‘culturalscripts’ (stereotypes) wehave about men andwomen?– Dress, emotional states, waysof talking…Would you ever see a malehuman proposing to a femaledog in a cartoon?