viii Final Years; 1949-1953


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The last session finishes Stalin's life. China, Korea, the Leningrad Affair, the Doctors Plot and his bizarre death. There is also a look at America's reaction to the Cold War.

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viii Final Years; 1949-1953

  1. 1. !!!" !#$%&'$ Stalin’s SSSR session viii-Final Days; 1949-1953 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  2. 2. this session’s major topics • The East is Red! • Korea • “Our American Friends” • more Enemies • the Doctors Plot • final rest Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  3. 3. the East is Red! Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  4. 4. the East is Red! Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  5. 5. Kuomintang (also Guomindang) (KMT) • 1894-origins in Sun’s founding of the Revive China Society in Honolulu, Hawaii • 1911-a revolution overthrew the Quing (Ching or Manchu) Dynasty • attempts to found a successful democratic republic faced resistance by warlords and a would-be strongman Yuan Shikai • 1920-Sun proclaimed a government in Guangzhou (Canton) Dr. Sun Yat-sen 1866-1925 “Father of the Nation” • 1923-unrecognized by the western powers, he accepted aid and advisors from the USSR Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  6. 6. communist origins The May Fourth Movement (traditional Chinese: ;  simplified  Chinese: ;  pinyin: Wǔsì Yùndòng) was an anti-imperialist, cultural, and political movement growing out of student demonstrations in Beijing on May 4, 1919 protesting Sun Yat Senʼs government's weak response to the Treaty of Versailles, especially the Shandong Problem. These demonstrations sparked national protests and marked the upsurge of Chinese nationalism, a shift towards political mobilization and away from cultural activities, and a move towards populist base rather than intellectual elites. The broader use of the term "May Fourth Movement" often refers to the period during 1915-1921 more usually called the New Culture Movement. Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  7. 7. Marxist ideas started to spread widely in China after the 1919 May Fourth Movement. In June 1920, Comintern agent Grigori Voitinsky was sent to China, and met Li Dazhao and other reformers. He Chen Duxiu financed the founding of the Socialist Youth Corps. The Communist Party of China (CPC) was initially founded by Chen Duxiu Li Dazhao and Li Dazhao in the French concession of Shanghai in 1921 as a study society and an Voitinsky informal network. There were informal groups in China in 1920, and also overseas, but the official beginning was the 1st Congress held in Shanghai and attended by 53 men in July 1921, when the formal and In 1920 Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao met Comintern unified name Zhōngguó Gòngchǎn Dǎng Russian agent G.N. Voitinsky (Chinese Communist Party) was adopted Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  8. 8. Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  9. 9. Russia’s guiding hand • 1920-the Comintern established the Far Eastern Bureau in Siberia • the bureau’s deputy manager, Voitinsky, went to Beijing and contacted Li Dazhao who sent him south to meet other comrades • August 1920-Shanghai, he begins to establish the Comintern China Branch • 1919-Russian ex-pat Shemeshko had already set up the Shanghai Chronicle with Soviet $ Grigori Naumovich Voitinsky • Voitinsky and others used it as a “cover” and 1893-1956 as a propaganda organ in the early days Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  10. 10. Mikhail Borodin architect of the Guomindang-CCP alliance • born near Vitebsk, Belarus • 1903-joined RSDLP(b) • 1908-arrested, chose exile to the US, attended Valparaiso University • 1918-returned to Russia • 1919-1922--Comintern agent in Mexico, the US and UK • 1923-28--in China; arranged arms shipments to Kuomintang (KMT) government in Canton, prominent adviser to Dr. Sun Yat Sen, following his suggestion, the KMT allowed communists to join and the Whampoa Military Academy was established Mikhail Markovich Borodin 1884-1951 picture in 1919 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  11. 11. Mikhail Borodin architect of the Guomindang-CCP alliance • born near Vitebsk, Belarus • 1903-joined RSDLP(b) • 1908-arrested, chose exile to the US, attended Valparaiso University • 1918-returned to Russia • 1919-1922--Comintern agent in Mexico, the US and UK • 1923-28--in China; arranged arms shipments to Kuomintang (KMT) government in Canton, prominent adviser to Dr. Sun Yat Sen, following his suggestion, the KMT allowed communists to join and the Whampoa Military Academy was established Mikhail Markovich Borodin 1884-1951 picture in 1919 • 1925- Dr. Sun dies Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  12. 12. architect of the Guomindang-CCP alliance • 1925- Dr. Sun dies. Borodin remains an advisor to the KMT while Chiang-Kai-Shek gains power against the Left Wing • 1927-the Shanghai uprising is suppressed by General Chiang • 1928-orders for Borodin’s arrest are issued • he escapes back to Moscow • 1930-works as editor-in -chief of the English language Moscow News, founded by his American friend Anna-Louise Strong • 1937-two assistant editors were executed in the Great Purge • 1949- Borodin is accused of being an enemy of the people, (the Mikhail Markovich Borodin 1884-1951 newspaper was shut down until 1956) sent to the Gulag, where he picture after 1928 dies two years later Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  13. 13. Moscow meddles in China’s revolution; 1926-1927 • early 1926-the Comintern admitted the KMT as an associate party and Chiang as an associate member of its Executive Committee • 20 March-Chiang barred communists from all posts at the KMT headquarters, demanded membership lists • Chen Duxiu bowed to Moscow’s pressure to submit, still he feared that the KMT was preparing for civil war with the CPC • Trotsky had voiced misgivings as early as 1924 and repeated them now • Stalin and Bukharin felt it was more important to back the KMT Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  14. 14. the Northern Expedition and Shanghai massacre, 1927 • 1923- Dr. Sun had sent Chiang to Moscow for several months study • 1926-Chiang led the KMT north against the Warlords • April 6,1927-after the Left Wing of the KMT declared Wuhan to be the new capital, Chiang called a meeting demanding the end of Borodin’s influence • April 12-when he didn’t receive satisfaction, he unleashed the massacre of hundreds (?) thousands Chiang-Kai-Shek (?) of CPC members 1887-1975 picture 1926 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  15. 15. CPC members being led KMT soldiers escort them to their deaths Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  16. 16. remember the debate between the Trotskyist Opposition and Stalin over Socialism in one Country? In December 1927 the communist rising of Canton had been suppressed. The rising had been the last act...of the drama of 1925-7. The shock of the defeat was making itself felt in all Bolshevik thinking: it sapped even further and submerged the internationalist tradition of Leninism; and it enhanced Russian self-centeredness. More than ever socialism in one country appeared to offer the only way out… Deutscher, The Prophet Unarmed, p. 355 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  17. 17. Unsuccessful urban insurrections (in Nanchang, Wuhan and Guangzhou) and the suppression of the Communist Party in Shanghai and other cities finally drove many party supporters to rural strongholds such as the Jiangxi Soviet organized by Mao Zedong. By 1928, deserters and defecting Kuomintang army units, supplemented by peasants from the Communist rural soviets, formed the Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army. The ideological confrontation between the CCP and the KMT soon evolved into the first phase of the Chinese Civil War. Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  18. 18. the rivals Chiang in 1934 Mao in 1935 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  19. 19. The Changzheng (Long March); 8,000 miles over 370 days Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  20. 20. Hostilities ceased while the Nationalists and Chinese Communists formed a nominal alliance during the Second Sino-Japanese War from 1937 until 1945. During these years, the Chinese Communist Party persevered and strengthened its influence. The Red Army fought a disciplined and organized guerilla campaign against superior Japanese forces, allowing it to gain experience. Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  21. 21. Chiang’s son Chiang Mao US diplomat Patrick J Hurley The first post-war peace negotiation was attended by both Chiang Kai- shek and Mao Zedong in Chongqing (Chunking) from August 28, 1945 to Oct 10, 1945. Both sides stressed the importance of a peaceful reconstruction, but the conference did not produce any concrete result. Battles between the two sides continued even as the peace negotiation was in progress, until the agreement was reached in January 1946. However, large campaigns and full scale confrontations between the CPC and Chiang's own troops were temporarily avoided. Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  22. 22. The CPC were able to capture a large number of weapons abandoned by the Japanese, including some tanks but it was not until large numbers of well trained KMT troops surrendered and joined the communist forces that the CPC were finally able to master the hardware. But despite the disadvantage in military hardware, the CPC's ultimate trump card was its land reform policy. The CPC continued to make the irresistible promise in the countryside to the massive number of landless and starving Chinese peasants that by fighting for the CPC they will be able to take farmland from their landlords. This strategy enabled the CPC to access an almost unlimited supply of manpower to use in combat as well as provide logistic support, despite suffering heavy casualties throughout many civil war campaigns. Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  23. 23. the “War of Liberation,” June 1946-Dec 1949 The People’s Liberation Army enters Peking/Beijing 31 Jan 1949 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  24. 24. The Chinese Civil War was in its last throes. Stalin had miscalculated how quickly Chiang Kai-shek’s regime would collapse. Until 1948, Mao Tse-tung’s success was an inconvenience to Stalin’s policy of a realpolitik partnership with the West but the Cold War changed his mind. He began to think of Mao as a potential ally even though he told Beria that the Chairman was a “margarine Marxist.” Montefiore, p. 590 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  25. 25. Mao proclaiming the PRC 1 October 1949 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  26. 26. At 6 p.m. [16 December 1949], Mao and Stalin met for the first time at the Little Corner. The two Communist titans of the century, both fanatics, poets, paranoiacs, peasants risen to rule empires whose history obsessed them, careless killers of millions, and amateur military commanders, aimed to seal America’s worst nightmare: a Sino-Soviet treaty that would be Stalin’s last significant achievement. Montefiore, p. 603 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  27. 27. 21 December 1949 Mao at the Bolshoi for Stalin’s seventieth birthday celebration. He comes, not to submit to “the Genius Leader of All Progressive Mankind,” but as an equal to bargain determinedly for a treaty recognizing China’s interests. Stalin is not pleased. Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  28. 28. Korea Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  29. 29. Korea Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  30. 30. …[As early as the 1920s] the Korean Communists attached themselves to the Chinese Communist Party and the Soviet administrations in Siberia and the Maritime Territory. Even before the Sino-Japanese War became the Asia-Pacific War in 1941, the Korean Communists had made greater headway than the nationalists in preparing to ensure that their revolution would triumph after liberation. The nationalists failed to organize an effective disciplined party, a mass population base and an armed force, and they failed to secure foreign patronage. Allan R. Millett, The War for Korea,1945-1950, p. 31 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  31. 31. • 1943-at the Cairo Conference FDR & Churchill agreed that Korea would become independent, “in due course.” Stalin agreed at Teheran. • 1945-at Yalta, they failed to agree upon a trusteeship, and at Potsdam, they divided the occupation zones at the 38th parallel. Once again, Korea wasn’t consulted • 10 August-the Red Army stopped at the line and waited 38º 3 weeks for US forces to arrive and take the Japanese North surrender jointly Latitude • Korean nationalists chafed under yet another occupation. There were strikes and uprisings • both sides put forward their “strongmen;” Kim Il-sung in the North and Syngman Rhee in the South Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  32. 32. Stalin counsels caution • 1948-rejecting the original 5-year trusteeship period, the US scheduled nationwide elections. North Korea refused to participate as did communists in the South • Rhee’s party won 80% and was recognized by the US as the Republic of Korea • March 1949-Kim Il-sung travelled to Moscow seeking military assistance and approval for an invasion of the South • Stalin refused and advised him to continue preparing, but only counter- attacking if invaded • Kim wanted war and continued to make border provocations and repeated his requests to Stalin for military aid and the “green light” Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  33. 33. a “green light” for invasion from the US? • Acheson's speech on January 12, 1950, before the National Press Club seemed to say that South Korea was beyond the American defense line and that American support for the new Syngman Rhee government in South Korea would be limited. Critics later charged that Acheson's ambiguity provided Joseph Stalin and Kim Il-sung with reason to believe the US would not intervene if they invaded the South. However, evidence from Korean and Soviet archives demonstrates that Stalin and Kim's decisions were not influenced by Acheson's speech. Dean Gooderham Acheson David S. McLellan, "Dean Acheson and the Korean War," Political Science (1893 – 1971) Quarterly, Vol. 83, No. 1 (Mar., 1968), pp. 16-39 US Secretary of State January 21, 1949 – January 20, 1953 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  34. 34. Stalin changes his mind After ambassador Shtykov informed Moscow of this wave of demands by Pyongyang, Stalin (on 30 January 1950) replied (through diplomatic channels): "I understand the unhappiness of comrade Kim II Sung, but he must understand that such a large matter regarding South Korea... requires thorough preparation. It has to be organized in such a way that there will not be a large risk. If he wants to talk to me on this issue, then I'll always be ready to receive him and talk to him...I am prepared to help him in this matter." Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  35. 35. Why he became more willing to risk war • April 1949-the establishment of NATO and a general deterioration of Soviet relations with the West • August 1949-the Soviet acquisition of the atomic bomb • October 1949-the victory of the communists in China • a perceived weakening of Washington’s position and its will to become militarily involved in Asia • US troop levels in South Korea had been drawn down from 40,000 to a Military Assistance and Advisory Group (MAAG) of 425 officers and men • North Korean forces: men, Soviet tanks and aircraft were vastly superior to the South’s Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  36. 36. Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  37. 37. Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  38. 38. Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  39. 39. Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  40. 40. Mao and Stalin On 1 October 1950 Kim Il-sung sent a telegram to China asking for military intervention. On the same day, Mao Zedong had received Stalin's telegram, suggesting China send troops into Korea. ■ On 5 October 1950, under Mao Zedong and Peng Dehuai's pressure, the Chinese Communist Central Committee had finalized the decision of military intervention in Korea. ■ On 11 October 1950 Stalin and Zhou Enlai sent a joint signed telegram to Mao, stating: 1. Proposed Chinese troops are ill prepared and without tanks and artillery; requested air cover would take two months to arrive. 2. Within one month, fully equipped troops had to be in position; otherwise, US troops would step over the 38 parallel line and take over North Korea. 3. Fully equipped troops could only be sent into Korea in six months times, by then, North Korea would be occupied by the Americans, any troops would be meaningless. ■ On 12 October 1950 15:30 Beijing time, Mao sent a telegram to Stalin through the Russian ambassador: I agree with your (Stalin and Zhou) decision. ■ On 12 October 1950 22:12 Beijing time, Mao sent another telegram: I agree with 10 October telegram, my troops stay put, I have issued order to cease the advance into Korea plan. ■ On 12 October 1950, Stalin sent telegram to North Korean Kim Il-sung, telling him: Russian and Chinese troops are not coming. ■ On 13 October, the Soviet ambassador (in Beijing) sent a telegram to Stalin, saying Mao Zedong had informed him that the Chinese Communist Central Committee had approved the decision of sending troops to Korea. Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  41. 41. Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  42. 42. Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  43. 43. Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  44. 44. the final DMZ Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  45. 45. Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  46. 46. Hell in the Hermit Kingdom Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  47. 47. Hell in the Hermit Kingdom Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  48. 48. Hell in the Hermit Kingdom Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  49. 49. Hell in the Hermit Kingdom Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  50. 50. Hell in the Hermit Kingdom Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  51. 51. Hell in the Hermit Kingdom Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  52. 52. Hell in the Hermit Kingdom Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  53. 53. “Our American Friends” Julius Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  54. 54. “Our American Friends” Ethel Julius Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  55. 55. HUAC • Vassar, Class of 1930. While attending grad school at Columbia, joined a communist “front” • 1938-1945--spied for the CPUSA, then USSR • 1946-disillusioned and fearing for her life, became an FBI informer • she was “burned” by Kim Philby, her contacts went “cold” • 1947-the FBI turned its info over to HUAC and hearings began Elizabeth Bentley in 1948 • the search for spies, “fellow travelers,” and “com symps” began in earnest Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  56. 56. Whittaker Chambers and Alger Hiss August 25, 1948 – Whittaker Chambers testifies before HUAC as Hiss (circled) listens Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  57. 57. the ‘50s Red Scare • 1949-1950--the triple shock of the Soviet Bomb, the “Fall of China,” and the Korean War produced an immediate increase of tensions • the search for traitors in government focussed on “Who Lost China?” • loyalty boards examined federal, state and local officials. Loyalty oaths were common • Hollywood was examined and the overly famous “blacklist’ was instituted Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  58. 58. the Rosenbergs • 1942-Julius was recruited by the NKVD to spy for the USSR • he recruited others including his brother-in-law, Sgt.David Greenglass, a machinist, who worked on the Manhattan Project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory • August 1949-”First Lightning”/”Joe-1” • January 1950-Klaus Fuchs was revealed as the premier Soviet spy/traitor after prolonged interrogation by Britain’s MI-5 • 23 May 1950-Fuchs gave up his contact “Raymond,” Harry Gold, who, in turn, gave up Greenglass, who gave up his sister and Julius Rosenberg Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  59. 59. the trial • 6 March 1951-Judge Irving Kaufman presiding. Defendants: Julius & Ethel Rosenberg, and fellow Soviet spy Morton Sobell • primary witness, David Greenglass, who stated: • his sister Ethel typed notes containing nuclear secrets in the Rosenberg apartment, Sept 1945 • he turned over to Julius sketches of the implosion-type atom bomb • some suggest that Ethel was indicted along with Julius to pressure him to give up other names • however both “took the Fifth,” and never confessed • 29 March-the Rosenbergs were sentenced to death under the Espionage Act of 1917. Sobell to 30 years in Alcatraz Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  60. 60. The Rosenbergs were the only two American civilians to be executed for espionage- related activity during the Cold War. In imposing the death penalty, Kaufman noted that he held them responsible not only for espionage but also for the deaths of the Korean War: I consider your crime worse than murder...I believe your conduct in putting into the hands of the Russians the A-Bomb years before our best scientists predicted Russia would perfect the bomb has already caused, in my opinion, the Communist aggression in Korea, with the resultant casualties exceeding 50,000 and who knows but that millions more of innocent people may pay the price of your treason. Indeed, by your betrayal you undoubtedly have altered the course of history to the disadvantage of our country. No one can say that we do not live in a constant state of tension. We have evidence of your treachery all around us every day for the civilian defense activities throughout the nation are aimed at preparing us for an atom bomb attack. Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  61. 61. American reaction After the publication of an investigative series in The National Guardian [a newspaper begun in 1948 as the “organ” of Henry Wallaceʼs Progressive Party] and the formation of the National Committee to Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case, some Americans came to believe both Rosenbergs were innocent or received too harsh a punishment, and a grassroots campaign was started to try to stop the couple's execution. Between the trial and the executions there were widespread protests and claims of anti-Semitism; the charges of anti-semitism were widely believed abroad but not so among the vast majority in the United States where the Rosenbergs were not receiving any support from mainstream Jewish organizations nor from the American Civil Liberties Union as the case did not raise any civil liberties issues at all. Wikipedia Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  62. 62. World reaction • Nobel Prize winner Jean-Paul Sartre: "a legal lynching which smears with blood a whole nation. By killing the Rosenbergs, you have quite simply tried to halt the progress of science by human sacrifice. Magic, witch-hunts, auto-da- fés, sacrifices — we are here getting to the point: your country is sick with fear... you are afraid of the shadow of your own bomb." • Others, including non-Communists such as Albert Einstein and Nobel-Prize-winning physical chemist Harold Urey, as well as Communists or left-leaning artists such as Nelson Algren, Dashiell Hammett, Jean Cocteau, Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo, protested the position of the American government in what the French termed America's Dreyfus Affair • May 1951-Picasso wrote for L’Humanite, “The hours count. The minutes count. Do not let this crime against humanity take place.” • Fritz Lang and Bertold Brecht protested from Hollywood • 11 Feb 1953-Pope Pius XII also condemned the execution, appealed to President Eisenhower for clemency Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  63. 63. the execution, 19 June 1953 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  64. 64. update On September 12, 2008, co-defendant Morton Sobell admitted that he and Julius Rosenberg were guilty of spying for the Soviet Union. He believed Ethel was aware of the espionage, but did not actively participate. Morton Sobell (left) at a visit in East Germany in 1976 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  65. 65. “Are you now, or have you ever been…?” • 9 Feb 1950-Wheeling, WV-[a month after Fuchs made headlines]”I have the names of 205 communists in the State Department…” • a tremendously polarizing figure, to this day • drew much support in conservative and Catholic circles, ties to the Kennedys • 1954-the tide turned against him during the televised Army-McCarthy hearings Joseph Raymond McCarthy 1908-1957 twice (1946, 1952) elected to the • object of a rare censure vote by his fellow US Senate senators Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  66. 66. epilogue And yet the most famous and effective anticommunist measures were carried out not by conservatives, but by liberals seeking to uphold the New Deal. It was the liberal Truman administration that chased the Communists out of government agencies and prosecuted Communist Party leaders under the Smith Act. It was liberal Hollywood executives who adopted the blacklist, effectively forcing Communists out of the movie business. The labor leaders who purged Communists from their unions were, similarly, liberals. Most anticommunism--the anticommunism that mattered--was not hysterical and conservative, but, rather, a methodical, and, in the end, successful attempt on the part of New Deal liberals to remove Communists from specific areas of American life, namely, the government, unions, the universities and schools, and civil rights organizations. Jennifer Delton, “Re-thinking Post-World War II Anticommunism,” in The Journal of the Historical Society, vol. x, March 2010, p. 2 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  67. 67. more enemies Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  68. 68. more enemies Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  69. 69. but first, Vyacheslav & Polina--the final act • late 1948-in the aftermath of Golda Meir’s visit, the “Jewish Case” was trumped up • Its ultimate target was Molotov and his Jewish wife Polina • Malenkov and Beria envied him as Foreign Minister and Deputy Premier • he was told by Stalin to divorce his wife and vote for her expulsion from the Party for “close relations with Jewish nationalists” • 21 Jan 1949- Polina was arrested, interrogated and A loving couple destroyed by Stalinist sentenced to five years exile in Central Asia politics • all Molotov knew until after Stalin’s death was a brief whispered message: “Polina is alive!” Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  70. 70. Stalin’s heir apparent as Premier, Nikolai Vosnesensky, “thought himself the cleverest person after Stalin”….At forty-four, the youngest Politburo member distinguished himself as a brilliant planner who enjoyed an unusually honest relationship with Stalin. However this made him so brash “that he didn’t bother to hide his moods” or his strident Russian nationalism. Rude to his colleagues, no one made as many enemies as Voznesensky. Now his patron Zhdanov was dead, his enemy Malenkov resurgent. Beria “feared him” and coveted his economic powers. Mikoyan loathed him. Voznesensky’s arrogance and Stalin’s touchiness made him vulnerable. Montefiore, p. 592 Никола́й Алексе́евич Вознесе́нский, 1903 – October 1, 1950 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  71. 71. Summertime chez Stalin The other anointed heir was “young handsome” Kuznetsov, who had helped Zhdanov remove Malenkov in 1946 and replaced Beria as curator of the MGB, thus earning their hatred. Sincere Mikoyan Kuznetsov and affable, Kuznetsov was the opposite of Molotov Poskrebyshev Voznesensky: virtually everyone liked him…. He worshiped Stalin, treasuring the note he had received from him during the war--yet he did not understand him. He made the mistake of examining old MGB files on Kirov’s murder and the show trials. Kuznetsov’s blundering into such sensitive matters aroused Stalin’s suspicions. Montefiore, p. 593 Алексе́й Алекса́ндрович Кузнецо́в 1905 - October 1, 1950 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  72. 72. the Leningrad Affair (!"#$#%&'()*+" (",+, Leningradskoe Delo) • January 1949-Kuznetsov and Voznesensky organized a Leningrad Trade Fair to boost the post- war economy and support the survivors of the siege of Leningrad • the fair was attacked by Malenkov as a scheme to use government funds for Leningrad development with an eye to making it the capital of the USSR • Beria brought to Stalin’s attention some economic “fudging” which Voznesensky had done as director of Gosplan. This was enough to get the Boss to order an investigation into the Leningraders and their Party cell • 30 September 1950- the two, along with four others, were found guilty of “anti-Soviet treason” for embezzlement of the Soviet State budget for “unapproved business in Leningrad.” They were shot that night after midnight • about 2,000 of Leningrad’s public figures were removed from their positions, which were then filled with Stalinist loyalists • over 200 respected intellectuals, scientists, writers and educators were exiled or sent to the Gulag Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  73. 73. the Doctors Plot Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  74. 74. the Doctors Plot Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  75. 75. He was one of the physicians accused in the Doctor's Plot, an alleged Zionist plot to kill off the Soviet leadership. Dr. Etinger was tortured by M. D. Ryumin, the Deputy Minister of State Security, who then reported to Minister Viktor Semyonovich Abakumov, who did not believe there was a plot although he and Ryumin were both present at a later interrogation of Dr. Etinger. Yet another interrogation in the presence of Abakumov was to follow the next morning, in Ryumin's hope to convince Abakumov that Yakov Gilyarievich Etinger such a case existed, but Etinger died under 1887-1951 interrogation during the night. Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  76. 76. Riumin, thirty-eight, plump and balding, stupid and vicious, was the latest in the succession of ambitious torturers who were only too willing to please and encourage Stalin by finding new Enemies and killing them for him….now in danger for killing the elderly Jewish doctor, the Midget decided to act. Perhaps to his own surprise, he lit the fuse of the Doctors’ Plot. On 2 July 1951, Riumin wrote to Stalin and accused Abakumov of deliberately killing Etinger to conceal a Jewish medical conspiracy to murder leaders such as the late Shcherbakov. This brought together Stalin’s fears of ageing [sic], doctors and Jews. It was not Beria but Malenkov who sent Riumin’s letter to Stalin….it may have been the spark that inspired him to reach back to Zhdanov’s death and create a maze of conspiracies to provoke a Terror that would unite the country against America outside and its Jewish allies within. Montefiore, pp. 612-613 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  77. 77. That spring [1952], Stalin was examined by his veteran doctor, Vinogradov, who was shocked by his deterioration. He suffered from hypertension and arteriosclerosis with occasional disturbances in cerebral circulation, which caused minor strokes and little cysts in the brain tissue of the frontal lobe. This exacerbated Stalin’s anger, amnesia and paranoia. “Complete rest, freedom from all work,” wrote Vinogradov on the file but the mention of retirement infuriated Stalin who ordered his medical records destroyed and resolved to see no more doctors. Vinogradov was an Enemy. Montefiore, p. 620 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  78. 78. The death of the Mongolian dictator Marshall Choibalsang in Moscow that spring worried [Stalin] enough to confide in his chauffeur: “They die one after another. Scherbakov, Zhdanov, Dimitrov [the Bulgarian leader], Choibalsang...die so quickly. We must change the old doctors for new ones.” Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  79. 79. • July 1951-Dr Etinger’s torture death • Sept 1952-the MGB had tortured the evidence out of their prisoners to “prove” that the Kremlin doctors, led by Stalin’s own physician, were guilty • 4 Nov 1952- Vinogradov is arrested • 13 Nov-Riumin is sacked for moving too slowly. “Beat them until they confess. Beat, beat, and beat again.”--Stalin • Stalin offers Vinogradov his life if he would confess a cartoon in the humor magazine Krokodil Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  80. 80. ...Stalin unveiled the horror of what he called “the killers in white coats” to the Presidium: “You’re like blind kittens,” he warned them….”What will happen without me is that the country will die because you can’t recognize your enemies.” Stalin explained to the “blind kittens” that “every Jew’s a nationalist and an agent of American intelligence” who believes ”the U.S.A. saved their people.”….A Great Terror was again imminent. Montefiore, pp. 630-631 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  81. 81. DECREE (OF THE) PRESIDIUM OF THE SUPREME SOVIET USSR for the awarding of the Order of Lenin to Doctor Timashuk L.F. The doctor who had written about Zhdanov’s misdiagnosis and death in 1948 was now made the hero of uncovering the “doctor-killers.” She would be stripped of her medal in the year following Stalin’s death when Beria and the other survivors repudiated the Doctors Plot. Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  82. 82. final rest Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  83. 83. final rest Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  84. 84. Plotting the destruction of Molotov and Mikoyan, the aging but determined Stalin watches Malenkov give the chief report at his last public appearance at the Nineteenth Congress in 1952. While organizing the anti-Semitic Doctors’ Plot, he ordered his secret police to torture the doctors: “Beat, beat, and beat again!” he shouted. But he still found time to play with his grandchildren … Montefiore Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  85. 85. Riven by arthritis, diminished by raging arteriosclerosis, dazed by fainting spells, embarrassed by failing memory, tormented by sore gums and false teeth, unpredictable, paranoid and angry, Stalin left on 10 August [1951] for his last and longest holiday. “Cursed old age has caught up with me,” he muttered. Montefiore, p. 614 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  86. 86. STALIN’S RESTLESS LAST HOLIDAY IN 1952 He effectively ruled Russia for months on end from...the Likani Palace, which once belonged to Tsar Nicholas II’s brother Grand Duke Michael(top). When Khrushchev and Mikoyan visited, they had to share a room. He spent weeks in this remote house at Lake Ritsa (bottom). Stalin was now so frail that his guards built these green metal boxes (inset) containing special phones so that he could call for help if he was taken ill on his daily strolls. Montefiore Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  87. 87. A Lonely Old Man on Holiday “While everyone talks about the great man, genius in everything,” Stalin muttered to Golovanov, “I have no one to drink a glass of tea with.” Montefiore, p. 570 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  88. 88. final days • 28 Feb 1953-after a movie at the Kremlin with Beria, Khrushchev, Malenkov and Bulganin, back to the dacha for a dinner and business session: • Korea • torturing the doctors to get their confessions for their public trials • 4 a.m. 1 March-Stalin finally saw them out. “pretty high spirits” boisterously jabbing Khrushchev in the stomach, crooning ‘Nichik’ • he then lay down on the sofa in the dining room and gave the guards the night off • midday that morning-still no sign of life from the Big House, guards nervous Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  89. 89. final days • 6 p.m. 1 March-finally a light went on. Guards relieved, everything OK, he would call for them soon. But he did not. Four hours pass. None brave enough to go in. • 10 p.m.-the !" mail arrived and a guard cautiously took it over to the Big House “saw a terrible picture” Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  90. 90. Stalin lay on the carpet in pyjama bottoms [soaked in his urine] and undershirt, leaning on one hand ‘in a very awkward way.’ He was conscious but helpless. When he heard [the guard] Lozgachev’s steps, he called him by ‘weakly lifting his hand.’ The guard ran to his side: ‘What’s wrong, Comrade Stalin?’ Stalin muttered something, ‘Dzhh,’ but he could not speak. He was cold … He had wet himself. Montefiore, p. 638 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  91. 91. final days • 6 p.m.-finally a light went on. Guards relieved, everything OK he would call for them soon. But he did not. Four hours pass. None brave enough to go in. • 10 p.m.-the !" mail arrived and a guard cautiously took it over to the Big House “saw a terrible picture” • the guards knew that Stalin had thrown his personal doctor Vinogradov to the wolves for suggesting that he should retire • they were afraid to do anything which the Khozyain might resent • so they finally called MGB boss Ignatiev, who tried to locate Beria, failing that, Malenkov • no one had the courage to call for doctors, the best of whom were in prison! Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  92. 92. final days • 3 a.m. 2 March-Beria and Malenkov arrive to see for themselves what shape the Boss was in Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  93. 93. The limousine drove away to meet the waiting Khrushchev and Bulganin. The bargaining for power surely started that night…. Dawn broke over the firs and birches of Kuntsevo [Stalin’s dacha]. It was now twelve hours since Stalin’s stroke and he was still snoring on the sofa, wet from his own urine. The magnates surely discussed whether to call doctors. It was extraordinary that they had not called a doctor for twelve hours but it was an extraordinary situation. This is usually used as evidence that the magnates deliberately left Stalin without medical help in order to kill him. But...if Stalin awoke feeling groggy, he would have regarded the very act of calling doctors as an attempt to seize power. Stalin’s own doctor was being tortured merely for saying he should rest. But the Four had those hours to divide power. The decision to do nothing suited everyone. Montefiore, p. 640 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  94. 94. Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  95. 95. final days • 3 a.m. 2 March-Beria and Malenkov arrive to see for themselves what shape the Boss was in • the Four returned home without calling for doctors • 7 a.m.-at the guards’ insistence, doctors finally arrived, a new team who had never seen Stalin before • a dentist removed his false teeth but was so nervous he dropped them on the floor • with the magnates present, the doctors nervously examined their once omnipotent patient • only palliative measures were undertaken. For the next three days, wrapped in secrecy, the magnates, Stalin’s two children and the servants and guards kept the death watch Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  96. 96. Once it was proved that he was incapacitated, Beria ‘spewed forth his hatred of Stalin’ but whenever his eyelids flickered...Beria, terrified that he would recover, ‘knelt and kissed his hand’ like an Oriental vizier at a Sultan’s bedside. When Stalin sank again into sleep, Beria virtually spat at him, revealing his reckless ambition and lack of tact and prudence. The other magnates observed him silently, but they were weeping for Stalin, their old but flawed friend, longtime leader, historical titan, and the supreme pontiff of their international creed, even as they sighed with relief that he was dying. Perhaps 20 million had been killed, 28 million deported, of whom 18 million had slaved in the Gulags. Yet, after so much slaughter, they were still believers. Montefiore, p. 643 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  97. 97. “Take all measures to save Comrade Stalin!” ordered the excited Beria. So the doctors continued to struggle to keep the dying Generalissimo alive. An artificial respirator was wheeled in and never used but it was accompanied by young technicians who stared ‘goggle-eyed’ at the surreal things happening all around them. On the 5th, Stalin suddenly paled and his breathing became shallower with long intervals. The pulse was fast and faint. He started to wiggle his head. There were spasms in his left arm and leg. At midday Stalin vomited blood…. After 9 p.m. he started to sweat. His pulse was weak, his lips turned blue. The Politburo, Svetlana Stalin, Valechka [his faithful housekeeper], and the guards gathered round the sofa. The junior leaders crowded outside, watching from the doorway. Montefiore, pp. 648-649 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  98. 98. final hours--5 March 1953 • 9:30 p.m. Stalin’s breaths were 48 a minute. His heartbeats grew fainter • 9:40 p.m. his pulse virtually disappeared. Beria ordered and injection of camphor and adrenalin • Stalin gave a shiver and became increasingly breathless. He slowly began to drown in his own fluids • “His face was discoloured, his features becoming unrecognisable...He literally choked to death as we watched. The death agony was terrible...At the last minute, he opened his eyes. It was a terrible look, either mad or angry and full of the fear of death”--Svetlana Stalin Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  99. 99. leavetaking • Beria was the first to go. “He’s off to take power,”-- Mikoyan, to Khrushchev • “then, with frenzied haste, the members of government rushed for the door” • just the servants and family remained: “cooks chauffeurs and watchmen, gardeners and women who waited at table’’ Many were sobbing, with rough bodyguards wiping their eyes with their sleeves “like children.” Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  100. 100. leavetaking • Beria was the first to go. “He’s off to take power,”-- Mikoyan, to Khrushchev • “then, with frenzied haste, the members of government rushed for the door” • just the servants and family remained: “cooks chauffeurs and watchmen, gardeners and women who waited at table’’ Many were sobbing, with rough bodyguards wiping their eyes with their sleeves “like children.” • “then Stalin’s closest companion, the comfort of the cruel loneliness of this unparalleled monster, Valechka, who was now aged thirty-eight and had worked with Stalin since she was twenty, pushed through the crying maids, dropped heavily to her knees and threw herself onto the corpse with all the uninhibited grief of the ordinary people...wailed at the top of her voice as the women in the villages do. She went on for a long time and nobody tried to stop her.”-- Svetlana Stalin in Montefiore, p. 650 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  101. 101. Bulganin Lazar Klim Malenkov Nikita Molotov Beria Kaganovich Mikoyan Tuesday, March 30, 2010
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  108. 108. and now... Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  109. 109. Postscript Link on the Drudge Report 5 March 2010 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  110. 110. Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  111. 111. ...from the long contests of the Bolshevik factions [1921-1928] there had emerged Stalin’s ‘firm leadership’ for which he may have striven for its own sake. Once he wielded it, he employed it to industrialize the Soviet Union, to collectivize farming, and to transform the whole outlook of the nation; and then he pointed to the use he was making of his ‘firm leadership’ in order to vindicate it. Deutscher, The Prophet Unarmed, p. 392 Tuesday, March 30, 2010