!!!" !#$%&'$
     Stalin’s SSSR

     session i
     origins




Tuesday, March 16, 2010
major themes of this session

     I. Georgia


     II. boyhood and education;1878-1899


     III. konspiratsia; 1900-19...
Gori
                                 Stalin’s
                                birthplace




                          Ge...
Peaks of the 1,000 mile Caucasus Mountains are higher than the Alps


Tuesday, March 16, 2010
Lake Ritsa where Stalin spent part of his last vacation in 1952


Tuesday, March 16, 2010
Tuesday, March 16, 2010
Tuesday, March 16, 2010
As of 1897, 1,051,032 lived in the governorate, with around 20% of
    them being urban. Ethnic Georgians constituted 44.3...
Circassian warrior, early 19th c.; Lak girl, 1883; Georgian Prince Kakutsa
   Cholokashvili, 1924 (leader of anti-Bolshevi...
contemporary Georgians in their traditional costumes called chokhas


Tuesday, March 16, 2010
The origin of the name Georgia is still disputed and has been
         explained in the following ways:
          1. Linki...
The origin of the name Georgia is still disputed and has been
         explained in the following ways:
          1. Linki...
The origin of the name Georgia is still disputed and has been
         explained in the following ways:
          1. Linki...
A Georgian couple photographed in 1912 by Prokudin-Gorskii


Tuesday, March 16, 2010
An Ossetian couple by the same photographer


Tuesday, March 16, 2010
The Georgians were primarily a rural people, composed of a largely
         impoverished ancient feudal aristocracy (5.26 ...
Saint George slaying
                               the dragon




Tuesday, March 16, 2010
Tuesday, March 16, 2010
Gori today and the medieval fortress on the hill
     which dominates it




Tuesday, March 16, 2010
boyhood and education




Tuesday, March 16, 2010
Stalin’s birthplace   and the temple built around it


Tuesday, March 16, 2010
Dubious Father--”Crazy Beso” Djugashvili (1850-1910)

     • 17 May 1872-handsome young bootmaker, Vissarion
       “Beso”...
“Keke”--”...pretty and intelligent, but forceful,
     sarcastic and outspoken---like her son”

     • before liberation, ...
Iosef  Vissarionovich      Dj(or zh)ugashvili
  YO•sef VEE•sar•YO•na•veech JEW•gosh•VEE•lee


                   this woul...
Stalin’s names, nicknames, bylines and aliases
     • Josef Vissarionovich Djugashvili   • Besoshvili


     • Soso       ...
Stalin’s real father? Koba Egnatashvili

                          • a wrestler and rich innkeeper


                     ...
Stalin’s half brother?

                                   • a wrestler, like his father


                               ...
Another candidate, Gori police chief Damian Davrichewy

     • he so flirted with Keke that Beso tried to kill
       him

...
Weighing up all these stories, it is most likely that Stalin was the
         son of Beso despite the drunkard’s rantings ...
the rough streets of Gori




                   Soso became a streetfighter, gang leader and charismatic manipulator in th...
another of his childhood homes (left) and the shrine to Great Stalin which was
   later erected over it (right)

Tuesday, ...
the earliest photo of Stalin




              Already a charismatic leader, the schoolboy Soso Djugashvili, the future St...
the earliest photo of Stalin




              Already a charismatic leader, the schoolboy Soso Djugashvili, the future St...
Gori Spiritual School (1888-1893)

     • Keke wanted Soso to become a priest, Beso, to become a shoemaker; Keke won


   ...
Gori Spiritual School (1888-1893)

     • Keke wanted Soso to become a priest, Beso, to become a shoemaker; Keke won


   ...
the Adelkhanov Shoe Factory, Tiflis (1890)

     • age 12, he had come to the hospital in Tiflis after an injury to his legs...
Tiflis (Tbilisi)




Tuesday, March 16, 2010
Tiflis (Tbilisi)




Tuesday, March 16, 2010
Tiflis (Tbilisi)




Tuesday, March 16, 2010
Tiflis (Tbilisi)




Tuesday, March 16, 2010
Tbilisi (125,000), unlike Gori (20,000), had a multinational
       population wherein the Georgians themselves were a min...
Tiflis Spiritual Seminary   a 19th century photo


Tuesday, March 16, 2010
“The Stone Sack” (1894-1899)

     • Russification meant Georgian speech, “a filthy language,”
       was a punishable offen...
the curriculum

     • it was taken for granted that Russian and Church Slavonic languages had been mastered


     • Chri...
from rebel to Marxist atheist revolutionary




Tuesday, March 16, 2010
from rebel to Marxist atheist revolutionary




Tuesday, March 16, 2010
Stalin was initially, “calm, attentive, modest and bashful”
       remembers one schoolmate...The moody teenage Soso was t...
the battle of the dormitories; Soso vs Father “Black
     Spot”

     • rebellion began with reading “forbidden books.” Fi...
Stalin was in constant trouble: in the school journal, the priests
       recorded that he was rude, “failed to bow” to a ...
What is to be
                            done?
                           N. Lenin




Tuesday, March 16, 2010
Messamy Dasi (Third Group) August, 1898

     • 1893-founded as a socialist underground group in Tiflis. It took its name i...
In those years there were turbulent strikes by the Tiflis workers, the
     first in the capital of the Caucasus. Their effe...
“I was expelled for Marxist propaganda,” Stalin boasted
       mendaciously later….

       The truth is that Father Abash...
Stalin’s only “real job”--meteorologist (28 Dec 1899- 21 Mar 1901)

                                                      ...
konspiratsia




Tuesday, March 16, 2010
rules of the konspiratsia game

   • 1881-after the shocking assassination of Tsar Alexander II, the two political police ...
the Degaev affair

     • 1883-arrested in connection with Tsar Alexander
       II’s assassination, Narodnaya Volya (Peop...
revolutionary bloodbath; the Azef affair
                          • 1890-from a poor Jewish family, he like so many
     ...
konspiratsia and assassination; going underground

  • Stalin meets a new radical partner, Stepan Shaumyan


  • “tall, we...
Henceforth, Stalin usually carried a pistol in his belt….Going
     underground meant that [he] also avoided conscription ...
Baku, the industrial heart of Transcaucasia




Tuesday, March 16, 2010
Baku, the industrial heart of Transcaucasia




Tuesday, March 16, 2010
Baku, the industrial heart of Transcaucasia




Tuesday, March 16, 2010
Oil; Russia’s “black gold”

     • 1846-the first oil well to be drilled (hand excavated wells since Marco Polo’s time)


 ...
Batumi, 1902
                          “I got a job with the Rothschilds!” crowed
                                        ...
art from later glamorizing the young revolutionary   (Lt) Stalin the student   (Rt) Stalin at Batumi


Tuesday, March 16, ...
Next day, the Rothschild refinery was on fire.
                          Stalin, age twenty-four, unleashed mayhem in the
  ...
• he ordered his first killings of informers,
       factory managers shot



     • embarked on love affairs with married
...
• into this heady stew of sabotage, labor agitation,
                                     execution of predateli, assassin...
Kutaisi prison; the first of many




                  On his first arrest, Stalin dominated the prison, killing inmates an...
left and lower right; Kutaisi prison, Stalin’s cell and outside
   upper right; Novaya Uda, his first exile, where he carou...
“the frozen Georgian:Siberian exile” (Montefiore-Chapter 12)

     Siberian exile was regarded as one of the most terrible ...
December, 1903-- a “letter” from Lenin

      “I first met Lenin in 1903,” said Stalin, “not a personal meeting, more
     ...
the first of many escapes

     • “...not too difficult. Everyone tried to escape. The exile system was a sieve.” - Trotsky
...
Bolsheviks and Mensheviks

     • when Stalin returned to the Tiflis SD underground, he found his comrades divided


     •...
1905




                          The demonstration on “Bloody Sunday”

Tuesday, March 16, 2010
Nineteen-hundred-and-five began and ended with slaughter. It was
    the year of revolution in which young Stalin, for the ...
During the 1905 Revolution, Stalin ran a Faginesque [Dickens’
                          villain in Oliver Twist] network o...
Bolshevik Temptress

                              • her parents, of German ancestry, were furious when their 27
         ...
“Kamo”--”one of the Party’s most useful thugs”
     • his real name, Simon Ter-Petrossian


     • grew up in Gori with St...
1905: Stalin is King of the Mountain

     • the exploited manganese miners of the western Georgian town of Chiatura then
...
King of the Mountain

     this undated picture is from a later
     period when artists contributed to
     the cult of G...
Only on the bones of the oppressors can the people’s
            freedom be founded--only the blood of the oppressors can
...
Stalin’s Red Squad

     • he trained his partisans, stole guns, and smuggled in ammunition over the hills


     • they d...
Stalin’s doomed first wife

     • 1905-they met when Stalin used their Tiflis apartment as a
       “safe house”


     • s...
“The Mountain Eagle;”                              Stalin Meets Lenin
     “I was happy to meet the mountain eagle of our ...
May 13, 1907




     Stalin Goes Abroad




                           A band of Russian revolutionists entering
        ...
Stockholm Conference                    April, 1906


     • much more important than the Finnish conference because its 1...
Stockholm Conference                             April, 1906


     • on the first important vote, the land question,(1) Le...
preparing for “the Big Job”

     • Stalin commissioned his most ruthless henchman, Kamo, to come up with the weapons,
   ...
Stalin in London       27 April/10 May 1907-”about three weeks later”


    “The delegates were met by an incongruous crew...
The entrance to the hall
                          showing three delegates
                          going in to a meeting...
The London (5th) SD Congress

     • 30 April/13 May--Plekhanov opened the Congress with a hymn for fallen comrades


    ...
The London (5th) SD Congress

     • the conference…”marked the emergence of Stalin the Russian. Weary of Georgia’s
      ...
Russian Social Democratic Labour Party




       When they ran out of money, Lenin
       had to borrow from Joseph Fels,...
The Bank Robbery
      At 10:30 a.m. on the sultry morning of Wednesday, 26 June 1907, in
      the seething central squar...
• as the two stagecoaches, full of cash and policemen, guarded
                            by cossack outriders, galloped ...
Kamo’s mugshot
                                                                   he was arrested in Berlin!




     • th...
gangsters and groupies
               1907-1913




Tuesday, March 16, 2010
...of the ten years between 1907 and 1917, [Stalin] spent nearly
          seven in prisons, on the way to Siberia, in Sib...
Stalin thrived in the underworld,
                          on the run, in and out of prison,
                          hu...
November, 1907--Kato, Stalin’s wife died a terrible death:He was heartbroken
   (far right). The family blamed him. He sai...
After Kato’s death, Stalin enjoyed a
                          string of love affairs with, amongst
                      ...
()$*#&*& (Praktiki,practical men)
     θεωρια (theory) versus !ραξιζ (practice)




        Two years of revolutionary wor...
Baku, the lawless oil boom city where Stalin embraced
     gangsterism, extortion and piracy to fund Lenin




           ...
Baku’s millionaires
                           the palace of Nagayev, a
                           self-made tycoon possib...
“Sergo”                  (       )                Григо́рий Константи́нович Орджоники́дзе


                              ...
Koba and Sergo organize the Baku workers, 1907

     • in the oilfields, Europe and Asia met. The workers were Russian and ...
European exile
     Vologda Province, Solvychegodsk (Feb 1909-June 1909 and Oct, 1910-July 1911)

     • a small village i...
There now started a farrago of bewildering scandals that revealed that Stalin’s
        party was riddled with Tsarist spi...
European exile
     Vologda Province, Solvychegodsk (Feb 1909-June 1909 and Oct, 1910-July 1911)

     • July, 1909-March,...
The Central Committee &
     “Glamourpuss” the Schoolgirl
     • upon release he was ordered to remain two months in the p...
Tuesday, March 16, 2010
Russian Social-DemocraticWorkers Party




                                                     TRUTH
                    ...
Cracow, Vienna and the Nationalities Question

    • Oct 1912-after organizing the campaign which elected 6 Bolsheviks to ...
Tuesday, March 16, 2010
23 February 1913--Betrayal at the Fundraiser Ball




Tuesday, March 16, 2010
23 February 1913--Betrayal at the Fundraiser Ball




Tuesday, March 16, 2010
23 February 1913--Betrayal at the Fundraiser Ball




Tuesday, March 16, 2010
Siberian “hard time”
        1913-1917



                            Kureika on the Arctic Circle




Tuesday, March 16, ...
Tuesday, March 16, 2010
Yellow = uninhabited or sparsely populated




                                                Stalin’s
                  ...
Tuesday, March 16, 2010
the Turukhansk exiles, 1915

Tuesday, March 16, 2010
Spandarian               Kamenev
                                                                  Sverdlov




          ...
Lidia Pereprygina
                             paedophilia
                          (picture of her, middle aged,
       ...
his other diversion



Tuesday, March 16, 2010
12 Mar 1917                 12 Dec 1916




                                                           9 Feb 1917
        ...
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Stalin;origins

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Stalin;origins

  1. 1. !!!" !#$%&'$ Stalin’s SSSR session i origins Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  2. 2. major themes of this session I. Georgia II. boyhood and education;1878-1899 III. konspiratsia; 1900-1904 IV.1905; the “dress rehearsal” V. Stalin goes abroad; 1906-1907 VI. gangsters and groupies; 1907-1913 VII. Siberian “hard time”; 1913-1917 Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  3. 3. Gori Stalin’s birthplace Georgia:Zakavkaz TransCaucasia Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  4. 4. Peaks of the 1,000 mile Caucasus Mountains are higher than the Alps Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  5. 5. Lake Ritsa where Stalin spent part of his last vacation in 1952 Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  6. 6. Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  7. 7. Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  8. 8. As of 1897, 1,051,032 lived in the governorate, with around 20% of them being urban. Ethnic Georgians constituted 44.3% of the population, followed by Armenians (18.7%), Azeris (10.2%), Russians (including Ukrainians and Old Believers, 9.7%), Ossetians (6.4%), Avars (3.2%), Greeks (2.6%), Turks (2.4%), etc. More than half of the population adhered to Eastern Orthodox Christianity with significant Muslim, Catholic and Jewish minorities. [1] Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  9. 9. Circassian warrior, early 19th c.; Lak girl, 1883; Georgian Prince Kakutsa Cholokashvili, 1924 (leader of anti-Bolshevik uprising) Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  10. 10. contemporary Georgians in their traditional costumes called chokhas Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  11. 11. The origin of the name Georgia is still disputed and has been explained in the following ways: 1. Linking it semantically to Greek and Latin roots (Greek: γεωργία, transliterated geōrgía, "agriculture", γεωργός, geōrgós, "tiller of the land", and γεωργικός, geōrgikós, Latin: georgicus, "agricultural"). 2. The country took its name from that of Saint George, itself a derivative of the aforementioned Greek root. Or, at the very least, the popularity of the cult of Saint George in Georgia influenced the spread of the term. Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  12. 12. The origin of the name Georgia is still disputed and has been explained in the following ways: 1. Linking it semantically to Greek and Latin roots (Greek: γεωργία, transliterated geōrgía, "agriculture", γεωργός, geōrgós, "tiller of the land", and γεωργικός, geōrgikós, Latin: georgicus, "agricultural"). 2. The country took its name from that of Saint George, itself a derivative of the aforementioned Greek root. Or, at the very least, the popularity of the cult of Saint George in Georgia influenced the spread of the term. Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  13. 13. The origin of the name Georgia is still disputed and has been explained in the following ways: 1. Linking it semantically to Greek and Latin roots (Greek: γεωργία, transliterated geōrgía, "agriculture", γεωργός, geōrgós, "tiller of the land", and γεωργικός, geōrgikós, Latin: georgicus, "agricultural"). 2. The country took its name from that of Saint George, itself a derivative of the aforementioned Greek root. Or, at the very least, the popularity of the cult of Saint George in Georgia influenced the spread of the term. 3. Under various Persian empires (536 BC-AD 638), Georgians were called Gurjhān (Gurzhan/Gurjan), or "Gurj/ Gurzh people." The early Islamic/Arabic sources spelled the name Kurz/Gurz and the country Gurjistan. The contemporary Russian name for the country, "Gruziya," is similar. This also could evolve or at least contribute to the later name of Georgia. Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  14. 14. A Georgian couple photographed in 1912 by Prokudin-Gorskii Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  15. 15. An Ossetian couple by the same photographer Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  16. 16. The Georgians were primarily a rural people, composed of a largely impoverished ancient feudal aristocracy (5.26 % of the entire Georgian population [823,968-JBP] in 1897) and a peasantry. The Georgian urban class was small and insignificant. It was the déclassé nobility which, from the beginning, assumed the leadership over the cultural and political life of Georgia. The Georgians possessed nearly all the elements that usually go into the formation of national consciousness: a distinct language, with its own alphabet; an ancient and splendid literary heritage; a national territory; and a tradition of statehood and military prowess. In the 1870s a cultural movement arose among the Georgian aristocracy, which, with its interest in the newly liberated peasant, assumed forms akin to Russian populism [the Narodnik movement- JBP]. Richard Pipes, The Formation of the Soviet Union; Communism and Nationalism 1917-1923, rev. ed. 1974, p. 17 Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  17. 17. Saint George slaying the dragon Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  18. 18. Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  19. 19. Gori today and the medieval fortress on the hill which dominates it Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  20. 20. boyhood and education Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  21. 21. Stalin’s birthplace and the temple built around it Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  22. 22. Dubious Father--”Crazy Beso” Djugashvili (1850-1910) • 17 May 1872-handsome young bootmaker, Vissarion “Beso” Djugashvili, age 22, married beautiful Ekaterina “Keke” Geladze, age 17 • he spoke four languages: Georgian, Russian, Armenian, and Turkish • sadly, other men in Gori found Keke attractive as well. Stalin never denied rumors that one of them might have been his father • jealousy was part of the reason his presumed father became an alcoholic wife- and child-beater. He also had failed as a shoemaker employing apprentices • 1884-Beso left for Tiflis, declining to support his wife and six-year-old son The “official” Soviet portrait Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  23. 23. “Keke”--”...pretty and intelligent, but forceful, sarcastic and outspoken---like her son” • before liberation, her father had been a serf to the local grandee, Prince Amilakhvari • 1875-her first son died, age 2 months • 1877-the second son died of measles, age 6 months • 6 December 1878-a third son, Joseph, was born. He survived, “weak, fragile, thin” • the second and third toes of his left foot were webbed, but he lived; “Keke’s miracle,” Soso, (nickname, like our “Joey”) Stalin’s mother in old age Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  24. 24. Iosef Vissarionovich Dj(or zh)ugashvili YO•sef VEE•sar•YO•na•veech JEW•gosh•VEE•lee this would be the Russian pronunciation can’t help you with the Georgian! Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  25. 25. Stalin’s names, nicknames, bylines and aliases • Josef Vissarionovich Djugashvili • Besoshvili • Soso • Ivanov • Soselo (for his teenage poetry) • pockmarked Oska • Beso • the Caucasian • Koba • the Milkman • Petrov • Pockmarked (Chopura) • Ivanovich • Ioska Koriavyi (Joe Pox) • Koba Ivanovich • J.V. Stalin Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  26. 26. Stalin’s real father? Koba Egnatashvili • a wrestler and rich innkeeper • a local hero who loved, funded, and protected Soso from the drunken attacks of his abusive presumed father, Beso • he was a patron of the family, comforter of the wife, and sponsor of the son • married with children, lived affluently, owned several taverns, and was a prosperous wine-dealer Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  27. 27. Stalin’s half brother? • a wrestler, like his father • childhood friend of Stalin • later promoted to Kremlin courier, NKVD General and trusted food taster • Sasha was nicknamed “the Rabbit” • in his last years, Stalin gave “the impression that he was [Koba] Egnatashvili’s illegitimate son” to a fellow Georgian Sasha Egnatashvili Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  28. 28. Another candidate, Gori police chief Damian Davrichewy • he so flirted with Keke that Beso tried to kill him • his son, Josef, would write in his memoirs “the birth was gossiped about in the neighborhood-- that the real father was Koba Egnatashvili… or my own father Damian Davrichewy” • “Everyone in Gori knew about his affair with Soso’s pretty mother”--Mayor Jourouli • he helped Keke when she complained about The policeman’s son, Josef who claimed to Beso’s abuse be Stalin’s half brother. He and Stalin became the most notorious (and successful) bank robbers and terrorists in the Caucasus. Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  29. 29. Weighing up all these stories, it is most likely that Stalin was the son of Beso despite the drunkard’s rantings about Soso as a “bastard.” A married woman was always expected to be respectable, but it is hardly outrageous if the pretty young Keke, a semi-widow, did become the mistress of Egnatashvili when her marriage disintegrated….Egnatashvili’s grandson, Guram Ratishvili, puts it best: “We simply do not know if he was Stalin’s father, but we do know that the merchant became the boy’s substitute father.” Simon Montefiore, Young Stalin. 2007, pp. 27-28 Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  30. 30. the rough streets of Gori Soso became a streetfighter, gang leader and charismatic manipulator in the rough streets of Gori, one of the most violent towns in the Tsar’s empire: Religious holidays were celebrated with organized brawls involving the entire population, from toddlers to greybeards. Stalin’s birthplace [sic] is the house on the left. Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  31. 31. another of his childhood homes (left) and the shrine to Great Stalin which was later erected over it (right) Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  32. 32. the earliest photo of Stalin Already a charismatic leader, the schoolboy Soso Djugashvili, the future Stalin, about ten years old… suggested the taking of this photograph, ordered the photographer, arranged the sitting and placed himself in his favorite commanding position: back center Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  33. 33. the earliest photo of Stalin Already a charismatic leader, the schoolboy Soso Djugashvili, the future Stalin, about ten years old… suggested the taking of this photograph, ordered the photographer, arranged the sitting and placed himself in his favorite commanding position: back center Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  34. 34. Gori Spiritual School (1888-1893) • Keke wanted Soso to become a priest, Beso, to become a shoemaker; Keke won • outside school, he tried to dominate one of the gangs, fought unsuccessfully with older, tougher boys, wouldn’t give up • in school, he was a serious inquiring successful student. His favorite subject was music. He would enjoy singing and had a beautiful voice throughout his life. • all first-hand accounts recorded his pugnacity towards rivals. But he was also devout, hard- working and determined to succeed, to move out of the poverty he endured at home Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  35. 35. Gori Spiritual School (1888-1893) • Keke wanted Soso to become a priest, Beso, to become a shoemaker; Keke won • outside school, he tried to dominate one of the gangs, fought unsuccessfully with older, tougher boys, wouldn’t give up • in school, he was a serious inquiring successful student. His favorite subject was music. He would enjoy singing and had a beautiful voice throughout his life. • all first-hand accounts recorded his pugnacity towards rivals. But he was also devout, hard- working and determined to succeed, to move out of the poverty he endured at home • at graduation, highest marks in every subject except arithmetic--Old Testament, New Testament, Orthodox catechism, liturgy, Russian, Church Slavonic, Georgian, geography, handwriting, and Russian and Georgian church music. A four instead of a five in ancient Greek. (He would later read Plato in the original to while away the hours in prison) Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  36. 36. the Adelkhanov Shoe Factory, Tiflis (1890) • age 12, he had come to the hospital in Tiflis after an injury to his legs from a runaway carriage • then his father compelled him to work with him in the factory • founded in 1875, considered “among the most decent” toward its 80 workers. It had a medical facility. But it stank so bad that grown men vomited. It was often half-flooded and always dark • child laborers like Soso received lower wages for their “fetch and carry” work • it would be Stalin’s only experience as a “proletarian” • Keke swung into action to get him back to school in Gori, using her church contacts. Despite this interruption to his education, he returned and finished with top marks. But he graduated at sixteen, several years older than his schoolmates • frustrated, Beso swore never to give another kopeck to his family, cutting them out of his life Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  37. 37. Tiflis (Tbilisi) Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  38. 38. Tiflis (Tbilisi) Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  39. 39. Tiflis (Tbilisi) Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  40. 40. Tiflis (Tbilisi) Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  41. 41. Tbilisi (125,000), unlike Gori (20,000), had a multinational population wherein the Georgians themselves were a minority (26%). Along with them were Russians (30%), Armenians (30%), Tatars, Persians and Germans. Russians lived in the center on the west bank. Armenian and Persian bazaars lay nearby. Georgians had their district on the other side of the river. To the north of them lived the German immigrants who had moved there...at Emperor Alexander I’s invitation. Robert Service,Stalin; A Biography, p. 33 Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  42. 42. Tiflis Spiritual Seminary a 19th century photo Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  43. 43. “The Stone Sack” (1894-1899) • Russification meant Georgian speech, “a filthy language,” was a punishable offense • seminarists were allowed into the city for just one hour a day • gestures of respect were demanded for the Rector and his staff • miscreants were punished by solitary confinement • informants among the seminarists were used to stamp out insubordination • only approved books were allowed and lockers were inspected regularly • early to rise and early to bed, a diet of bread and beans contemporary photo Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  44. 44. the curriculum • it was taken for granted that Russian and Church Slavonic languages had been mastered • Christian vocational training was not predominant at first • not only Russian literature and history but also Greek and Latin were studied • mastery of Xenophon’s Anabasis led, in the fourth year, to Plato’s Apology and Phaedo • “Although the curriculum in secular subjects was not as expansive as in the gimnazias [private secondary schools] it gave pupils a fairly broad education by the European standards of the time.” --Service, p.35 Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  45. 45. from rebel to Marxist atheist revolutionary Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  46. 46. from rebel to Marxist atheist revolutionary Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  47. 47. Stalin was initially, “calm, attentive, modest and bashful” remembers one schoolmate...The moody teenage Soso was taking stock--and becoming a self-conscious romantic poet--but he was also studying seriously [with almost all 5s (As) and standing eighth in his class] At the end of term, Soso took his poems to...the country’s greatest poet, Prince Ilya Chavchavadze….The Prince chose five poems to publish--quite an achievement. [He] called Stalin the ‘young man with the burning eyes.’ He was admired in Georgia as a poet before he was known as a revolutionary. Montefiore, pp. 56-57 Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  48. 48. the battle of the dormitories; Soso vs Father “Black Spot” • rebellion began with reading “forbidden books.” First, the novels of Victor Hugo • Black Spot patrolled after “lights out” and caught him--punishment cell • next came the poetry of Nekrasov and Chernyshevsky’s What Is to Be Done? Zola’s Germinal--a prolonged stay in the punishment cell and a severe reprimand • he took his later alias Koba from the hero of Georgian novelist Alexander Kazbegi’s The Patricide which starred a classic Caucasian bandit-hero. Koba had also been the name of his surrogate father, Koba Egnatashvili • “Koba became Soso’s God...He wished to become Koba. He called himself ‘Koba’ and insisted we call him that.”--classmate Iremashvili • next came Marx, to the thunderous disapproval of Black Spot Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  49. 49. Stalin was in constant trouble: in the school journal, the priests recorded that he was rude, “failed to bow” to a teacher and was “confined to the cell for five hours.” He declined to cut his hair, growing it rebelliously long. Challenged by Black Spot, he refused to cut it. He laughed and chatted in prayers, left Vespers early, was late to the Hymn of the Virgin, and pranced out of mass. In December, 1898, he turned twenty, much too old for boarding school, and a year older than anyone else (because of time wasted recovering from his accidents). Small wonder he was frustrated. There were frenzied searches for the atheist’s Life of Christ by Renan, which Stalin proudly owned...He was losing interest in his studies. By the start of his fifth grade he was twentieth out of twenty-three, scoring mainly 3s where he used to score 5s. Montefiore, p. 69 Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  50. 50. What is to be done? N. Lenin Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  51. 51. Messamy Dasi (Third Group) August, 1898 • 1893-founded as a socialist underground group in Tiflis. It took its name in contrast to a liberal group of the 1880s, Meori Dasi (Georgian for The Second Group) • its founders, Noe Jordania, Karlo Chkheidze, and Irakli Tseretelli soon became known outside Georgia as spokesmen of the Menshevik wing of the Russian Social Democratic Workers Party (RSDWP or SD) • one of its promoters was Sylvester Djibladze, expelled from the seminary for assaulting its principal in 1892, before Soso’s arrival. He recruited Stalin in 1898. • “I became a Marxist because of my social position (my father was a worker in a shoe factory and my mother was also a working woman), but also...because of the harsh intolerance and Jesuitical discipline that crushed me so mercilessly at the Seminary…. The atmosphere in which I lived was saturated with hatred against Tsarist oppression” --Stalin, much later Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  52. 52. In those years there were turbulent strikes by the Tiflis workers, the first in the capital of the Caucasus. Their effect on the working class and the radical intelligentsia can hardly be imagined now. In later years strikes were to become common; their sheer frequency was to deprive them of their exciting quality. But the first strikes were a revelation of unsuspected strength in Labour [sic]; they were a new weapon in the social contest; and, as new weapons usually do, they evoked exaggerated hopes and fears. Rulers and ruled alike saw in them the sign of great events impending and of dramatic changes-- and, as far as Russia was concerned, they were not wrong. Isaac Deutscher, Stalin; A Political Biography, 1949, rev. ed., 1960, pp. 19-20 Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  53. 53. “I was expelled for Marxist propaganda,” Stalin boasted mendaciously later…. The truth is that Father Abashidze had found a soft way of getting rid of his tormentor. “I didn’t graduate,” Stalin told his Gendarme interrogators in 1910, “because in 1899, absolutely unexpectedly, I was invoiced 25 roubles to proceed with my education...I was expelled for not paying this.” The Black Spot cunningly raised the school fees. Stalin did not try to pay them. He just left…. Stalin did not qualify as a priest, but the boarding school educated him classically--and influenced him enormously. Black Spot had, perversely, turned Stalin into an atheist Marxist and taught him exactly the repressive tactics--”surveillance, spying, invasion of inner life, violation of feelings,” in Stalin’s own words--that he would recreate in his Soviet police state. Montefiore, pp. 72-74 Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  54. 54. Stalin’s only “real job”--meteorologist (28 Dec 1899- 21 Mar 1901) • Soso needed a job and a home • the Tiflis Meteorological Observatory was a cover for the young revolutionary, and a tower room he shared • he and another Gori friend organized “one of the first full- scale radical strikes in Georgia” in the railway workshops • Stalin lectured (propaganda) and agitated (urged action) the workers • he experienced his first of countless arrests • 1 May 1900-the Maievka, socialism’s high holy day, the Railroad workshops and the Adelkhanov Shoe Factory came out • it would be Soso’s last recorded contact with his father The Physical Observatory on Mikhailovsky Street Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  55. 55. konspiratsia Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  56. 56. rules of the konspiratsia game • 1881-after the shocking assassination of Tsar Alexander II, the two political police were created, the Okhrana (undercover) and the Gendarmerie (uniformed). They began to develop the rules: • in order to uncover the revolutionaries it was necessary to infiltrate them • often the police spies would encourage the plotters to move from words to actions so that they could be charged • the police term for such an agent was provokator • the revolutionaries called any police spy a predatel (traitor). The penalty was death • in response, the revolutionaries tried to infiltrate the police, getting policemen who would tell them the police plans, either out of sympathy for the revolutionary cause or for money • things got really deadly when these infiltrators became double-agents, “playing both sides of the street” Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  57. 57. the Degaev affair • 1883-arrested in connection with Tsar Alexander II’s assassination, Narodnaya Volya (People’s Will) member Degaev agrees to become a police spy • he is well paid for turning in his fellow revolutionaries • his master, Col. G. Sudeikin of the Petersburg Okhrana, even orders murders to conceal his double-agent’s identity • then Degaev betrays and murders his master, flees to America and becomes a mathematics professor Sergei Petrovich Degaev • most predateli were not so fortunate 1857-1921 Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  58. 58. revolutionary bloodbath; the Azef affair • 1890-from a poor Jewish family, he like so many others, became radicalized • 1892-fearing arrest, embezzled money to escape, fled to Germany, studied electrical engineering • recruited by Ohkrana, returned to Russia, joined the Socialist Revolutionaries, betrayed the head of their assassination group, the Combat Organization, then replaced him! • masterminded Justice Minister von Plehve’s (1904) and Grand Duke Sergei’s (1905) assassinations • despite warnings from sympathetic police, the SRs initially refused to believe he was a double-agent Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  59. 59. konspiratsia and assassination; going underground • Stalin meets a new radical partner, Stepan Shaumyan • “tall, well built and very handsome with a pale face and light blue eyes” the well-off highly educated son of an Armenian businessman, a lady’s man • expelled from Riga University for Marxism • he and Stalin plan the successful murder of the Tiflis railways director • “...all tender feeling for family, friendship...even honor, must be squashed by the sole passion for revolutionary work.” Nechaev, Revolutionary Stepan Georgevich Shaumyan Catechism (1878-1918) Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  60. 60. Henceforth, Stalin usually carried a pistol in his belt….Going underground meant that [he] also avoided conscription into the army in 1901. On his last arrest in 1913, he told the police he had been “exempted from conscription for family reasons in 1901.” The Gori police officer Davrichewy helped provide the paperwork enabling him to escape military service, according to his son’s memoirs….Stalin was not bothered by conscription again until 1916. Montefiore, p. 83 Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  61. 61. Baku, the industrial heart of Transcaucasia Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  62. 62. Baku, the industrial heart of Transcaucasia Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  63. 63. Baku, the industrial heart of Transcaucasia Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  64. 64. Oil; Russia’s “black gold” • 1846-the first oil well to be drilled (hand excavated wells since Marco Polo’s time) • 1872-large scale development started when the Russian imperial authorities auctioned the parcels of oil-rich land around Baku to private investors • Swiss, British, French, Belgian, German, Swedish and American investors appeared, among them the Nobel brothers and the Rothschild family • an industrial belt, better known as Black City, was established near Baku • 1883-the Nobels introduced railway tank cars when the line to Tiflis opened • 1900-more than half of world oil production (11 million tons or 212,000!barrels of oil per day), and 95 percent of all Russian oil was being extracted in Baku Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  65. 65. Batumi, 1902 “I got a job with the Rothschilds!” crowed Stalin The Rothschild refinery, Batumi (left) Batumi Baku Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  66. 66. art from later glamorizing the young revolutionary (Lt) Stalin the student (Rt) Stalin at Batumi Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  67. 67. Next day, the Rothschild refinery was on fire. Stalin, age twenty-four, unleashed mayhem in the oil port of Batumi. Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  68. 68. • he ordered his first killings of informers, factory managers shot • embarked on love affairs with married women while the secret police hunted for him • provoked a militant strike which developed into the storming of the prison and a Cossack retaliatory massacre • and printed his Marxist pamphlets with the aid of a friendly Muslim highwayman, Hashimi Smirba (right) Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  69. 69. • into this heady stew of sabotage, labor agitation, execution of predateli, assassination of “bosses,” secret printing presses, 24 year-old Soso now adds adultery • his pretty peasant landlady, Natasha, age 22, becomes the first of countless such conquests • when she is jailed with him after the prison riot/ massacre, Stalin will gallantly see that she receives special treatment Natalia (Natasha) Kirtava • even in prisons, he was able to exert authority with the personality which later made him the Red Tsar of all the Russias Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  70. 70. Kutaisi prison; the first of many On his first arrest, Stalin dominated the prison, killing inmates and defying the authorities...the long haired Marxist arranged this photograph before his comrades were sent to Siberian exile, placing himself, once again, center top ( number 4) Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  71. 71. left and lower right; Kutaisi prison, Stalin’s cell and outside upper right; Novaya Uda, his first exile, where he caroused with his friends and prepared his escape Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  72. 72. “the frozen Georgian:Siberian exile” (Montefiore-Chapter 12) Siberian exile was regarded as one of the most terrible abuses of Tsarist tyranny. It was certainly boring and depressing, but once settled in some godforsaken village, the exiles, intellectuals who were often hereditary noblemen, were usually well treated. Such paternalistic sojourns more resembled dull reading-holidays than the living hell of Stalin’s murderous Gulags. The exiles even received pocket-money from the Tsar--twelve roubles for a nobleman such as Lenin, eleven roubles for a school graduate such as Molotov, and eight for a peasant such as Stalin--with which to pay for clothes, food and rent. If they received too much money from home they lost their allowance. Montefiore, p.111 Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  73. 73. December, 1903-- a “letter” from Lenin “I first met Lenin in 1903,” said Stalin, “not a personal meeting, more a postal one. It wasn’t a long letter but a bold and fearless critique of our Party” He exaggerated. This was not a personal letter--Lenin had not yet heard of Stalin--but a pamphlet: “A Letter to a Comrade on Organizational Tasks.” Nonetheless its effect on Stalin was real enough. “That simple bold note reinforced my belief that in Lenin, the Party had a mountain eagle.” [emphasis added, JBP] Montefiore, p. 113 Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  74. 74. the first of many escapes • “...not too difficult. Everyone tried to escape. The exile system was a sieve.” - Trotsky • the escapee needed about 100 rubles to buy his escape kit: food, clothes, train tickets, bribes • 1906-1909--18,000 exiles out of a total of 32,000 escaped • Stalin would later confuse things when he wrote his official biographies: 1930s bio Short Course, 8 arrests, 7 exiles & 6 escapes; 1947 edition, 7 arrests, 6 exiles, 5 escapes • “Amazingly, Stalin was being modest or forgetful. There were in fact at least 9 arrests, 4 short detentions and 8 escapes.” Montefiore, p. 114 • Orthodox Epiphany, 1904--with a police agent’s false ID, Stalin made it back to Tiflis on the Trans-Siberian Railway in ten days, just in time for the start of the Russo-Japanese War Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  75. 75. Bolsheviks and Mensheviks • when Stalin returned to the Tiflis SD underground, he found his comrades divided • the Bolsheviki were the “hard line” who believed Party membership should be restricted to full time dedicated revolutionaries who lived in the shadow world of konspiratsia • the Mensheviki were those who felt that the Party should be “inclusive” and welcome all who shared in the Marxist vision • Stalin knew immediately that he sided with Lenin, the KP(b) (Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bolshevika) as it came to be known • in the ideological disputes of the time, Georgia’s “top dog” Bolshevik, Mikha Tskhakaya, made Stalin write a Credo to make sure he was “thinking with the correct Party line” Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  76. 76. 1905 The demonstration on “Bloody Sunday” Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  77. 77. Nineteen-hundred-and-five began and ended with slaughter. It was the year of revolution in which young Stalin, for the first time, commanded armed men, tasted power, and embraced gangsterism. On 6 February, he was in Baku when some Armenians shot a Tartar in the centre of the city. Azeri Turks--or “Tartars” as they were often called--retaliated. The news spread. The authorities, who had long resented Armenian wealth and success, encouraged the Azeri mobs to pour into the city…. Stalin was there….He had formed a small Bolshevik Battle Squad in Baku. Now he gathered this mainly Muslim gang and ordered them to divide the two communities wherever possible while simultaneously taking the opportunity to steal any useful printing equipment--and raise money for the Party by protection rackets. Montefiore, pp. 128-129 Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  78. 78. During the 1905 Revolution, Stalin ran a Faginesque [Dickens’ villain in Oliver Twist] network of street children who smuggled guns and ran errands as his private intelligence service. Meanwhile, Stalin was pursued and watched by the agents or “spooks” of the Okhrana, who pose (left) in their street costumes. Yet he became adept at tricking and infiltrating the secret police themselves. pictures and caption from Montefiore Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  79. 79. Bolshevik Temptress • her parents, of German ancestry, were furious when their 27 year-old boarder seduced and ran off with 13 year-old Olga • the couple “immersed themselves in revolutionary activism while raising a family of two daughters and two sons” • their Tiflis household “devoted to the cause, abustle with an ever-changing cast of young conspirators--particularly those who were dark, mysterious and to Olga’s nymphomanaical taste” • 1904-Stalin joined the procession and became a lover of his future mother-in-law while his future wife was yet a baby • “In the underground, the revolutionaries were, under a façade Olga Alliluyeva of prudishness, sexually liberal”--Montefiore Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  80. 80. “Kamo”--”one of the Party’s most useful thugs” • his real name, Simon Ter-Petrossian • grew up in Gori with Stalin, who converted him to Marxism • he often supported himself by becoming a gigolo • “a bank robber of ingenious audacity, a Houdini of prison escapes, a credulous simpleton--and a half-insane practitioner of psychopathic violence” • “Intensely, eerily tranquil with a weird ‘lustrous face’ and a blank gaze, he was keen to serve his master, often begging Stalin:‘Let me kill him for you!’...he later plunged his hand into a man’s chest and cut out his heart” • “Throughout his life, Stalin’s detached magnetism would attract, and win the devotion of, amoral, unbounded psychopaths. His boyhood henchman Kamo... [was] the first in a long line.” 1882-1922 Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  81. 81. 1905: Stalin is King of the Mountain • the exploited manganese miners of the western Georgian town of Chiatura then produced 60% of the world’s supply • 1882-A British metallurgist had developed a new steel alloy using manganese and the global appetite was enormous • Summer, 1905-Stalin, “the ultimate tactician,” let the Menshevik speak first to 2,000 sweaty, coal-black miners gathered from the pits upon the Caucasus mountainside • after he bored these plain men with high flown socialist intellectualizing, Stalin spoke simply for just 15 minutes • Stalin won the debate and Chiatura became a Bolshevik stronghold • “Years later , he worked the same trick with famous orators like Trotsky”--Montefiore Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  82. 82. King of the Mountain this undated picture is from a later period when artists contributed to the cult of Great Stalin by reconstructing episodes of his biography for “Stalin Corners” Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  83. 83. Only on the bones of the oppressors can the people’s freedom be founded--only the blood of the oppressors can fertilize the soil for the people’s self rule. Stalin, Sochinenya (Works), vol i, p. 190 Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  84. 84. Stalin’s Red Squad • he trained his partisans, stole guns, and smuggled in ammunition over the hills • they disarmed Russian troops, ambushed hated cossacks, raided banks, and murdered spooks and policemen, “until nearly the whole province was in our hands” • Chiatura’s mountain was the base camp for the Red Squad • Stalin’s henchman, Tsintsadze, a “dashing red-haired devil...recruited as gangsters a handful of female students, most of them in love with him.” • they were funded at least partly by big business: • if they did not pay, their mines might be blown up, their managers murdered • if they did pay, Stalin protected them Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  85. 85. Stalin’s doomed first wife • 1905-they met when Stalin used their Tiflis apartment as a “safe house” • she was the youngest of three daughters, a dressmaker to the Tiflis officers’ wives • 15 July 1906-they would marry in Baku, between murders, mayhem, arrests, and Stalin’s trips to Party Congresses • 18 March 1907-she was released from prison just in time to deliver their son, Yakov (Yasha) • 22 Nov 1907-Kato, just 22 years old, died in Stalin’s arms Ekaterina (Kato) Svanidze Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  86. 86. “The Mountain Eagle;” Stalin Meets Lenin “I was happy to meet the mountain eagle of our Party, a great man, not only politically but also physically too, because Lenin had taken shape in my imagination as a stately and imposing giant.” • 26 Nov 1905-a Party meeting elected Stalin and two others to represent the Caucasus at a conference in Skt- Peterburg • the revolution was ebbing after the October Manifesto; and before he arrived, Trotsky, the Peterburg Soviet and leading Bolsheviks were arrested • 24 Dec-Lenin’s wife, Krupskaya, met the Caucasus trio and sent them on to Tammerfors, in Finland to meet 40 other Bolsheviks “disguised as teachers on holiday” • “Back in Tiflis, Stalin told Davrichewy that it was Lenin's blend of intellectual force and total practicality that made him so remarkable ‘among all those chatterboxes’ “ • “Stalin considered himself superior to all the other delegates except Lenin…’I was the only one who’d already organized and led men in combat’ “ Lenin in 1905 Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  87. 87. May 13, 1907 Stalin Goes Abroad A band of Russian revolutionists entering the Brotherhood Church Hall--Southgate Road, N, where their meetings are held The Daily Mirror Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  88. 88. Stockholm Conference April, 1906 • much more important than the Finnish conference because its 156 delegates represented the union of Bolsheviks, Mensheviks, Polish Socialists and Jewish Bundists • he meets for the first time Felix Dzerzhinski, Polish Socialist and future Cheka head; Grigori Radomyslsky, the Jewish milkman’s son soon known as “Zinoviev,” his fellow triumvir after Lenin’s death, whom Stalin liquidated along with Kamenev in 1936; and Alexei Rykov, Lenin’s successor as Premier, with whom Stalin would share power for a while then liquidate in 1938 • he shared a room with “metalworker, mounted postman, and working-class dandy Klimenti Voroshilov, who would become his Defense Commissar, First Marshall and accomplice in the 1937 slaughter of the Soviet military” • Mensheviks outnumbered Bolsheviks at the so-called Unity Congress. Stalin was the lone KP (b) among the 16 delegates from the Caucasus Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  89. 89. Stockholm Conference April, 1906 • on the first important vote, the land question,(1) Lenin favored nationalization; (2) the Mensheviks, “municipalization” (zemstvo control); (3) Stalin, giving the land to individual peasant proprietors • when the Congress debated whether to run in elections for the Imperial Duma, most Bolsheviks were against, but Lenin supported the idea and voted with the winning Mensheviks. Stalin abstained • Lenin and Krasin, his urbane money-laundering and terrorism maestro, made themselves scarce when the Congress passed a resolution to ban the bank robberies,attacks on treasury transports, and troop movements. “We should not have taken up arms” --Plekhanov • but Lenin had no intention of giving up his bank robbing--he needed the money. Stalin was instructed to prepare for the big Tiflis heist. Lenin observed, for the first time, Stalin’s value as a ruthless underground fighter as well as a forceful independent politician • “in Stockholm, the comrades made Soso buy a suit, a felt hat, and a pipe so he looked like a real European. It was the first time we saw him well dressed.”-- Sashiko Svanidze (his soon-to-be sister-in-law) Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  90. 90. preparing for “the Big Job” • Stalin commissioned his most ruthless henchman, Kamo, to come up with the weapons, pistols and “apples,” (hand grenades) with money pirated from a steamship carrying government funds from Odessa to Batumi • Stalin himself found the “inside man,” one Voznesensky, who had studied with him at the Gori Spiritual School and the Tiflis Seminary. He now worked in the Tiflis banking mail office with access to the invaluable, secret schedules of the cash stagecoaches. He agreed to help because he admired Soselo’s poetry. Only in Georgia! • in Skt-Peterburg, Kamo charmed Lenin and Krupskaya with his combination of simplicity, lethality and craziness. Krasin sent them to Brussels with introductions to arms manufacturers sympathetic to the Cause • the twenty brigands who made up the core of “the Outfit” were briefed on Soso’s elaborate plan, a terrorist extravaganza that would make headlines worldwide • they only needed to wait for the right time--”Expropriate the expropriators!”--Marx Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  91. 91. Stalin in London 27 April/10 May 1907-”about three weeks later” “The delegates were met by an incongruous crew of English reporters and photographers, twelve Special Branch detectives and two Okhrana agents, as well as by local sympathizers who were either English socialists or Russian exiles. “History is being made in London!” declared the Daily Mirror, which seemed to be most fascinated by the fact that some of the revolutionaries were “women burning with zeal for the great cause”-- and by their lack of luggage in that age of stately travel. “There is not a man over forty and many little over twenty”--Stalin was 29 and Lenin was 37 (but “we always called him the Old Man” Stalin said later). “It was,” concluded the Daily Mirror, “a most picturesque crowd.” Montefiore, pp. 169-170 Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  92. 92. The entrance to the hall showing three delegates going in to a meeting and a watchman at the door Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  93. 93. The London (5th) SD Congress • 30 April/13 May--Plekhanov opened the Congress with a hymn for fallen comrades • Stalin watched how Lenin sat with”the tall, haunted and spectre-thin Gorky, international celebrity and Bolshevik fund-raiser...Later in life, Gorky would become [Stalin’s] friend, shameful apologist, pathetic trophy and possibly victim.” • 302 voting delegates, but the Party was in dire straits, shattered by the Tsar’s repression • 92 Bolsheviks, 85 Mensheviks, 54 Jewish Bundists, 45 Polish-Lithuanians, and 26 Letts • Trotsky, recently escaped from Siberia, was the star speaker. Stalin hated him on sight. • Menshevik leader Martov, real name Tsederbaum, like Trotsky, Jewish, challenged Stalin’s credentials unsuccessfully. Another lifelong hatred began. “His resentment of Jewish intellectuals exposed Stalin’s burning inferiority complex.”--Montefiore Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  94. 94. The London (5th) SD Congress • the conference…”marked the emergence of Stalin the Russian. Weary of Georgia’s petty squabbles and Menshevik dominance, he was ready to concentrate on Baku and Russia herself. Henceforth he wrote in Russian, not Georgian” • the Mensheviks did achieve their goal of making bank robberies grounds for expulsion from the Party. Stalin kept his silence • Lenin worried about the poorer delegates like Stalin who lived in flop houses in the East End, while Lenin and the other big shots lived in comfortable hotels • he arranged for Gorky’s mistress to distribute beer and sandwiches • one night Stalin was almost beaten up by some drunken dockside workers • the Party ran short of funds and had to make an odd bargain with capitalism Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  95. 95. Russian Social Democratic Labour Party When they ran out of money, Lenin had to borrow from Joseph Fels, an American soap millionaire who insisted every delegate sign the agreement (right) Everyone signed using aliases: “Vasily from Baku” is probably Stalin Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  96. 96. The Bank Robbery At 10:30 a.m. on the sultry morning of Wednesday, 26 June 1907, in the seething central square of Tiflis, a dashing moustashioed cavalry captain [Kamo] in boots and jodhpurs, wielding a big Circassian sabre, performed tricks on horseback, joking with two pretty, well dressed Georgian girls who twirled gaudy parasols--while fingering Mauser pistols hidden in their dresses. Raffish young men in bright peasant blouses and wide sailor-style trousers waited on the street corners, cradling secreted revolvers and grenades….All of them were waiting to carry out the first exploit by...Stalin, aged twenty-nine, to win the attention of the world. Montefiore, p. 3 Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  97. 97. • as the two stagecoaches, full of cash and policemen, guarded by cossack outriders, galloped into the square, a rain of bombs descended from rooftops • horses, cossacks, police and bystanders were literally blown to pieces • the money was transferred to a phaeton driven up by the leader, Kamo and carried off to a safe house • as he left the square, he passed the chief of police. “The money is safe, go to the bank!” The policeman fell for it and missed the chance to arrest the gang members still on the square. The next day he committed suicide. • mastermind Stalin was probably at the train station, ready to bug out if things went wrong Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  98. 98. Kamo’s mugshot he was arrested in Berlin! • the robbery was “a poisoned chalice...Lenin and his comrades fought for possession of the cash like rats in a cage. His enemies spent the next three years [in] Party investigations hoping to ruin him” • Stalin was expelled from the Party by the Tiflis Committee. He spent the rest of his life trying to cover up his role in the “expropriations,” (“exes,” for short) “His career as gangster godfather, audacious bank robber, killer, pirate and arsonist, though whispered at home and much enjoyed by critics abroad, remained hidden until the twenty- first century.” • “In another sense, the Tiflis spectacular was the making of him...the one patron who really counted, Lenin, decided that Stalin was “exactly the kind of person I need” Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  99. 99. gangsters and groupies 1907-1913 Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  100. 100. ...of the ten years between 1907 and 1917, [Stalin] spent nearly seven in prisons, on the way to Siberia, in Siberian banishment, and in escapes from the places of his banishment. His carefully collected political writings of that period add up to less than one slender volume of his Works. The most indulgent reader of that of that volume could hardly find in it any proof of striking political or intellectual attainment. The man who in the beginning of 1917 hurried back from Siberia to Petersburg to lead the Bolsheviks before Lenin’s return from Switzerland had made little advance on the youthful author of the essays published in Brdzola [the Georgian underground press]. The clue to his promotion lay in his practical activities rather than in any talent for letters or journalism. Deutscher, p. 97 Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  101. 101. Stalin thrived in the underworld, on the run, in and out of prison, hunting spies in his own Party and repeatedly escaping from Siberian exile. Here in police mug shots (top, left) Stalin in Baku, 1908, and (bottom left, and right) headed “Baku Gubernia Gendarmerie,” in 1910--his shorter left arm is visible. Times were harder. He is noticeably thinner. Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  102. 102. November, 1907--Kato, Stalin’s wife died a terrible death:He was heartbroken (far right). The family blamed him. He said his tenderness died with her. He threw himself into the grave, then narrowly escaped arrest at her funeral. Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  103. 103. After Kato’s death, Stalin enjoyed a string of love affairs with, amongst others, Alvasi Talakvadze (above left) and Ludmilla Stal (above right), the experienced Russian Bolshevik who may have inspired his famous name Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  104. 104. ()$*#&*& (Praktiki,practical men) θεωρια (theory) versus !ραξιζ (practice) Two years of revolutionary work among the oil workers of Baku hardened me as a practical fighter and as one of the practical leaders. In contact with advanced workers of Baku...in the storm of the deepest conflicts between workers and oil industrialists...I first learned what it meant to lead big masses of workers. There in Baku I thus received my second baptism in revolutionary combat. Stalin, Sochinenia, viii, p. 174 in Deutscher, p. 98 Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  105. 105. Baku, the lawless oil boom city where Stalin embraced gangsterism, extortion and piracy to fund Lenin hellish oilfields An oil fountain Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  106. 106. Baku’s millionaires the palace of Nagayev, a self-made tycoon possibly kidnapped by Stalin The Baku oil baron Mukhtarov (with his wife) w h o o rd e re d S t a l i n beaten up or killed Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  107. 107. “Sergo” ( ) Григо́рий Константи́нович Орджоники́дзе • born in western Georgia to a noble family • 1903-entered Soso’s “Outfit” after graduating as a doctor from Tiflis Medical College • arrested for arms smuggling, exiled to Germany • 1907-returned to Georgia, settled in Baku, worked closely with Stalin, believed to have assassinated Prince Chavchavadze, poet and Stalin’s patron in 1896, on Stalin’s orders • 1909-Stalin sent him to Teheran in charge of a group of Bolsheviks, with arms to foment the Persian Constitutional Revolution. They tried to assassinate the Shah Grigori Constantinovich Ordzhonikidze • 1912-escaped and returned from Siberian exile with Stalin 1886-1937 Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  108. 108. Koba and Sergo organize the Baku workers, 1907 • in the oilfields, Europe and Asia met. The workers were Russian and Armenian Christians (48%), Persian, Lezgin, and Tartar Muslims (42%) and Turks (10%). Russian was the lingua franca of these peoples. Stalin stopped writing in Georgian. • Stalin lived in the Muslim quarter and worked mainly with the less-skilled oilfield roustabouts. He argued for CIO-type industrial organization. The Mensheviks focused on the skilled Christian laborers in the workshops and urged AF of L-type craft unions • Stalin prevailed with the oil barons, and the 50,000 Baku workers elected their delegates • “While all over Russia black reaction was reigning, a genuine workers’ parliament was in session in Baku”--Sergo Ordzhonikidze • after eight or nine months of organizing and strikes, Koba and Sergo were arrested and imprisoned locally, awaiting conviction (25 Mar 1908-Jan 1909) and exile Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  109. 109. European exile Vologda Province, Solvychegodsk (Feb 1909-June 1909 and Oct, 1910-July 1911) • a small village in Northern Russia, dull but with loose discipline and plenty of opportunities for politicking, boozing and womanizing • after getting money, he made his escape, dressed as a woman and entrained for Skt- Peterburg where the Alliluyevs briefly sheltered him • July 1909-he returned to Baku as an Armenian merchant, but the Okhrana wasn’t fooled • “The Social-Democrat escapee from Siberia has arrived--he is known as ‘Koba’ or ‘Soso’” • he will be intermittently watched, but the secret police will not arrest him for several months to finish serving out his exile • was Stalin an agent for the Okhrana? Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  110. 110. There now started a farrago of bewildering scandals that revealed that Stalin’s party was riddled with Tsarist spies. Stalin reacted by unleashing a hysterical, murderous witch hunt for traitors which only succeeded in destroying the innocent--and drawing suspicion onto himself….It was a mess. Soso liked to fix such messes with quiet killings, but that did not work this time….If one throws into this poisonous cauldron the accusations of betrayal against him as early as 1902, his secret police contacts and his escapes from exile and prison, it might look plausible that he was a Tsarist agent. Yet the case against Stalin is actually a weak one….His secret-police contacts are not as suspicious as they seem….It was his job to groom Gendarme or Okhrana officers, to generate tip-offs about traitors and police raids, and to engineer quick releases for arrested comrades. Some contacts...were sympathizers, most just wanted money. The money flowed both ways. Virtually all Okhrana agents were paid, but Stalin received no such mysterious income. As for Stalin’s many escapes from exile…,”Those who didn’t escape,”explained one secret policeman,”did not want to, for personal reasons.” Montefiore, pp. 216-220 Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  111. 111. European exile Vologda Province, Solvychegodsk (Feb 1909-June 1909 and Oct, 1910-July 1911) • July, 1909-March, 1910--Koba worked to re inspire the Baku Bolsheviks who had lost numbers and funds during his absence. • just as he was preparing a general strike in the oilfields, Okhrana arrested him. He waited in jail six months for his sentence. His comrades procured the phlegm of man with TB and bribed the prison doctor to get him transferred to the hospital. • the sentence, finish out his term in Solvychegodsk, thereafter banishment from the Caucasus and all major Russian cities for five years. • Oct 1910-he returned to the northern village. Once again boredom led to fornication. In Montefiore’s words; “Two Lost Fiancées and a Pregnant Peasant” • 24 Jan 1911-”I’m suffocating here without active work, literally suffocating” Koba wrote • when escape funds arrived they were almost instantly stolen from him. He gave up and served out his term Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  112. 112. The Central Committee & “Glamourpuss” the Schoolgirl • upon release he was ordered to remain two months in the provincial capital, Vologda • the exile Central Committee ("# OR CC) in Paris appointed a Russian Organizational Committee with Sergo as a member and Stalin as a special traveling envoy • Stalin had a brief fling with the sixteen year-old mistress of one of his comrades. The Okhrana code name for her was “Glamourpuss” (Nariadnaya) “a frivolous and rebellious schoolgirl...Koba was happy to waste a month in her company” • they never met again, but he kept writing. When he was exiled in 1913 she lost contact with him forever. • 6 Sept 1911-Stalin shook off his “tails” and took the train to Skt-Peterburg where he stayed with his friends the Alliluyevs. He was arrested there on 9 September, sent back to Vologda. There Sergo told him the news, he was appointed to the CC! Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  113. 113. Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  114. 114. Russian Social-DemocraticWorkers Party TRUTH ORGAN OF THE CENTRAL COMMITTEE OF THE PETERBURG COMM. R.S.D.R.P No. 10. Thursday DAILY PAPER 16 March 1912 • Stalin had urged the creation of a new, invigorated national paper while still in Baku, before his elevation to the "#(CC) • Feb 1912-now, secretly in Peterburg, disguised in the uniform of an Army Medical Officer, his job was to convert the Party weekly Zvezda (Star) into a daily, Pravda (Truth) • April 1912- “...we agreed on the Pravda platform and worked out the first issue.” Founded in three little rooms, [it] was legal--but its illegal editor-in-chief, Stalin, had to run it from the shadows • the massacre of hundreds of miners in the Siberian Lena River gold fields sold out several reprints Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  115. 115. Cracow, Vienna and the Nationalities Question • Oct 1912-after organizing the campaign which elected 6 Bolsheviks to the Fourth Duma, Stalin received orders from “the Old Man” to join him and Krupskaya in Galicia for a "# meeting • “Illich liked Cracow [with its 4,000 Russian exiles] very much. It was almost Russia.”-Krupskaya • Dec 1912-there Lenin drew his Georgian Praktik (Practical Man) out on the Nationalities Question. he wanted both to learn and to evaluate this 34 year-old. He must have approved of Koba’s ideas. • he directed him to prepare a theoretical piece for the Party’s “solid sociological journal,” Prosveschenia (Enlightenment). Next, he sent him to Vienna, heart of Austria-Hungary’s multi- national empire • Jan 1913-there, at the same time as failed artist, 23 year-old Hitler, Koba wrote and had “his first and last experience of civilized European living” These six weeks were his longest stay outside Russia • The Problems of Nationalities and Social Democracy written (in Russian) by K. Stalin Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  116. 116. Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  117. 117. 23 February 1913--Betrayal at the Fundraiser Ball Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  118. 118. 23 February 1913--Betrayal at the Fundraiser Ball Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  119. 119. 23 February 1913--Betrayal at the Fundraiser Ball Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  120. 120. Siberian “hard time” 1913-1917 Kureika on the Arctic Circle Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  121. 121. Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  122. 122. Yellow = uninhabited or sparsely populated Stalin’s last exile Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  123. 123. Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  124. 124. the Turukhansk exiles, 1915 Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  125. 125. Spandarian Kamenev Sverdlov Vera Shveitzer the Turukhansk exiles, 1915 Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  126. 126. Lidia Pereprygina paedophilia (picture of her, middle aged, after WW II) Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  127. 127. his other diversion Tuesday, March 16, 2010
  128. 128. 12 Mar 1917 12 Dec 1916 9 Feb 1917 7 Mar 1917 Stalin’s return with Lev Kamenev and Vera Shveitzer Tuesday, March 16, 2010

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