The 12-Year Reich
Session 3
Hitler Victorious; Sieg im Westen,
1939-40
The 12-Year Reich
Session 3
Hitler Victorious; Sieg im Westen,
1939-40
Maginot Line
The glory years
the myth of Nazi invincibility
Blitzkrieg--ironically, not a German term!
Vindication! 21.vi.1940
the WW I corporal dictates armistice terms in the
very railroad carriage where 11.xi.1918 was sign...
still, by 1940 cracks were
beginning to appear
 the Battle of Britain


 “Operation Sealion” postponed indefinitely


 Hend...
Hawker Hurricane
still flying in 2007
a French cartoon
ridiculing the postponed cross channel invasion
“ungrateful coward!”
Ribbentrop’s frustrated response to Franco’s high
price for joining the fight
Überfall auf Polen (Fall
Weiß)
Assault on Poland (Case White) 1 September 1939
Kesselschlacht bei Radom,
 Cauldron battle for Radom, 8-12 September
                 Polish POWs
belated Soviet entry, 17.ix
in accord with the secret protocol 23.vii
Lviv (Russian) Lvov (Polish) Lemberg (German)
1939 saw not quite the last use of cavalry in
twentieth century warfare
Soviet propaganda photo
“Long live the great theories of Marx, Engels,
Lenin--Stalin (happy proles in Polish Belarus)
“We stretched our hand to
                  our brothers so that they
                  could straighten their
           ...
quot;Electors of the
working people!
            Vote
   for the joining of Western
Ukraine with Soviet Ukraine, for
  a u...
Polish “enemies of the people”
policemen, teachers, priests, kulaks, and other
‘oppressors’ are rounded up and marched to ...
Katyn forest
Soviets failed to honor terms of surrender. They
ceased to recognize the Polish state at the
start of the inv...
Attack on Warsaw
                                  25-27 September




civilians
seeking
shelter
            hospital casu...
25.ix.39




Hitler reviews
 the victory
    parade
Albert Forster
Reichsgau Danzig-
  Westpreußen




                         Hans Frank
                          General-
...
LICENSING BARBARISM
7.x-- secret order making Himmler
Reichskommissar für die Festigung des
deutschen Volkstums (...for
st...
Der ewige Jude
The eternal Jew
 Goebbels was finishing this
 infamous film as the Polish
 campaign unfolded
 he showed Hitle...
rural shtetl



   Warsaw
   ghetto
Einsatzgruppen
(special or task forces)
 first formed by Heydrich
 during the Anschluß to
 seize key facilities
 five (later...
For a regime dependent on
constant mobilization, the
Jew served as the constant
      mobilizing myth.

   Saul Friedlände...
Euthanasia
another evil fruit of the war
                                                  60000 REICHS MARKS
 in October,...
Finally, but not least, the point at which,
coinciding with the outbreak of war, a secret
programme of mass murder could b...
crossing the Rubicon

As Hitler opined to Goebbels, during the winter of
  the “Phoney War,” after the Polish attrocities,...
seeds of resistance
seeds of resistance



                                                                  Adm Wilhelm Canaris
Col Hans Oste...
“the lone bomber” Georg
Elser, 1903-1945
the attempt-- 9 November 1939
the attempt-- 9 November 1939
the attempt-- 9 November 1939
the attempt-- 9 November 1939
Sitzkrieg (sitting war)
Often called the Phoney War in the west
the Maginot
Line
and the opposing
West Wall
Westwall
the British often
called it the Siegfried
Line after the WW I
defensive position
Dragons teeth
anti-tank devices
German propaganda during
the “Sitzkrieg”

“Where is Tommy?”
the French poilu is off
at the front
is his British ally back
...
this one aimed at the British
soldier

 a dubious attempt to
 discredit British
 leadership and their
 motivation for the ...
SEA WAR-- commerce raiding


both surface and U-
boat forces target
                            Our Gains
British commerce...
Besetzung von
Dänemark
und
Norwegen
Invasion of Denmark and Norway
(Weser Exercise)
the night of 8/9 April 1940
Besetzung von
Dänemark
und
Norwegen
Invasion of Denmark and Norway
(Weser Exercise)
the night of 8/9 April 1940
The Gallivare pit mines
                                             (1) by rail
                                   Swedis...
Einmarsch in
 Dänemark      Bergen, Norway
Gen Eduard Dietl
 Alpine Troops


                   England’s Flight from Narvik
              End of the Norwegian Resis...
occupation begins
British propaganda tries to
put a good face on defeat
 in the style of a black bordered military
 obituary:

 You’re going...
Fall Gelb, 10.v.40
Case Yellow, 10 May 1940
attack in the west
evolution of the battle plan
October 1939-January 1940




  von Brauchitsch
 Army Commander


                          H...
too conventional--Hitler

                                                             OKH =
                             ...
“Even after modifications they remained less than
satisfactory. They envisaged the decisive thrust coming




   from the n...
Angriffsplan Sichelschnitt
Attack Plan “Sickle Cut”




Army Group A (center) “cuts” while B (north) and C (south)
       ...
back to the more traditional plan




   Gedanken eines Kriegsschülers - Hitler
           (ideas of a military cadet)
Fortress Eben-Emael, Belgium
the “strongest fortress in Europe” captured in 30
minutes on Day 1
airborne
glider attack
created a mystique
for vertical
envelopment which
later losses never
dispel
main entrance
                                cgi & photograph




                       Fallschirmjäger Major Koch
Sturm...
Hitler decorates the victors
choosing this signature victory of the new
blitzschnell way of war as a propaganda ‘photo
Der 10. Mai.1940
propaganda postcard printed by Heinrich
Hoffman, Munich, 1942
Pioneer clears a minefield
                                                        Ostend on the North Sea
in Brussels, bes...
Casualties

         German
Approximately 27,074 Germans were killed and 111,034 were wounded, with a further 18,384 missi...
the Ardennes offensive
10-13 May
forests and narrow roads




create transportation
     nightmares
Panzerwagen (armored
the baggy black hats of the early war years soon
give way to helmets
the Netherlands offensive
10-14 May
Rotterdam


                      city center
                after terror bombing




Airborne drop
   10 May
burning oil tanks
 in Amsterdam


                    captured Dutch
                    coastal artillery
Dunkirk
28 May-4/5 June
British retreat in Flanders
Dunkirk
British fisherman helps Tommy aboard
Victory from the jaws of
defeat
 in 9 days 338,226 men
 were evacuated
 including 120,000 French
 and Belgian troops
 30,0...
Tommy POWs
Fall Rot 5.vi.-22.vi.40
Case Red 5-22 June
Paris has Fallen!
Le Harve has been taken/the Saar front
assault continues/Full breakthrough on
Stuka over Sedan
the Luftwaffe gained air superiority early on and
used it to drive the French retreat
the heavy lifting over, Italy joins the fight
here in a meeting with Hitler to celebrate Italian
entry into the war
Compiegne- 22.vi.40
Waffenstillstand (armistice)
Hitler and his officers stare at the statue of
Foch on their way to the railway carriage
the historic park at Compiegne whe...
reversal of fortune, 1940 vs 1918
just as France chose the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles to humiliate
Germany in 1919, whe...
Inside the historic railway carriage, where
                          once sat Erzberger, chief of the “November
         ...
Hitler views Napoleon’s tomb
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Enrh023ftfU
triumph for Germany
a frame from the victory film, Sieg im Westen
Operation Sealion
Hitler orders a plan, July
Admiral Raeder emphasizes air superiority as a
sine qua non
We sail against England
popular song, slogan, even children’s board
game
Coupon
         VALID FOR a   one way
       Trip to England
NOW Departing!             No Return Trip!
Good for next summ...
Battle of Britain
July-September, 1940
Coventry Cathedral
15 November 1940
phases of the air war

 10 July-11 August: Kanalkampf (the Channel battles)
 12 August-23 August: Adlerangriff (Eagle Atta...
Junkers Ju 87 Stukas
carried the initial load during the Channel Battle.
Both sides tested their fighters and pilots.
Göring giving a speech to his pilots near Calais explaining
  the decision to switch from RAF bases to the cities
What next?
Japanese expansion
Second Sino-Japanese War, 1937-1945
 Japan and China had fought intermittently
 ever since Japan establ...
Tripartite Pact, 27 Sept 1940
a portent of things to come--Germany, Italy, and
Japan
23 October 1940 at Hendaye
on the border of France and Spain
Mit diesem Kerle ist nichts zu machen
putting a good face on it
each tries to use the other

Franco’s wish list includes French
North African colonies,military
...
g le
                                           tr ug
                                         S
                         ...
“A fatal alliance” warns this
Soviet poster
 November, 1940 Romania joins the Tripartite Pact

 the Soviets had forced the...
Sieg im Westen, 1939-1940; part 3 of 12-Year Reich
Sieg im Westen, 1939-1940; part 3 of 12-Year Reich
Sieg im Westen, 1939-1940; part 3 of 12-Year Reich
Sieg im Westen, 1939-1940; part 3 of 12-Year Reich
Sieg im Westen, 1939-1940; part 3 of 12-Year Reich
Sieg im Westen, 1939-1940; part 3 of 12-Year Reich
Sieg im Westen, 1939-1940; part 3 of 12-Year Reich
Sieg im Westen, 1939-1940; part 3 of 12-Year Reich
Sieg im Westen, 1939-1940; part 3 of 12-Year Reich
Sieg im Westen, 1939-1940; part 3 of 12-Year Reich
Sieg im Westen, 1939-1940; part 3 of 12-Year Reich
Sieg im Westen, 1939-1940; part 3 of 12-Year Reich
Sieg im Westen, 1939-1940; part 3 of 12-Year Reich
Sieg im Westen, 1939-1940; part 3 of 12-Year Reich
Sieg im Westen, 1939-1940; part 3 of 12-Year Reich
Sieg im Westen, 1939-1940; part 3 of 12-Year Reich
Sieg im Westen, 1939-1940; part 3 of 12-Year Reich
Sieg im Westen, 1939-1940; part 3 of 12-Year Reich
Sieg im Westen, 1939-1940; part 3 of 12-Year Reich
Sieg im Westen, 1939-1940; part 3 of 12-Year Reich
Sieg im Westen, 1939-1940; part 3 of 12-Year Reich
Sieg im Westen, 1939-1940; part 3 of 12-Year Reich
Sieg im Westen, 1939-1940; part 3 of 12-Year Reich
Sieg im Westen, 1939-1940; part 3 of 12-Year Reich
Sieg im Westen, 1939-1940; part 3 of 12-Year Reich
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Sieg im Westen, 1939-1940; part 3 of 12-Year Reich

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This presentation describes the first year of the war, Poland, the Phony War, Denmark and Norway, the Low Countries, France, the Blitz, and Hitler's dilemma when Britain fails to give in.

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Sieg im Westen, 1939-1940; part 3 of 12-Year Reich

  1. 1. The 12-Year Reich Session 3 Hitler Victorious; Sieg im Westen, 1939-40
  2. 2. The 12-Year Reich Session 3 Hitler Victorious; Sieg im Westen, 1939-40
  3. 3. Maginot Line
  4. 4. The glory years the myth of Nazi invincibility Blitzkrieg--ironically, not a German term!
  5. 5. Vindication! 21.vi.1940 the WW I corporal dictates armistice terms in the very railroad carriage where 11.xi.1918 was signed
  6. 6. still, by 1940 cracks were beginning to appear the Battle of Britain “Operation Sealion” postponed indefinitely Hendaye, Franco says--Maybe later...
  7. 7. Hawker Hurricane still flying in 2007
  8. 8. a French cartoon ridiculing the postponed cross channel invasion
  9. 9. “ungrateful coward!” Ribbentrop’s frustrated response to Franco’s high price for joining the fight
  10. 10. Überfall auf Polen (Fall Weiß) Assault on Poland (Case White) 1 September 1939
  11. 11. Kesselschlacht bei Radom, Cauldron battle for Radom, 8-12 September Polish POWs
  12. 12. belated Soviet entry, 17.ix in accord with the secret protocol 23.vii
  13. 13. Lviv (Russian) Lvov (Polish) Lemberg (German) 1939 saw not quite the last use of cavalry in twentieth century warfare
  14. 14. Soviet propaganda photo “Long live the great theories of Marx, Engels, Lenin--Stalin (happy proles in Polish Belarus)
  15. 15. “We stretched our hand to our brothers so that they could straighten their backs and throw off the good, big, red, despised rule of the whips strong that lasted for centuries.” protector The person thrown off the peasants’ backs, shown wearing a Polish military uniform and holding the whip, could be interpreted as a caricature of Piłsudski. oppressed, angry evil, cruel, fat racial impotent, his comrades sword ready to broken fight back
  16. 16. quot;Electors of the working people! Vote for the joining of Western Ukraine with Soviet Ukraine, for a united, free and thriving Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. Lets forever eliminate the border between Western and Soviet Ukraine. Long Live the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic!quot;
  17. 17. Polish “enemies of the people” policemen, teachers, priests, kulaks, and other ‘oppressors’ are rounded up and marched to a grim fate
  18. 18. Katyn forest Soviets failed to honor terms of surrender. They ceased to recognize the Polish state at the start of the invasion. Therefore Polish military prisoners were not POWs but rebels against the new governments of Western Ukraine and Byelorussia. They killed tens of thousands of Polish POWs, some during the campaign itself. On 24 September they killed 42 staff and patients at a military hospital in Grabowiec. The document (right) is a memo from Lavrenti Berea to the Politburo CPSU recommending the murder of over 20,000 Poles at Katyn-- marked “approved.”
  19. 19. Attack on Warsaw 25-27 September civilians seeking shelter hospital casualties
  20. 20. 25.ix.39 Hitler reviews the victory parade
  21. 21. Albert Forster Reichsgau Danzig- Westpreußen Hans Frank General- Gouvernement Arthur Greiser Reichsgau Wartheland
  22. 22. LICENSING BARBARISM 7.x-- secret order making Himmler Reichskommissar für die Festigung des deutschen Volkstums (...for strengthening German ethnicity)--RKFdV this made him de facto czar of Eastern settlement “(an appointment of vital importance…)”--Kershaw his charge was liquidating the Polish leadership: political, academic (down to school teachers!), church, and business the RSHA (the Reich Security Main Department) was also told to begin “transportation” of German Jews to Poland
  23. 23. Der ewige Jude The eternal Jew Goebbels was finishing this infamous film as the Polish campaign unfolded he showed Hitler scenes which reinforced his revulsion towards the Ostjuden as Hitler followed the army advance, he was repelled by the filth and misery of the conquered Polish shtetls
  24. 24. rural shtetl Warsaw ghetto
  25. 25. Einsatzgruppen (special or task forces) first formed by Heydrich during the Anschluß to seize key facilities five (later six) were formed became notorious during the Polish occupation claimed 60,000 victims led to numerous clashes with the Wehrmacht
  26. 26. For a regime dependent on constant mobilization, the Jew served as the constant mobilizing myth. Saul Friedländer, The Years of Extermination, p. xix
  27. 27. Euthanasia another evil fruit of the war 60000 REICHS MARKS in October, 1939 Hitler issued a decree authorizing medical euthanasia Vernichtung lebensunverten Lebens (the destruction of life not worth living) had long been discussed in Germany during Weimar, doctors had overwhelmingly rejected it under Hitler the unthinkable became acceptable although the churches still opposed it public opinion was less so Race comrade that is also your money
  28. 28. Finally, but not least, the point at which, coinciding with the outbreak of war, a secret programme of mass murder could be implemented would have been unimaginable without the progressive erosion of legality and disintegration of formal structures of government that had taken place since 1933. Kershaw, vol ii, p.255
  29. 29. crossing the Rubicon As Hitler opined to Goebbels, during the winter of the “Phoney War,” after the Polish attrocities, losing the war was unthinkable.
  30. 30. seeds of resistance
  31. 31. seeds of resistance Adm Wilhelm Canaris Col Hans Oster Abwehr Abwehr Ludwig Beck former Army Chief of Staff Lt Col Helmut Groscurth Rittmeister Hasso von Etzdorf Ernst Freiherr von Weizsäcker Foreign Office
  32. 32. “the lone bomber” Georg Elser, 1903-1945
  33. 33. the attempt-- 9 November 1939
  34. 34. the attempt-- 9 November 1939
  35. 35. the attempt-- 9 November 1939
  36. 36. the attempt-- 9 November 1939
  37. 37. Sitzkrieg (sitting war) Often called the Phoney War in the west
  38. 38. the Maginot Line and the opposing West Wall
  39. 39. Westwall the British often called it the Siegfried Line after the WW I defensive position
  40. 40. Dragons teeth anti-tank devices
  41. 41. German propaganda during the “Sitzkrieg” “Where is Tommy?” the French poilu is off at the front is his British ally back “behind the lines” “womanizing”?
  42. 42. this one aimed at the British soldier a dubious attempt to discredit British leadership and their motivation for the war
  43. 43. SEA WAR-- commerce raiding both surface and U- boat forces target Our Gains British commerce lanes and the Truth about our Losses the Graf Spee sunk 9 ships before the RN ended her career, Dec 1939 The Trip to England- A Trip to Death
  44. 44. Besetzung von Dänemark und Norwegen Invasion of Denmark and Norway (Weser Exercise) the night of 8/9 April 1940
  45. 45. Besetzung von Dänemark und Norwegen Invasion of Denmark and Norway (Weser Exercise) the night of 8/9 April 1940
  46. 46. The Gallivare pit mines (1) by rail Swedish iron to Narvik mines Ore ship 60% of route Germany’s (2) by ship iron ore to comes from Germany Sweden
  47. 47. Einmarsch in Dänemark Bergen, Norway
  48. 48. Gen Eduard Dietl Alpine Troops England’s Flight from Narvik End of the Norwegian Resistance/Complete Victory
  49. 49. occupation begins
  50. 50. British propaganda tries to put a good face on defeat in the style of a black bordered military obituary: You’re going against England… GERMAN LOSSES IN THE FIRST WEEK OF THE NORWEGIAN ADVENTURE 1 battlecruiser torpedoed, 1 pocket battleship severely damaged, 2 cruisers sunk, 8 destroyers sunk, 1 U-boat sunk (by mine), 19 troop transport ships sunk, 4 troop transport ships torpedoed, 1 cargo ship in the Great Belt bombed and blown sky high, 1 tanker scuttled, 1 cargo ship scuttled, 1 cargo ship capsized, 3 patrol craft capsized And how many will be coming back?
  51. 51. Fall Gelb, 10.v.40 Case Yellow, 10 May 1940 attack in the west
  52. 52. evolution of the battle plan October 1939-January 1940 von Brauchitsch Army Commander Halder Chief of Operations von Rundstedt Cdr Army Group A von Manstein Chief of Staff Army Group A commander xxxviii Army Corps
  53. 53. too conventional--Hitler OKH = Oberkommando des Heeres (Army High Command) “Now, in the preparation of the western offensive, he intervened directly for the first time. It set the pattern for the future” Kershaw, ii, p. 290
  54. 54. “Even after modifications they remained less than satisfactory. They envisaged the decisive thrust coming from the north, either side of Liege. Hitler wanted something more daring something which would retain the crucial element of surprise.” Ibid.
  55. 55. Angriffsplan Sichelschnitt Attack Plan “Sickle Cut” Army Group A (center) “cuts” while B (north) and C (south) essentially fix/hold
  56. 56. back to the more traditional plan Gedanken eines Kriegsschülers - Hitler (ideas of a military cadet)
  57. 57. Fortress Eben-Emael, Belgium the “strongest fortress in Europe” captured in 30 minutes on Day 1
  58. 58. airborne glider attack created a mystique for vertical envelopment which later losses never dispel
  59. 59. main entrance cgi & photograph Fallschirmjäger Major Koch Sturm Abteilung Koch
  60. 60. Hitler decorates the victors choosing this signature victory of the new blitzschnell way of war as a propaganda ‘photo
  61. 61. Der 10. Mai.1940 propaganda postcard printed by Heinrich Hoffman, Munich, 1942
  62. 62. Pioneer clears a minefield Ostend on the North Sea in Brussels, besieged by coast is taken 18 May, as was Antwerp Belgian tank destroyed in the Ardennes
  63. 63. Casualties German Approximately 27,074 Germans were killed and 111,034 were wounded, with a further 18,384 missing for total German casualties of 156,000 men. Allied In exchange, they had destroyed the French, Belgian, Dutch, Polish and British armies. Total Allied losses including the capture of the French army amounted to 2,292,000. Casualties, killed or wounded, were as follows: ▪ France - 90,000 killed, 200,000 wounded and approximately 1,800,000 imprisoned. In August, 1940 1,575,000 prisoners were taken into Germany where roughly 940,000 remained until 1945 when they were liberated by advancing Allied forces. While in German captivity 24,600 French prisoners died, 71,000 escaped, 220,000 were released by various agreements between the Vichy government and Germany, and several hundred thousand were paroled because of disability and/or sickness.Most prisoners spent their time in captivity as slave labourers. ▪ Britain - 68,111 killed, wounded or captured ▪ Belgium - 23,350 killed, wounded or captured ▪ The Netherlands - 9,779 killed, wounded or captured ▪ Poland - 6,092 killed, wounded or captured ▪ Czechoslovakia - 1,615 losses, including 400 killed.
  64. 64. the Ardennes offensive 10-13 May
  65. 65. forests and narrow roads create transportation nightmares
  66. 66. Panzerwagen (armored the baggy black hats of the early war years soon give way to helmets
  67. 67. the Netherlands offensive 10-14 May
  68. 68. Rotterdam city center after terror bombing Airborne drop 10 May
  69. 69. burning oil tanks in Amsterdam captured Dutch coastal artillery
  70. 70. Dunkirk 28 May-4/5 June
  71. 71. British retreat in Flanders
  72. 72. Dunkirk
  73. 73. British fisherman helps Tommy aboard
  74. 74. Victory from the jaws of defeat in 9 days 338,226 men were evacuated including 120,000 French and Belgian troops 30,000 British died (KIA) 10,252 Germans KIA 1,212,000 POWs; Dutch, Belgian, French and British
  75. 75. Tommy POWs
  76. 76. Fall Rot 5.vi.-22.vi.40 Case Red 5-22 June
  77. 77. Paris has Fallen! Le Harve has been taken/the Saar front assault continues/Full breakthrough on
  78. 78. Stuka over Sedan the Luftwaffe gained air superiority early on and used it to drive the French retreat
  79. 79. the heavy lifting over, Italy joins the fight here in a meeting with Hitler to celebrate Italian entry into the war
  80. 80. Compiegne- 22.vi.40 Waffenstillstand (armistice)
  81. 81. Hitler and his officers stare at the statue of Foch on their way to the railway carriage the historic park at Compiegne where the armistice was signed ending World War I
  82. 82. reversal of fortune, 1940 vs 1918 just as France chose the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles to humiliate Germany in 1919, where they had been humiliated in 1871
  83. 83. Inside the historic railway carriage, where once sat Erzberger, chief of the “November criminals” of the WW I Armistice Journalists outside the museum at the park at Compiegne
  84. 84. Hitler views Napoleon’s tomb
  85. 85. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Enrh023ftfU
  86. 86. triumph for Germany a frame from the victory film, Sieg im Westen
  87. 87. Operation Sealion
  88. 88. Hitler orders a plan, July Admiral Raeder emphasizes air superiority as a sine qua non
  89. 89. We sail against England popular song, slogan, even children’s board game
  90. 90. Coupon VALID FOR a one way Trip to England NOW Departing! No Return Trip! Good for next summer!
  91. 91. Battle of Britain July-September, 1940
  92. 92. Coventry Cathedral 15 November 1940
  93. 93. phases of the air war 10 July-11 August: Kanalkampf (the Channel battles) 12 August-23 August: Adlerangriff (Eagle Attack), the early assault against the coastal airfields. 24 August-6 September: the Luftwaffe targets the airfields. The critical phase of the battle. 7 September onwards: the day attacks switch to British towns and cities.
  94. 94. Junkers Ju 87 Stukas carried the initial load during the Channel Battle. Both sides tested their fighters and pilots.
  95. 95. Göring giving a speech to his pilots near Calais explaining the decision to switch from RAF bases to the cities
  96. 96. What next?
  97. 97. Japanese expansion Second Sino-Japanese War, 1937-1945 Japan and China had fought intermittently ever since Japan established the Manchurian puppet state in 1931 Japan was also at odds with the USSR over border disputes that led to military exchanges in 1938-39 Hitler’s Sieg in Westen arroused Japan’s appetite for the Dutch East Indies, French Indo-China, and British Singapore, Borneo, Burma, even India (the future Greater South Asia Co-prosperity Sphere) although the German-Soviet Non- aggression Pact had cooled Japanese- German relations, Japan began to reach out again in the summer of 1940
  98. 98. Tripartite Pact, 27 Sept 1940 a portent of things to come--Germany, Italy, and Japan
  99. 99. 23 October 1940 at Hendaye on the border of France and Spain Mit diesem Kerle ist nichts zu machen
  100. 100. putting a good face on it each tries to use the other Franco’s wish list includes French North African colonies,military materiel, and foodstuffs Hitler offers Gibraltar Franco angers Hitler by doubting his assurances that Britain is close to defeat only an “empty agreement” results
  101. 101. g le tr ug S for the German Living space A Geopolitical Atlas with Explanations a fateful decision to turn east returning to his original “playbook” Hitler explores a strike against Judenbolschewismus
  102. 102. “A fatal alliance” warns this Soviet poster November, 1940 Romania joins the Tripartite Pact the Soviets had forced them to cede Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina earlier that summer Hitler was especially eager to gain control of the Ploesti oilfields, to keep them from Soviet hands his alarm grew as Stalin grabbed the Baltic states and defeated the Finns with difficulty in the Winter War this all fed his belief that Russia must be dealt with in the spring of 1941 fascist dictators Horthy of Hungary and Antonescu of Romania are depicted here as in his fatal grasp

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