Machtergreifung
       Seizure of Power
 13 August 1932 - 2 August 1934
The anxiety to destroy democracy rather
than the keenness to bring the Nazis to
 power was what triggered the complex
   d...
You have delivered up our holy German
Fatherland to one of the greatest demagogues
of all time. I solemnly prophesy that t...
Levered into Power (13 August 1932 - 30 January 1933)

  November election

  “taming Hitler”

The Making of a Dictator (1...
Potempa Murder Trial
              19-22 Aug 1932

10 Aug--5 SA kick a Polish communist worker
to death in front of his mo...
DISCUSSION AT NEUDECK
Left to Right: Chancellor Papen, State Secretary Otto Meissner (back to camera), Reich
Minister of t...
REICHSTAG CONVENES, 30 AUG

GÖRING, AS HEAD OF
LARGEST PARTY, ELECTED
PRESIDENT OF REICHSTAG

NAZIS FORM COALITION
WITH BV...
“NO CONFIDENCE” FOR PAPEN
             12 SEPTEMBER 1932

KPD DELEGATE PROPOSES VOTE OF “NO CONFIDENCE”

HALF HOUR ADJOURN...
THE HARD TIMES WERE STARTING THEIR FOURTH YEAR
HINDENBURG MEETS PARTY CHIEFS, 19 NOV 1932
• invites Hitler to seek a parliamentary majority
        • both know he can’t
        • Hitler counters with offer to inc...
Presidential cabinets, such as
        Hitler demanded, ruled by
        emergency decrees under
        Article 48. Brüni...
LOOKING FOR AN ANTI-DEMOCRATIC SOLUTION
•early December, Hindenburg
     wants Papen with an extra
     constitutional government

     • War Minister Schleicher
...
HINDENBURG RELUCTANTLY ASKS SCHLEICHER TO HEAD A
            CABINET OF HOLDOVERS-- 3 DECEMBER 1932
SCHLEICHER



                                   STRASSER
       SECRET MEETING, 3 DECEMBER 1932
• offers vice chancellorship
              in his cabinet
              • offers Minister Presidency
              of Prus...
Strasser’s Three Choices

  back Hitler’s Alles oder Nichts policy


  rebel & try to split the party


  resign & go into...
8 DECEMBER--STRASSER’S CHOICE


 MEETS WITH REGIONAL
 OFFICIALS & EXPLAINS
 HIS POSITION

 SUBMITS LETTER OF
 RESIGNATION
...
HITLER WEATHERS THE CRISIS

MEETS WITH SAME
GROUP HOURS LATER

GIVES HIS SIDE

“I NEED YOUR SUPPORT”
ACT

TURNS STRASSER I...
January, 1933
“extraordinary political drama”
SCHLEICHER AT THE BERLIN SPORT PALAST
              15 JANUARY 1933
FEELING MORE AND MORE ISOLATED, HE TRIES TO HANG ON
SECRET MEETINGS BEHIND SCHLEICHER’S BACK
• beginning on 3 January in the
      home of a banker in Cologne,
      Hitler and von Papen begin to
      meet
      • ...
30 JANUARY--HINDENBURG SWEARS IN A HITLER CABINET
“WE’RE BOXING HIM IN”
     ALFRED HUGENBERG




 Wilhelm Frick   Hermann Göring
    Interior     without portfolio
    NSD...
“WE’RE BOXING HIM IN”
                       ALFRED HUGENBERG

                                   Konstantin v Neurath    ...
Fackelzug 30 Jan 33
1 mill (Goebbels)

0.5 mill (Nazi press)

30,000 (Br. ambassador)

15,000 (Br. military attaché)
Making of a Dictator
              (1933)
Gleichschaltung
economic plans
a new Reichstag
“Day of Potsdam”
church relations...
Undoubting belief and fantastic
           will to
Undoubting belief and fantastic
           will to

THUS, THE MYTH

AS WE HAVE SEEN, A
BIT MORE THAN THIS
WAS INVOLVED

NO...
Swift transformation &
    consolidation
Swift transformation &
     consolidation

pseudo-legal measures
terror
manipulation
willing collaboration

  contemporari...
10 FEB RADIO CAMPAIGN

BROADCASTING FROM
THE BERLIN SPORT
PALAST

TO A 20 MILLION
AUDIENCE, NATIONWIDE

MEANWHILE, ACROSS
...
The best possible way to bring the German people back

into work is to set German economic life once more in

motion throu...
AUTOBAHN!
FOR THE OPENING THE BIGWIGS GET TO DRIVE ON BOTH
             SIDES OF THE HIGHWAY!
HITLER INVENTS THE AUTOBAHN?

 FIRST INTERSECTION-
 FREE HIGHWAY OUTSIDE
 BERLIN IN 1912!

 FIRST LEG OF THE
 AUTOBAHN, BE...
Alles für den Heer!
(EVERYTHING FOR THE ARMY!)
Alles für den Heer!
       (EVERYTHING FOR THE ARMY!)


PUBLIC WORKS GOT THE PROPAGANDA SPOTLIGHT

REARMAMENT GOT THE BULK...
•Hitler first “pitched”
     the idea of a
 Volksauto to Ferdy
  Porsche in 1932.


• In February, 1933 it                 ...
First, the carrot ...



 then, the stick!
MURDER! 35 DEAD!
THAT’S THE RESULT OF THE BLOODY SA TERROR TIME OF HITLERS
   REGIMEBEGINNING. SELFDEFENSE DEMONSTRATION O...
27 FEBRUARY--CONVENIENT, OR PLANNED?
REICHSTAG FIRE DECREE 28 FEB 33


 UNDER ARTICLE 48, HINDENBURG, AT HITLER’S
 REQUEST, SUSPENDED MOST CIVIL LIBERTIES

 IN...
Emergency Decree
      against communist measures
          The Reichspresident has signed
these Countermeasures against t...
MARINUS VAN DER LUBBE
                         (1909-1934)


DUTCH JEWISH PARENTS,
DIVORCED

ORPHANED AT 12

WORKED AS A B...
A STRUGGLE FOR GERMANY


THE RED SCARE THEME
HAD ALREADY, BEFORE
THE FIRE, BEEN APPLIED
TO THE CAMPAIGN

“LOATHING & DEEP
...
The communists were revolutionaries, they would take away private
property, impose a class dictatorship, and rule in the i...
THIS SPD PAPER BANNED
FROM 1 -15 MARCH, AFTER THE ELECTION!
KZ
KONZENTRATZIONSLAGER
KZ DACHAU
THE MAIN ENTRANCE, MAY, 1945
   JUST AFTER LIBERATION
ELECTION DAY, 5 MARCH 1933
NOTICE THE INTIMIDATION OF THE SA MEN AT THE POLLING
                        LINES
5 MÄRZ 1933
DER FÜHRER VOTES
LISTENING TO THE RETURNS
HOPING FOR THE STRENGTH TO PASS THE ENABLING ACT. HE NEEDS A
TWO-THIRDS VOTE TO BE FREE OF BOTH P...
The Day of Potsdam
                  21 March 1933

THE NEW, AND LAST SEMI-
LEGITIMATE, REICHSTAG
WAS ABOUT TO OPEN

ITS T...
CLAIMING HIS PLACE IN HISTORY
    What the king conquered,
                         the prince shaped,
                   ...
THE TWO LEADERS ARRIVE AT POTSDAM
  A DEFERENTIAL CHANCELLOR BOWS TO THE REICH
   PRESIDENT, DRESSED IN HIS IMPERIAL UNIFO...
GARNISONKIRCHE, POTSDAM. SITE OF THE OPENING CEREMONY
                  OF THE THIRD REICH
POTSDAM FILM ON THE WEB
THIS ITEM APPEARS IN GOOGLE UNDER “DAY OF POTSDAM
                   HITLER VIDEO”
The Enabling Act --23 March 1933
(“Act for the Removal of Distress from People and Reich”)


    unlike Article 48 emergen...
grim picture of the conditions he had inherited

promised ‘far reaching moral renewal’

rights of Christian denominations ...
at the end, what appeared to be important concessions:


  existence of neither Reichstag nor Reichsrat (court)
  was thre...
OTTO WELS
                         (1873-1939)

SON OF A BERLIN INNKEEPER

WEAVER, JOINS SPD-1891

ELECTED TO REICHSTAG-19...
quot;At this historic hour, we German Social Democrats pledge ourselves to the
principles of humanity and justice, of free...
HITLER’S BRUTAL RESPONSE

law is not enough; power is decisive

opponents we either destroy or make
friends with, if they’...
GLEICHSHALTUNG FOR THE
           LÄNDER
29 MARCH--HITLER GETS
CABINET APPROVAL FOR
REICH GOVERNORS FOR THE
STATES

“TO UP...
Dealing with Labor
PICTURE FROM “THE GOOD OLD DAYS”
MARXISTS, WHETHER KPD OR SPD, USED TO LEAD GERMAN
            WORKERS “OVER THE CLIFF”
THE THINKING WORKER
              COMES TO HITLER
THE RED (LEFT) AND SOCIALIST (RIGHT) EACH CALL THE
         OTHER “TRAIT...
Nazi Labor organization stories




                   NAZI LABOR ORGANIZATION CO-OPTS THE EVENT
• since the nineteenth
                                  century, May Day had
                                  been inter...
2. MAI. 33
TRADE UNION OFFICES OCCUPIED AND OFFICERS ARRESTED
The SPD. outlawed
IN THE SUMMER OF 1933 HITLER DECLARED THE SOCIAL
DEMOCRATIC PARTY AN ENEMY OF THE GERMAN PEOPLE
Hitler’s Dilemma


Party Revolutionaries   National-Conservatives
       the SA           the army, big business
Dealing with the
   Churches
HITLER’S ADULT SPIRITUALITY

HE NEVER PROMOTED
PAGANISM, NORSE
RELIGION, OR VÖLKISCH
MYSTICISM

HE ALWAYS CLAIMED TO BE
A ...
WITH CARDINAL FAULHABER
GLEICHSCHALTUNG MADE THE LEAST PROGRESS WITH THE
 RELIGIOUS ESTABLISHMENT’S SCHOOLS & MOVEMENTS
Dealing with the
     Army
REICHSKRIEGSMINISTER
   WERNER VON BLOMBERG

HE WAS PART OF WHAT
AIMED TO “BOX HITLER
IN.”

THE MAJORITY IN
HITLER’S CABIN...
THE ARMY WAS A POWERFUL GROUP WHICH HITLER
KNEW HE MUST WIN OVER


THEY HAD BEEN MAJOR PLAYERS IN THE DESTRUCTION
OF WEIMA...
RÖHM’S AMBITION FOR THE SA

AT SOME 4 1/2 MILLION,
THE SA WAS VASTLY
GREATER THAN THE
REICHSWEHR’S 100,OOO

RÖHM BELIEVED ...
Securing Total Power
              (1934)


“Night of the Long
Knives,” -- 30 June
Hindenburg passes,
-- 2 August
Faced with the dilemma of what to
do about the SA, Hitler for months
did little to resolve the tensions
which continued to...
TRERE WAS WIDESPREAD OUTRAGE ABOUT SA
BRUTALITY. ABOUT 100,000 “ENEMIES OF THE NATIONAL
REVOLUTION” HAD BEEN ARRESTED-- CO...
Dealing with the SA
IN 1933 COMPLAINTS POURED IN ABOUT SA “EXCESSES”


BY SUMMER, GÖRING STOPPED USING THEM AS POLICE
AUXILIARIES IN PRUSSIA

...
HAMBURG SA WITH TROPHY
THE CAPTURED FLAG OF THEIR ARCH RIVALS, THE RED
             FRONT FIGHTING BUND
DISPLAYS LIKE THIS ANGERED THE ARMY
 THE BERLIN SA PARADES THROUGH THE BRANDENBURG
             GATE IN THE SPRING OF 1934
HITLER CALLS A MEETING OF SA AND ARMY
              LEADERSHIP
              (28 FEBRUARY 1934)



HE OUTLINES HIS MILITAR...
RÖHM’S ENEMIES
RÖHM’S ENEMIES




                                            Göring      Bormann & Heß
Himmler & Heydrich
              ...
PAPEN & HITLER--DUELING SPEECHES
                 (17 JUNE 1934)

 PAPEN AT MARBURG UNIVERSITY--HITLER’S STATE
 SHOWING SI...
MEETING AT SCHLOß NEUDECK
                      (21 JUNE)


THE PAPEN SPEECH PRODUCED A FUROR

HITLER VISITS THE AILING (D...
‘KOLIBRI’ (HUMMING BIRD)
                (30 JUNE 1934)

HITLER ORDERS THE SA LEADERSHIP TO MEET WITH HIM
AT RÖHM’S VACATI...
THE VICTIMS


GENERAL SCHLEICHER & HIS WIFE

GREGOR STRASSER

VON PAPEN’S JUNE 17TH SPEECH WRITER

MOST OF THE TOP SA LEAD...
RÖHM’S END


HITLER WAS RELUCTANT TO HAVE HIM KILLED

ON 1 JULY HE WAS GIVEN A PISTOL IN HIS CELL WITH THE
INDICATION THAT...
JUSTIFYING IT TO THE PARTY

THE VÖLKISCHER
BEOBACHTER
SUPPORTS THE LIE
THAT THE SA WAS
PLANNING A PUTSCH

AFTER A STUNNED ...
RÖHM PURGE JUSTIFIED
                    (13 JULY 1934)

HERE HITLER GIVES HIS VERSION TO THE TAME REICHSTAG
            O...
NÜRNBERG PARTY DAY, 1934

THE TAMED SA IS
CENTER STAGE

THE ARMY RESENTS
ITS LESSER PRESENCE

LENI RIEFENSTAHL’S
FAMOUS TR...
Hindenburg’s End
FÜHRER AND REICH
          CHANCELLOR

ON 1 AUGUST, AS HINDENBURG LAY DYING, HITLER HAD
HIS CABINET SIGN A LAW COMBINING T...
+PAUL VON HINDENBURG+
           (1847-2 AUGUST 1934)

PRESIDENT HINDENBURG HAD WANTED TO BE BURIED AT
HIS COUNTRY ESTATE,...
HITLER DELIVERS THE FUNERAL ORATION AT REICHSEHRENMAL
                                           TANNENBERG
You have delivered up our holy German
Fatherland to one of the greatest demagogues
of all time. I solemnly prophesy that t...
With the passing of this figure who was forty-
  two when Hitler had been born, who had
 served the Kaiser and the Republi...
Things fall apart; the centre cannot hold;

   
   Mere anarchy is loosed upon the world,

   
   The blood dimmed tide is...
nazi Rise to Power, Part 6; Machtergreifung (Seizure of power)
nazi Rise to Power, Part 6; Machtergreifung (Seizure of power)
nazi Rise to Power, Part 6; Machtergreifung (Seizure of power)
nazi Rise to Power, Part 6; Machtergreifung (Seizure of power)
nazi Rise to Power, Part 6; Machtergreifung (Seizure of power)
nazi Rise to Power, Part 6; Machtergreifung (Seizure of power)
nazi Rise to Power, Part 6; Machtergreifung (Seizure of power)
nazi Rise to Power, Part 6; Machtergreifung (Seizure of power)
nazi Rise to Power, Part 6; Machtergreifung (Seizure of power)
nazi Rise to Power, Part 6; Machtergreifung (Seizure of power)
nazi Rise to Power, Part 6; Machtergreifung (Seizure of power)
nazi Rise to Power, Part 6; Machtergreifung (Seizure of power)
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nazi Rise to Power, Part 6; Machtergreifung (Seizure of power)

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nazi Rise to Power, Part 6; Machtergreifung (Seizure of power)

  1. 1. Machtergreifung Seizure of Power 13 August 1932 - 2 August 1934
  2. 2. The anxiety to destroy democracy rather than the keenness to bring the Nazis to power was what triggered the complex developments that led to Hitler’s chancellorship. Kershaw, p. 424
  3. 3. You have delivered up our holy German Fatherland to one of the greatest demagogues of all time. I solemnly prophesy that this accursed man will cast our Reich into the abyss and bring our nation to inconceivable misery. Future generations will damn you in your grave for what you have done. Ludendorff writing to Hindenburg
  4. 4. Levered into Power (13 August 1932 - 30 January 1933) November election “taming Hitler” The Making of a Dictator (1933) Reichstag fire Enabling Act Securing Total Power (1934) “Night of the Long Knives,” -- 30 June Hindenburg passes, -- 2 August
  5. 5. Potempa Murder Trial 19-22 Aug 1932 10 Aug--5 SA kick a Polish communist worker to death in front of his mother & brother Papen had just decreed mandatory death sentences for premeditated political murders Hitler portrays the killers as martyrs, claims he couldn’t participate in such a government Papen backs down, commutes the sentences to life imprisonment
  6. 6. DISCUSSION AT NEUDECK Left to Right: Chancellor Papen, State Secretary Otto Meissner (back to camera), Reich Minister of the Interior Wilhelm von Gayl, Hindenburg, and Reichswehr Minister Kurt von Schleicher
  7. 7. REICHSTAG CONVENES, 30 AUG GÖRING, AS HEAD OF LARGEST PARTY, ELECTED PRESIDENT OF REICHSTAG NAZIS FORM COALITION WITH BVP AND ZENTRUM STRASSER URGES HITLER TO ENTER PAPEN’S GOVERNMENT HITLER FIRM--ALLES ODER NICHTS
  8. 8. “NO CONFIDENCE” FOR PAPEN 12 SEPTEMBER 1932 KPD DELEGATE PROPOSES VOTE OF “NO CONFIDENCE” HALF HOUR ADJOURNMENT TO MAKE PLANS PAPEN GETS DISSOLUTION ORDER TO FORESTALL GÖRING REFUSES TO RECOGNIZE HIM REICHSTAG VOTES 512 TO 42 -- “NO CONFIDENCE” PAPEN DISSOLVES THE REICHSTAG COURT REJECTS THE VOTE AS INVALID NEW ELECTIONS (#5) SCHEDULED
  9. 9. THE HARD TIMES WERE STARTING THEIR FOURTH YEAR
  10. 10. HINDENBURG MEETS PARTY CHIEFS, 19 NOV 1932
  11. 11. • invites Hitler to seek a parliamentary majority • both know he can’t • Hitler counters with offer to include v. Schleicher as war minister and v. Neurath as foreign minister in a presidential cabinet • Hindenburg denies him for the 2nd time in 3 months HINDENBURG MEETS PARTY CHIEFS, 19 NOV 1932
  12. 12. Presidential cabinets, such as Hitler demanded, ruled by emergency decrees under Article 48. Brüning began the practice. Parliamentary cabinets needed to have parliamentary majorities to pass their measures. PHOTO MONTAGE BY JOHN HEARTFIELD
  13. 13. LOOKING FOR AN ANTI-DEMOCRATIC SOLUTION
  14. 14. •early December, Hindenburg wants Papen with an extra constitutional government • War Minister Schleicher warns that the army can’t guarantee that they could surpress the likely civil war which the left would unleash • Schleicher begins to woo Gregor Strasser LOOKING FOR AN ANTI-DEMOCRATIC SOLUTION
  15. 15. HINDENBURG RELUCTANTLY ASKS SCHLEICHER TO HEAD A CABINET OF HOLDOVERS-- 3 DECEMBER 1932
  16. 16. SCHLEICHER STRASSER SECRET MEETING, 3 DECEMBER 1932
  17. 17. • offers vice chancellorship in his cabinet • offers Minister Presidency of Prussian state government SCHLEICHER • wants Strasser’s help with trade unions • wants to split the Nazis STRASSER SECRET MEETING, 3 DECEMBER 1932
  18. 18. Strasser’s Three Choices back Hitler’s Alles oder Nichts policy rebel & try to split the party resign & go into political exile
  19. 19. 8 DECEMBER--STRASSER’S CHOICE MEETS WITH REGIONAL OFFICIALS & EXPLAINS HIS POSITION SUBMITS LETTER OF RESIGNATION LEAVES FOR VACATION IN ITALY
  20. 20. HITLER WEATHERS THE CRISIS MEETS WITH SAME GROUP HOURS LATER GIVES HIS SIDE “I NEED YOUR SUPPORT” ACT TURNS STRASSER INTO THE ARCH TRAITOR PAYBACK WILL COME ON 30 JUNE 1934
  21. 21. January, 1933 “extraordinary political drama”
  22. 22. SCHLEICHER AT THE BERLIN SPORT PALAST 15 JANUARY 1933 FEELING MORE AND MORE ISOLATED, HE TRIES TO HANG ON
  23. 23. SECRET MEETINGS BEHIND SCHLEICHER’S BACK
  24. 24. • beginning on 3 January in the home of a banker in Cologne, Hitler and von Papen begin to meet • Papen wants to replace Schleicher with some sort of power sharing with Hitler • by mid January meetings are moved to von Ribbentrop’s home in the Berlin suburb of Dalhem • Schleicher appears to be growing weaker •Hitler is strengthened by a Nazi gain in state elections in Lippe- Detmold • he lowers his demand to Chancellorship plus cabinet posts for Frick & Göring •Papen brings in Hindenburg’s son Oscar to try to convince the president •Papen recruits conservatives whom Hindenburg trusts to serve in a Hitler cabinet • the evening of 28 Jan, Hindenburg “now amenable” SECRET MEETINGS BEHIND SCHLEICHER’S BACK
  25. 25. 30 JANUARY--HINDENBURG SWEARS IN A HITLER CABINET
  26. 26. “WE’RE BOXING HIM IN” ALFRED HUGENBERG Wilhelm Frick Hermann Göring Interior without portfolio NSDAP NSDAP
  27. 27. “WE’RE BOXING HIM IN” ALFRED HUGENBERG Konstantin v Neurath Graf Schwerin v Krosigk Foreign Minister Finance parteilos parteilos Alfred Hugenberg Economic Minister DNVP Franz v Papen Vice Chancellor Z Wilhelm Frick Hermann Göring Interior without portfolio NSDAP NSDAP Werner v Blomberg Reichswehr Franz Gürtner Franz Seldte parteilos Justice Labor DNVP Stahlhelm
  28. 28. Fackelzug 30 Jan 33 1 mill (Goebbels) 0.5 mill (Nazi press) 30,000 (Br. ambassador) 15,000 (Br. military attaché)
  29. 29. Making of a Dictator (1933) Gleichschaltung economic plans a new Reichstag “Day of Potsdam” church relations army relations
  30. 30. Undoubting belief and fantastic will to
  31. 31. Undoubting belief and fantastic will to THUS, THE MYTH AS WE HAVE SEEN, A BIT MORE THAN THIS WAS INVOLVED NOW THE CHALLENGE WAS TO CONSOLIDATE THE MACHTERGREIFUNG, THE SEIZURE OF POWER
  32. 32. Swift transformation & consolidation
  33. 33. Swift transformation & consolidation pseudo-legal measures terror manipulation willing collaboration contemporaries were astounded by Hitler’s swift progress
  34. 34. 10 FEB RADIO CAMPAIGN BROADCASTING FROM THE BERLIN SPORT PALAST TO A 20 MILLION AUDIENCE, NATIONWIDE MEANWHILE, ACROSS GERMANY, A “WAVE OF UNPARALLELED STATE- SPONSORED TERROR & REPRESSION AGAINST POLITICAL OPPONENTS”
  35. 35. The best possible way to bring the German people back into work is to set German economic life once more in motion through great monumental works... This is not merely the hour in which we begin the building of the greatest network of roads in the world, this hour is at the same time a milestone on the road towards the building up of the community of the German people.
  36. 36. AUTOBAHN! FOR THE OPENING THE BIGWIGS GET TO DRIVE ON BOTH SIDES OF THE HIGHWAY!
  37. 37. HITLER INVENTS THE AUTOBAHN? FIRST INTERSECTION- FREE HIGHWAY OUTSIDE BERLIN IN 1912! FIRST LEG OF THE AUTOBAHN, BEGUN 1929 HERE HITLER MAKES IT HIS OWN IN 1933 EMPHASIZED ITS MILITARY VALUE, AS DID IKE IN THE 1950S
  38. 38. Alles für den Heer! (EVERYTHING FOR THE ARMY!)
  39. 39. Alles für den Heer! (EVERYTHING FOR THE ARMY!) PUBLIC WORKS GOT THE PROPAGANDA SPOTLIGHT REARMAMENT GOT THE BULK OF THE FUNDS FIRST SECRETLY, THEN MORE AND MORE DEFIANTLY HITLER WAS DETERMINED TO MAKE THE VERSAILLES LIMITATIONS A “DEAD LETTER” Wir wollen wieder Waffen! (WE WILL HAVE WEAPONS AGAIN!)
  40. 40. •Hitler first “pitched” the idea of a Volksauto to Ferdy Porsche in 1932. • In February, 1933 it •Prototypes came became a pillar of his off the line in 1938. economic, social & political policy •Military production meant that only 54 civilian models were ever made until post 1945 GOOGLE: Hitler Volkswagen
  41. 41. First, the carrot ... then, the stick!
  42. 42. MURDER! 35 DEAD! THAT’S THE RESULT OF THE BLOODY SA TERROR TIME OF HITLERS REGIMEBEGINNING. SELFDEFENSE DEMONSTRATION OF THE ANTIFASCIST UNITYFRONT AGAINST THE SA-MURDERBANDS Struggle with the Communists
  43. 43. 27 FEBRUARY--CONVENIENT, OR PLANNED?
  44. 44. REICHSTAG FIRE DECREE 28 FEB 33 UNDER ARTICLE 48, HINDENBURG, AT HITLER’S REQUEST, SUSPENDED MOST CIVIL LIBERTIES IN ADDITION TO THE DUTCH COMMUNIST, VAN DER LUBBE, FOUR GERMAN COMMUNIST LEADERS WERE PUT ON TRIAL, FOUND NOT GUILTY--AFTER THE ELECTION! THE REICHSTAG ELECTION TOOK PLACE FIVE DAYS LATER IN THIS EMOTIONAL ATMOSPHERE
  45. 45. Emergency Decree against communist measures The Reichspresident has signed these Countermeasures against the communist Terror
  46. 46. MARINUS VAN DER LUBBE (1909-1934) DUTCH JEWISH PARENTS, DIVORCED ORPHANED AT 12 WORKED AS A BRICKLAYER JOINED DUTCH COMMUNIST PARTY, AGE 16 APPREHENDED AT SCENE GUILLOTINED 3 DAYS BEFORE HIS 25TH BIRTHDAY
  47. 47. A STRUGGLE FOR GERMANY THE RED SCARE THEME HAD ALREADY, BEFORE THE FIRE, BEEN APPLIED TO THE CAMPAIGN “LOATHING & DEEP FEAR OF COMMUNISM RAN THROUGH SOME 80% OF VOTERS” -- KERSHAW, P. 409
  48. 48. The communists were revolutionaries, they would take away private property, impose a class dictatorship, and rule in the interests of Moscow. The National Socialists were vulgar and distasteful, but they stood for German interests, they would uphold German values, and they would not take away private property. Crudely put, this reflected a widespread train of thought... Kershaw
  49. 49. THIS SPD PAPER BANNED FROM 1 -15 MARCH, AFTER THE ELECTION!
  50. 50. KZ KONZENTRATZIONSLAGER
  51. 51. KZ DACHAU THE MAIN ENTRANCE, MAY, 1945 JUST AFTER LIBERATION
  52. 52. ELECTION DAY, 5 MARCH 1933 NOTICE THE INTIMIDATION OF THE SA MEN AT THE POLLING LINES
  53. 53. 5 MÄRZ 1933 DER FÜHRER VOTES
  54. 54. LISTENING TO THE RETURNS HOPING FOR THE STRENGTH TO PASS THE ENABLING ACT. HE NEEDS A TWO-THIRDS VOTE TO BE FREE OF BOTH PARLIAMENT AND PRESIDENT
  55. 55. The Day of Potsdam 21 March 1933 THE NEW, AND LAST SEMI- LEGITIMATE, REICHSTAG WAS ABOUT TO OPEN ITS TEMPORARY SITE WAS THE KROLL OPERA HOUSE IN BERLIN BUT FIRST, GOEBBELS MADE PROPAGANDA HAY OF THIS LINK TO THE AUTHORITARIAN PAST POTSDAM WAS THE SITE OF THE HOHENZOLLERN MONARCHY
  56. 56. CLAIMING HIS PLACE IN HISTORY What the king conquered, the prince shaped, the field marshall defended, the soldier saved
  57. 57. THE TWO LEADERS ARRIVE AT POTSDAM A DEFERENTIAL CHANCELLOR BOWS TO THE REICH PRESIDENT, DRESSED IN HIS IMPERIAL UNIFORM
  58. 58. GARNISONKIRCHE, POTSDAM. SITE OF THE OPENING CEREMONY OF THE THIRD REICH
  59. 59. POTSDAM FILM ON THE WEB THIS ITEM APPEARS IN GOOGLE UNDER “DAY OF POTSDAM HITLER VIDEO”
  60. 60. The Enabling Act --23 March 1933 (“Act for the Removal of Distress from People and Reich”) unlike Article 48 emergency decrees didn’t require President’s approval no time limits “...so widely framed that subsequent deviations from the Reich constitution would be possible” 2/3 majority required
  61. 61. grim picture of the conditions he had inherited promised ‘far reaching moral renewal’ rights of Christian denominations would not be touched businesses would be made to serve the people, not the interests of capital no rearmament if the rest of the world disarms as promised. Germany only wanted similar rights and freedom
  62. 62. at the end, what appeared to be important concessions: existence of neither Reichstag nor Reichsrat (court) was threatened position and rights of the Reich President untouched the Länder (states) would not be abolished the rights of the Churches would not be reduced and their relations with the state not altered
  63. 63. OTTO WELS (1873-1939) SON OF A BERLIN INNKEEPER WEAVER, JOINS SPD-1891 ELECTED TO REICHSTAG-1912 1913-NAT’L EXEC SPD & “VORWÄRTS” NEWSPAPER 1918-IN X-MAS FIGHTING 1920-HELPS DEFEAT KAPP COUP REICHSTAG, 1920-33
  64. 64. quot;At this historic hour, we German Social Democrats pledge ourselves to the principles of humanity and justice, of freedom and Socialism. No Enabling Law can give you the power to destroy ideas which are eternal and indestructible ... From this new persecution too German Social Democracy can draw new strength. We send greetings to the persecuted and oppressed. We greet our friends in the Reich. Their steadfastness and loyalty deserve admiration. The courage with which they maintain their convictions and their unbroken confidence guarantee a brighter future.quot; Looking directly at Hitler, Wels proclaimed, quot;You can take our lives and our freedom, but you cannot take our honourquot;. quot;Freiheit und Leben kann man uns nehmen, die Ehre nicht.quot; His words: quot;Wir sind wehrlos aber nicht ehrlos.quot; - quot;We are defenceless but not honorless.quot; - have become famous.
  65. 65. HITLER’S BRUTAL RESPONSE law is not enough; power is decisive opponents we either destroy or make friends with, if they’re committed to Germany the SPD is committed to the [Communist] International we don’t want your votes “Germany will become free, but not through you!” with 441 votes to the SPD’s 94, the Reichstag voted itself out of existence
  66. 66. GLEICHSHALTUNG FOR THE LÄNDER 29 MARCH--HITLER GETS CABINET APPROVAL FOR REICH GOVERNORS FOR THE STATES “TO UPHOLD THE ‘LINES OF POLICY’ IN THE LÄNDER” HERE IS GENERAL RITTER VON EPP, THE ‘SAVIOR OF MÜNCHEN’ IN 1919, NOW REICHSTATTHALTER VON BAYERN BY SUMMER ALL THE STATES WERE “COORDINATED”
  67. 67. Dealing with Labor
  68. 68. PICTURE FROM “THE GOOD OLD DAYS” MARXISTS, WHETHER KPD OR SPD, USED TO LEAD GERMAN WORKERS “OVER THE CLIFF”
  69. 69. THE THINKING WORKER COMES TO HITLER THE RED (LEFT) AND SOCIALIST (RIGHT) EACH CALL THE OTHER “TRAITOR TO THE WORKER!”
  70. 70. Nazi Labor organization stories NAZI LABOR ORGANIZATION CO-OPTS THE EVENT
  71. 71. • since the nineteenth century, May Day had been international socialism’s premier event • after 30 Jan, Hitler appointed Robert Ley Chairman of the “Action Committee to Defend German Labor” • his job, Gleichschaltung • D-Day, 1 May • Goebbels prepared Nazi Labor organization stories another spectacle ala “Day May Day mass Nazi demonstration of Potsdam” in Berlin Lustgarten, 1933 NAZI LABOR ORGANIZATION CO-OPTS THE EVENT
  72. 72. 2. MAI. 33 TRADE UNION OFFICES OCCUPIED AND OFFICERS ARRESTED
  73. 73. The SPD. outlawed IN THE SUMMER OF 1933 HITLER DECLARED THE SOCIAL DEMOCRATIC PARTY AN ENEMY OF THE GERMAN PEOPLE
  74. 74. Hitler’s Dilemma Party Revolutionaries National-Conservatives the SA the army, big business
  75. 75. Dealing with the Churches
  76. 76. HITLER’S ADULT SPIRITUALITY HE NEVER PROMOTED PAGANISM, NORSE RELIGION, OR VÖLKISCH MYSTICISM HE ALWAYS CLAIMED TO BE A PRACTICING CATHOLIC HE WAS VERY CAREFUL IN HIS DEALINGS WITH THE CHRISTIAN CHURCHES PRIVATELY, HE DID CONSULT ASTROLOGERS
  77. 77. WITH CARDINAL FAULHABER GLEICHSCHALTUNG MADE THE LEAST PROGRESS WITH THE RELIGIOUS ESTABLISHMENT’S SCHOOLS & MOVEMENTS
  78. 78. Dealing with the Army
  79. 79. REICHSKRIEGSMINISTER WERNER VON BLOMBERG HE WAS PART OF WHAT AIMED TO “BOX HITLER IN.” THE MAJORITY IN HITLER’S CABINET WERE HINDENBURG LOYALISTS LIKE GENERAL BLOMBERG NOTE THE “BLUE MAX” AT HIS THROAT
  80. 80. THE ARMY WAS A POWERFUL GROUP WHICH HITLER KNEW HE MUST WIN OVER THEY HAD BEEN MAJOR PLAYERS IN THE DESTRUCTION OF WEIMAR AND COULD BE SO AGAIN AGAINST HIM HE REACHED OUT TO THEM WITH BOTH WORDS OF PRAISE AND DEEDS OF FINANCIAL SUPPORT ONE MAJOR OBSTACLE STOOD BETWEEN THE NSDAP AND THE ARMY
  81. 81. RÖHM’S AMBITION FOR THE SA AT SOME 4 1/2 MILLION, THE SA WAS VASTLY GREATER THAN THE REICHSWEHR’S 100,OOO RÖHM BELIEVED THAT HIS VOLKS ARMY SHOULD BECOME THE HEART OF THE NATIONAL ARMY THE ARISTOCRATIC OFFICER CORPS WAS DETERMINED THAT THAT WOULD NEVER COME TO PASS
  82. 82. Securing Total Power (1934) “Night of the Long Knives,” -- 30 June Hindenburg passes, -- 2 August
  83. 83. Faced with the dilemma of what to do about the SA, Hitler for months did little to resolve the tensions which continued to build. Characteristically, he acted finally when there was no longer a choice -- but then with utter ruthlessness. Kershaw, p. 499
  84. 84. TRERE WAS WIDESPREAD OUTRAGE ABOUT SA BRUTALITY. ABOUT 100,000 “ENEMIES OF THE NATIONAL REVOLUTION” HAD BEEN ARRESTED-- COMMUNISTS, SOCIALISTS AND JEWS HINDENBURG ASKED HITLER TO TONE IT DOWN HIS ORDERS TO DO SO PRODUCED LITTLE RESULT EVEN RÖHM HAD TROUBLE KEEPING THE LID ON
  85. 85. Dealing with the SA
  86. 86. IN 1933 COMPLAINTS POURED IN ABOUT SA “EXCESSES” BY SUMMER, GÖRING STOPPED USING THEM AS POLICE AUXILIARIES IN PRUSSIA BY OCTOBER, THEY WERE REMOVED FROM KZ GUARD DUTY STILL, THEIR ARROGANCE AND COMBATIVENESS BROUGHT COMPLAINTS FROM EVEN PRO-NAZI CITIZENS
  87. 87. HAMBURG SA WITH TROPHY THE CAPTURED FLAG OF THEIR ARCH RIVALS, THE RED FRONT FIGHTING BUND
  88. 88. DISPLAYS LIKE THIS ANGERED THE ARMY THE BERLIN SA PARADES THROUGH THE BRANDENBURG GATE IN THE SPRING OF 1934
  89. 89. HITLER CALLS A MEETING OF SA AND ARMY LEADERSHIP (28 FEBRUARY 1934) HE OUTLINES HIS MILITARY PLANS, WAR FOR LEBENSRAUM IN ABOUT FIVE YEARS ONLY THE ARMY CAN BE “BEARER OF WEAPONS OF THE NATION” THE SA ROLE: BORDER PROTECTION AND PRE-MILITARY TRAINING RÖHM & BLOMBERG HAD TO SIGN & SHAKE HANDS ON THE “AGREEMENT”
  90. 90. RÖHM’S ENEMIES
  91. 91. RÖHM’S ENEMIES Göring Bormann & Heß Himmler & Heydrich the Party the SS President Hindenburg Papen & his circle of nationalist- Blomberg & conservatives the top officers
  92. 92. PAPEN & HITLER--DUELING SPEECHES (17 JUNE 1934) PAPEN AT MARBURG UNIVERSITY--HITLER’S STATE SHOWING SIGNS OF “DEGENERATION, ARROGANCE” HITLER TO THURINGIAN PARTY MEMBERS AT GERA-- CERTAIN ‘REACTIONARIES’ WERE THREATENING THE NATIONAL REVOLUTION. THEY WERE “DWARVES, WORMS” GOEBBELS TRIES WITH PARTIAL SUCCESS TO PREVENT PAPEN’S SPEECH FROM BEING REPORTED PAPEN COMPLAINS TO HITLER ABOUT THE BAN HITLER MOLLIFIES HIM, PLAYS FOR TIME
  93. 93. MEETING AT SCHLOß NEUDECK (21 JUNE) THE PAPEN SPEECH PRODUCED A FUROR HITLER VISITS THE AILING (DYING) PRESIDENT AT HIS COUNTRY ESTATE BLOMBERG MEETS HIM ON HIS WAY IN. IF HITLER DOESN’T DO SOMETHING ABOUT RÖHM AND THE SA, HINDENBURG WILL DECLARE MARTIAL LAW & THE ARMY WILL HINDENBURG HIMSELF TOLD HITLER TO “BRING THE REVOLUTIONARY TROUBLE-MAKERS TO REASON” HITLER WAS FINALLY FORCED TO ACT
  94. 94. ‘KOLIBRI’ (HUMMING BIRD) (30 JUNE 1934) HITLER ORDERS THE SA LEADERSHIP TO MEET WITH HIM AT RÖHM’S VACATION SPOT, BAD WIESEE, SOUTHEAST OF MÜNCHEN HE COMES WITH A TRUCKFULL OF ARMED SS TO ARREST THEM IN THE EARLY HOURS OF THE MORNING ARMY, GESTAPO, & SS HAVE COLLECTED “EVIDENCE” OF A “RÖHM PUTSCH” WHEN HITLER TELLS BERLIN OF THE SUCCESSFUL ARRESTS, THE PASSWORD “KOLIBRI” ORDERS THE ARREST OR KILLING OF OTHERS--150-200, NOT ALL SA
  95. 95. THE VICTIMS GENERAL SCHLEICHER & HIS WIFE GREGOR STRASSER VON PAPEN’S JUNE 17TH SPEECH WRITER MOST OF THE TOP SA LEADERS WILLIAM SCHMID, MISTAKEN FOR DR. LUDWIG SCHMITT. HIS BODY WAS RETURNED WITH AN APOLOGY
  96. 96. RÖHM’S END HITLER WAS RELUCTANT TO HAVE HIM KILLED ON 1 JULY HE WAS GIVEN A PISTOL IN HIS CELL WITH THE INDICATION THAT HE WAS TO KILL HIMSELF AFTER TEN MINUTES HE WAS SHOT 2 JULY WAS DECLARED TO BE THE END OF THE “CLEANSING ACTION”
  97. 97. JUSTIFYING IT TO THE PARTY THE VÖLKISCHER BEOBACHTER SUPPORTS THE LIE THAT THE SA WAS PLANNING A PUTSCH AFTER A STUNNED FEW DAYS, MOST OF THE SA FALLS INTO LINE IT IS NEVER AGAIN THE THREAT IT ONCE WAS
  98. 98. RÖHM PURGE JUSTIFIED (13 JULY 1934) HERE HITLER GIVES HIS VERSION TO THE TAME REICHSTAG OF HOW THE SA BETRAYED HIM
  99. 99. NÜRNBERG PARTY DAY, 1934 THE TAMED SA IS CENTER STAGE THE ARMY RESENTS ITS LESSER PRESENCE LENI RIEFENSTAHL’S FAMOUS TRIUMPH OF THE WILL IS A RECORD OF THE SA’S CEREMONIAL ROLE
  100. 100. Hindenburg’s End
  101. 101. FÜHRER AND REICH CHANCELLOR ON 1 AUGUST, AS HINDENBURG LAY DYING, HITLER HAD HIS CABINET SIGN A LAW COMBINING THE POWERS OF PRESIDENT AND CHANCELLOR THIS CHANGE WOULD BE PUT TO THE GERMAN PEOPLE IN A “FREE PLEBISCITE” SCHEDULED FOR 19 AUGUST NOW HITLER WOULD BE COMMANDER OF THE ARMED FORCES AN OATH OF LOYALTY TO THE FÜHRER WAS TAKEN BY EVERY OFFICER AND SOLDIER THE VERY NEXT DAY
  102. 102. +PAUL VON HINDENBURG+ (1847-2 AUGUST 1934) PRESIDENT HINDENBURG HAD WANTED TO BE BURIED AT HIS COUNTRY ESTATE, NEUDECK GOEBBELS CONVINCED HITLER OF THE PROPAGANDA VALUE OF A MARTIAL CEREMONY AT REICHSEHRENMAL TANNENBERG 1927 SAW THE COMPLETION OF THIS MASSIVE CIRCULAR MEMORIAL FOR THE VICTORY WHICH STOPPED THE RUSSIAN ADVANCE IN 1914 IT ALREADY WAS A MASS GRAVE FOR THE REMAINS OF GERMAN SOLDIERS WHO HAD DIED THERE
  103. 103. HITLER DELIVERS THE FUNERAL ORATION AT REICHSEHRENMAL TANNENBERG
  104. 104. You have delivered up our holy German Fatherland to one of the greatest demagogues of all time. I solemnly prophesy that this accursed man will cast our Reich into the abyss and bring our nation to inconceivable misery. Future generations will damn you in your grave for what you have done. letter from Ludendorff to Hindenburg after Hitler’s appointment, 30.i.33
  105. 105. With the passing of this figure who was forty- two when Hitler had been born, who had served the Kaiser and the Republic, there was no one left who could stop the descent of Germany to her Null Stunde, her “Zero Hour” in May, 1945. Did Hindenburg remember Ludendorff’s damning letter as he lay dying? And what were Hitler’s thoughts as he delivered the funeral oration?
  106. 106. Things fall apart; the centre cannot hold; Mere anarchy is loosed upon the world, The blood dimmed tide is loosed, and everywhere The ceremony of innocence is drowned; The best lack all conviction, while the worst Are full of passionate intensity. “The Second Coming,” lines 2-8, 1920. -- Wm Butler Yeats

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