I. Wilhelmine Germany
       1870-1918
      The Second Reich

    Political and Diplomatic
             History
Three Kaisers
Three Kaisers
• Wilhelm I (1797-1888) King of Prussia,
  1861; Kaiser, 1871-1888
Three Kaisers
• Wilhelm I (1797-1888) King of Prussia,
  1861; Kaiser, 1871-1888
• Friedrich III (1831-1888),”Unser Fritz”...
Three Kaisers
• Wilhelm I (1797-1888) King of Prussia,
  1861; Kaiser, 1871-1888
• Friedrich III (1831-1888),”Unser Fritz”...
Wilhelm I
Friedrich III
Wilhelm II
Nationalism
• One of the 19th century “isms”
• Nations are a new phenomenon,
  artificial, and not part of the natural
  o...
Creation of the German Nation
•   Holy Roman Empire Sanctum Romanum Imperium Heiliges
    Römisches Reich--10th century-18...
Holy Roman Empire, 1648
 (lasted from 10th to 19th century)
German Confederation
(lasted from 1815-1866)
Wars of Unification
Wars of Unification
• Danish War (2nd Schleswig) 1864
Wars of Unification
• Danish War (2nd Schleswig) 1864
Wars of Unification
• Danish War (2nd Schleswig) 1864

• Austrian War (7 Weeks) 1866
Wars of Unification
• Danish War (2nd Schleswig) 1864

• Austrian War (7 Weeks) 1866
Wars of Unification
• Danish War (2nd Schleswig) 1864

• Austrian War (7 Weeks) 1866

• Franco-Prussian (German) 1870-71
Danish War
Austro-Prussian War
Prussian Generals at Königgrätz

                • Bismarck is shown
                  at the top in his
                 ...
North German Confederation, 1867-71
North German Confederation, 1867-71
North German Confederation, 1867-71

                  •   The red border following the Main
                      River i...
North German Confederation, 1867-71

                  •   The red border following the Main
                      River i...
North German Confederation, 1867-71

                  •   The red border following the Main
                      River i...
North German Confederation, 1867-71

                  •   The red border following the Main
                      River i...
The Franco-German War
           • Here we see
             Wilhelm with his
             generals. In this time
         ...
The Early Stages
        • In spite of brave
          experienced and
          generally well led
          troops, the ...
Sedan, the decisive battle   1 September 1870
Emperor Napoleon III
here seen as Bismarck’s prisoner
Emperor Napoleon III               his capture crippled the French
here seen as Bismarck’s prisoner
Sedan, 1 Sept 1870
         • This remarkable
           photo of the
           Brandenburg Gate
           commemorates ...
The Siege of Paris
19 September 1870-28 January 1871
Reichsgründung
•   On January 18, 1871 the Second Reich is proclaimed in the Hall of Mirrors of the Palais
    de Versaill...
Member states of the German Empire (peach), with Prussia in blue
The Second German Reich, 1871-1918
Gründerzeit
                          Foundation Period
                              1871-73

•   A period of rapid post-...
Great Power GNP
   Year         Russia        France              Britain     Germany Habsburg Italy
                     ...
German Industrial Growth




Krupp canon factory
German Industrial Growth
                      •   The Krupp canon factory is emblematic of
                          the ...
Bismarck’s Domestic Policy
             • Kulturkampf, 1870-78
             • Anti-Socialist
               measures, 1878...
Bismarck’s Foreign Policy
             • Dreikaiserbund, 1872
             • Congress of Berlin, 1878
             • Dual ...
1888
            Dreikaiser Jahr
• Frederick III, already
  dying of throat
  cancer, succeeds
  his father
• Wilhelm II, ...
Dropping the Pilot
        •   Bismarck dismissed
        •   this Punch cartoon expressed
            the surprise which ...
Who was Wilhelm II ?   his first years
As first born, he was expected to reign and rule
As first born, he was expected to reign and rule

• compensation and concealment for his withered left arm
As first born, he was expected to reign and rule

• compensation and concealment for his withered left arm


• a painful de...
As first born, he was expected to reign and rule

• compensation and concealment for his withered left arm


• a painful de...
As first born, he was expected to reign and rule

• compensation and concealment for his withered left arm


• a painful de...
As first born, he was expected to reign and rule

• compensation and concealment for his withered left arm


• a painful de...
As first born, he was expected to reign and rule

• compensation and concealment for his withered left arm


• a painful de...
Nuclear Family

• father, Crown Prince, brave
  soldier but un-Prussian,
  i.e., liberal


• mother, Queen Victoria’s elde...
Young Wilhelm and his
father visiting Queen
Victoria at Balmoral,
1862

from his earliest memories he
would both admire an...
Extended Family

• dynastic foreign policy


• Victoria’s grandsons ruled Britain,
  Germany and Russia in 1914


• Wilhel...
Wilhelm’s ruling style

• inconsistent, capricious


• emotional, “saber rattling”


• some even questioned his
  sanity

...
Object of ridicule

• instead of increasing respect
  from his enemies, his bellicose
  words and actions have the
  oppos...
The Road to World War I, 1890s-1914
The Road to World War I, 1890s-1914

• Militarism, Arms Race, & Mobilization Plans
The Road to World War I, 1890s-1914

• Militarism, Arms Race, & Mobilization Plans


• Economic & Colonialist Rivalries
The Road to World War I, 1890s-1914

• Militarism, Arms Race, & Mobilization Plans


• Economic & Colonialist Rivalries


...
The Road to World War I, 1890s-1914

• Militarism, Arms Race, & Mobilization Plans


• Economic & Colonialist Rivalries


...
Militarism

• Arms Race


• Mobilization Plans


• Army Organization and Training


• Public acceptance of War as not only...
Dreadnoughts           most significant factor of the
the Anglo-German Naval Race   arms race
Armored Cruiser Moltke   postcard from 1910
Considered the best due to
                                   from small arms to siege canons
their hydraulic recoil dampe...
The Schlieffen Plan   an unforgiving timetable
Economic and Colonialist Rivalries

• the Industrial Revolution entered a second stage, spread eastward, intensified


• co...
Imperialism, the
highest stage of
capitalism --VI Lenin

• the scramble for what was left
• Italy & Germany, latecomers
•A...
Alliance Systems and Secret Diplomacy

• the escalation of Austria’s quarrel with Serbia in 1914 to a world war in only
  ...
Alliance systems --some secret, some public
France, “Marianne”
                            cartoon from the 1890s
weeps, she feels isolated
The Nationalities Question
The Nationalities Question

• nationalism increased in the nineteenth century


• in multinational Russian, Habsburg, and ...
the Balkans
once European Turkey, now becoming “the tinderbox of Europe”
Germans, 35% in the Austrian half of the Dual
Monarchy!
Treaty of Berlin, 1878   Ottoman Imperial Decline
Before the Second
 Balkan War, 1913
After the Second
   Balkan War
Sarajevo
                Franz Ferdinand & Sophie shot
28 June 1914
Peace or War?
Peace or War?

• crisis management in Vienna
  and Berlin
Peace or War?

• crisis management in Vienna
  and Berlin


• ultimatum to Serbia, 23 July
Peace or War?

• crisis management in Vienna
  and Berlin


• ultimatum to Serbia, 23 July


• twelve day diplomatic and
 ...
Peace or War?

• crisis management in Vienna
  and Berlin


• ultimatum to Serbia, 23 July


• twelve day diplomatic and
 ...
Peace or War?

• crisis management in Vienna
  and Berlin


• ultimatum to Serbia, 23 July


• twelve day diplomatic and
 ...
Germania
August 1914

• incredible patriotism and
  euphoria greeted the outbreak


• not just in Germany but in all the
 ...
Crowd in Munich cheers war’s
                               2 August 1914
 outbreak, Hitler among them
The Spirit of Langemarck
                           Ypres seen in the distance
            October 1914
Stalemate in West

• by November, 1914 the Western
  Front had settled into trenches


• efforts by both sides to make
  g...
Verdun,1916   French trench
On the other hand,




On the Eastern Front,
against Russia
the dread “Russian Steamroller”
                                  August, 1914
          advanced into Prussia
Until the battle of Tannenberg stopped it--
                        17 August-2 September
virtually destroying the Russian...
Interior view of the mass grave and
memorial to Tannenberg’s “Gefallenen”
Hindenburg will be buried here in 1934
Paul v. Hindenburg,
1847-2 Aug 1934

•remember this man

• long, undistinguished Prussian army
  career, retired, 1913


•...
1915
Oberste Kriegsherr
Wm II & Hindenburg,
victor of Tannenberg

For good or ill, “Supreme
Warlord” Wilhelm identifies
him...
The War at Sea

Above and beneath the waves
British Grand Fleet
                         Jutland/Skaggerak 31 May 1916
neutralizes Germany’s
U-boat retaliation would
                           April, 1917
       bring America in
It seemed that both
sides were intent on
destroying the world

cartoon by Albert Hahn, Dutch
artist. Notice the small figur...
New Years toast, 1917   Leendert Jordaan, NL artist
Unprecedented casualties   Not numbers, human beings
Unprecedented casualties   Not numbers, human beings
Wilhelm had so
publicized his role as
war leader that now he
had to take the blame

cartoon by Dutch artist, Louis
Raemake...
Albrecht Dürer’s,
“Knight, Death, and
the Devil” (1513)

Not a very favorable comparison
for the Supreme Warlord!
Hindenburg, Wilhelm II,
                          1917
           Ludendorff
German 1918
offensive brings the
greatest gains to date

freed from two-front war by the
Russian armistice, December,
1917
But America’s arrival
tips the scale

1 million at the front, June
2 million,             August
4 million,             No...
Hindenburg and Ludendorff told the
Supreme Warlord that further resistance    here seen in happier times
                 ...
Wilhelm Abdicates   9 November 1918
Exile here at Doorn, NL
                          Left without a word to his generals
     Wilhelm dies, 1941
The triumphant Allied
negotiators pose by
the Compiegne
armistice train

Notice the absence of the
German negotiators. The...
The Greatest “Crime”
of the “November
Criminals” would be
acceptance of the
Versailles Treaty

The new Weimar Republic wou...
Humiliation repaid.
Germany would be
required to sign the treaty
in the same hall where the
Second Reich was
proclaimed.
Nazi Rise to Power, Part 1; Wilhelmine Germany, 1870-1918
Nazi Rise to Power, Part 1; Wilhelmine Germany, 1870-1918
Nazi Rise to Power, Part 1; Wilhelmine Germany, 1870-1918
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Nazi Rise to Power, Part 1; Wilhelmine Germany, 1870-1918

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  • The German word Reich is translated Empire. The First Reich was the so-called Holy Roman Empire which is usually dated from Otto I and 962 AD to Napoleon who abolished it in 1806 and replaced it with a confederation (Ger. Bund). The infamous Third Reich, Hitler’s, which was to last for a thousand years, actually lasted 12, 1933-45.







  • Born second, Wilhelm was not expected to rule. His military career began against Napoleon in the Wars of Ger Liberation. Rec’d little education, able diplomat, restored his bro’s throne with force in ‘48-->
    Kartätschenprinz (Grapeshot Prince)



  • Married to Queen Victoria’s eldest child, and far more liberal than the Prussian Junker court aristocrats, Crown Prince Friedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia felt isolated and excluded by his father and Chancellor Bismarck. As was expected of a Hohenzollern, he was an able military commander.


  • Perhaps the most significant event of his life, the injury rec’d at birth, is visible in this picture. His left arm was almost useless.



  • •DEF OF ISM So an “ism” can be defined as a body of theory explaining an intellectual movement in politics, economics, society or culture. Examples: communism, expressionism, futurism, anarchism, &c.



  • •Others : liberalism, romanticism, capitalism, socialism, communism, republicanism.


  • •Even though we take them for granted.


  • •Def; language? =a dialect with an army, defensible borders? Not all have. Common culture?






  • From Emperor Otto I in 962 until a victorious Napoleon abolished the Empire in 1806, the borders of the HRE varied with the wars and marriages of the various dynasts who comprised it. The Habsburgs were the longest lasting line of emperors. They had their Austrian Empire, here colored pale green on the south eastern edge of the imperial lands, with its capital of Vienna. There were some 300 principalities, some as small as a village and the surrounding farm lands.


  • From more than 300 states, the Congress of Vienna, 1815, created a confederation of 39 states. There were two great powers, Austria and Prussia, and a half dozen medium sized states like Bavaria, Hannover, Saxony, Baden, Hesse and Würtemberg. German nationalists argued between the Gross and Kleideutsch approach to unification.






  • Tell Bismarck anecdote about the three who understood the SH Question. Describe the 1st Schleswig War, 1848.


  • This war saw Austria aided by most of the south German states. It was a very close thing. The climax came at the battle of Königgrätz/Sadowa, pictured here, on 3 July. The Crown Prince, “Unser Fritz,” played the decisive role in the Prussian victory. Often alluded to was the Dreyse, needle gun. More important were the mil reforms of mobiliz & concentration, cf Showalter.


  • This picture is from Wikipedia and the article on militarism. The picture is not dated but is a good example of the prestige accorded to the Prussian/German officer class during the 2nd Reich. The Freikorps was the reaction to the Versailles treaty’s effort to demilitarize Germany after 1918.


  • France watched uneasily as Prussia grew from strength to strength on her eastern border. It had been French policy since medieval times to keep Central Europe divided. That way she could play balance of power politics with some German states against others, chiefly Habsburg Austria. Now Napoleon III realized, it was only a question of time before he would have to fight Prussia. He hoped to have a vengeful Austria and perhaps her South German allies with him.


  • Napoleon hadn’t long to wait. Bismarck crowned his statecraft by provoking his advrsary into declaring war and appearing to be the aggressor.


  • This painting by Charles Costellani is from the cover of Michael Howard’s excellent history. It is titled”Charge of the Volunteers under Col. Charette at the Battle of Lorigny, F-P War, 1870.”










  • The banner reads “Such a turn [of fate] through God’s leadership” The capture of the Emperor at the head of his troops made the continued French resistance doubly difficult.


  • A provisional government of national defense attempted to direct the city’s defense and conduct the war with armies to the south and west of the German ring around the capital. Garibaldi led guerilla attacks on the German supply lines in eastern France. All to no avail. France surrendered and agreed to pay a 5 Bill Franc indemnity. The seeds of revenge were sewn when Alsace and Lorraine were reclaimed by Germany.


  • France wouldn’t forget the deliberate humiliation of using this site, associated with the Apogee of Fr power under Louis XIV. They would choose it for Ger’s humiliation in 1919. Hitler would complete the cycle by using the Compiegne RR carriage of 11/11/1918 for the Fr surrender in 1940.


  • “In blood, money, even in principle, the new Germany had been cheaply bought-- perhaps too cheaply, creating unrealizable expectations of future equivalent successes.” Showalter, p. 350






  • In the post-war patriotic jubilation long time Lutheran and Prussian “simplicity” were forgotten in a wave of prosperity. Peasant “millionaires” sold farm lands around the cities for exorbitant prices. Speculators made seemingly endless profits. The Liberals seemed vindicated at the expense of the Conservatives. All the classic excesses of the Boom mentality were in play. When the Vienna Bourse experienced meltdown 9 May along with the Jay Cooke fiasco the following Sept -->Panic of ‘73


  • Modern economists have discredited the term “Long Depression.” The above table shows that the true measure of wealth, GNP, increased during the period for every country except Russia. The deflation which gold based currencies experienced created the impression of bad times which led people to discount the advantage of lower prices. Labor adjustments and the absence of social safety nets -->rise of radical movements.



  • The future Kaiser Wilhelm II was led by his civil tutor Georg Hinzpeter on tours of his nation’s mines and factories during this period.
    Germany's population also expanded rapidly, growing from 41.0 million in 1871 to 49.7 million in 1891 and 65.3 million in 1911. The expanding and industrializing economy changed the way this rapidly expanding population earned its livelihood. In 1871 about 49 percent of the workforce was engaged in agriculture; by 1907 only 35 percent was. In the same period, industry's share of the rapidly growing workforce rose from 31 percent to 40 percent. Urban birth rates were often the country's highest, but there was much migration from rural areas to urban areas, where most industry was located. Berlin, by far the country's largest city and a major industrial center, grew from almost 1 million inhabitants in 1875 to 2 million in 1910. Many smaller cities, especially those in areas with much industry--such as the Ruhr region, the upper Rhine Valley, the Neckar Valley, and Saxony--tripled or quadrupled in size during this period.




  • one of Bismarck's primary political objectives was to reduce the influence of the Catholic church in Germany. This may have been due to the anti-liberal message of

    Pope Pius IX

    in the

    Syllabus of Errors

    of 1864, and the dogma of

    Papal infallibility

    (1870). Prussia (except Rhineland) and most other northern German states were predominantly

    Protestant

    , but many Catholics lived in the southern German states (especially

    Bavaria

    ). In total, one third of the population was Catholic. Bismarck believed that the Roman Catholic Church held too much political power, and was also concerned about the emergence of the

    Catholic Centre Party

    (organised in 1870).Accordingly, he began an anti-Catholic campaign known as the

    Kulturkampf

    . In 1871, the Catholic Department of the Prussian Ministry of Culture was abolished. In 1872, the

    Jesuits

    were expelled from Germany. Bismarck somewhat supported the emerging anti-Roman

    Old Catholic Churches

    and

    Lutheranism

    . More severe anti-Roman Catholic laws of 1873 allowed the government to supervise the education of the Roman Catholic clergy, and curtailed the disciplinary powers of the Church. In 1875, civil ceremonies were required for weddings, which could hitherto be performed in churches. But these efforts only strengthened the Catholic Centre Party. In 1878 Bismarck abandoned the
    Kulturkampf
    . Pius died that same year, replaced by a more pragmatic

    Pope Leo XIII

    .




  • • 1878 anti-soc. Laws, backfired, SPD grew. Next, “stealing the Socialists thunder”:The Health Insurance Act of 1883 entitled workers to health insurance; the worker paid two-thirds, and the employer one-third, of the premiums. Accident insurance was provided in 1884, and old age pensions and disability insurance in 1889. Other laws restricted the employment of women and children.



  • •Danes, French, but esp. Poles.


  • B’s brilliant successes against all odds in the preceding decade, 1862-71, gave him a taste for “living on the edge” (Showalter) He clung to power. Wil I was increasingly senile, (74 in 1871) and the Crown Prince was isolated as too liberal and pro-English.key to his diplomacy was convincing the others that Ger was a “sated power.”


  • •circus trick rider on 2 horses, Aus & Russ. Since “Fr will never forgive us our victories” --> guard against encirclement.


  • •Russo-Turk War-->Treaty of San Stefano-->Cong of Berlin


  • •Dual w/Aus.


  • •keep Russ


  • •avoid cols, then, after New Imp, join the scramble


  • •rules for Africa


  • •Wm II shown here with his wife, Augusta Victoria, “Dona”


  • •Fateful consequences.Wil called Reichstag a “pigsty”, had become alienated from England, called Vicky an “old hag”was already bent on “ruling in his own right” ala Louis XIV, but was no Louis XIV.



  • Dropping the Pilot
    is a political cartoon by Sir

    John Tenniel

    , first published in the British magazine

    Punch

    , March 1890. Showing German Emperor

    Wilhelm II

    and the leaving Chancellor

    Otto von Bismarck

    .The cartoon is well known in Germany and often used in history textbooks, under the title
    Der Lotse geht von Bord
    , (literally,
    The pilot leaves the ship
    ).







  • •describe his daily routine


  • •difficulty of riding, Willi’s fear--pushed thru--> led to excellence & pride & lifelong horsemanship


  • • although Victoria was born in England and raised as an English speaker, both her parents were German by birth!


  • • only his brother Henry survived. later naval officer & anglophile






  • • monarchy personalized the fortunes & interests of states


  • • intemperate comes to mind!


  • • ministers and career diplomats vs court favorites, sycophants, & irresponsible types


  • • DAILY TELE AFFAIR--publication of some of William's opinions in edited form in the British daily newspaper of that name. William saw it as an opportunity to promote his views and ideas on Anglo-German friendship, but instead, due to his emotional outbursts as recollected by his host, William ended up further alienating not only the British people, but also the French, Russians, and Japanese all in one fell swoop by implying, inter alia, that the Germans cared nothing for the British; that the French and Russians had attempted to incite Germany to intervene in the Second Boer War; and that the German naval buildup was targeted against the Japanese, not Britain. (One memorable quote from the interview is \"You English are mad, mad, mad as March hares.\"[3]) The effect in Germany was quite massive, with serious calls for his abdication being mentioned in the press. Quite understandably, William kept a very low profile for many months after the Daily Telegraph fiasco, and later exacted his revenge by enforcing the resignation of Prince Bülow, who had abandoned the Emperor to public criticism by publicly accepting some responsibility for not having edited the transcript of the interview before its publication.



  • •
    Kaiser, Kaiser, shining bright, You have given us a fright! With your belts & straps & shshes, & yr skyward turned must’s!




  • And that frown so deadly fiers,And those awful eyes that pierce,thru the very hearts of those,Whom ill fate has made yr foz




  • Kaiser, Kaiser, Man of War, What a funny joke you are!











  • • Br TWO POWER STD, Fischer & HMS Dreadnought, 1904-06, Naval law of ’08


  • • 1st “all big gun ship” “suddenly our lead in battleships had gone from ? to ? to 1 to 0”

  • Nazi Rise to Power, Part 1; Wilhelmine Germany, 1870-1918

    1. 1. I. Wilhelmine Germany 1870-1918 The Second Reich Political and Diplomatic History
    2. 2. Three Kaisers
    3. 3. Three Kaisers • Wilhelm I (1797-1888) King of Prussia, 1861; Kaiser, 1871-1888
    4. 4. Three Kaisers • Wilhelm I (1797-1888) King of Prussia, 1861; Kaiser, 1871-1888 • Friedrich III (1831-1888),”Unser Fritz” K.u.K, (9 Mar-15 Jun)
    5. 5. Three Kaisers • Wilhelm I (1797-1888) King of Prussia, 1861; Kaiser, 1871-1888 • Friedrich III (1831-1888),”Unser Fritz” K.u.K, (9 Mar-15 Jun) • Wilhelm II (1859-1941), King and Kaiser (1888-1918)
    6. 6. Wilhelm I
    7. 7. Friedrich III
    8. 8. Wilhelm II
    9. 9. Nationalism • One of the 19th century “isms” • Nations are a new phenomenon, artificial, and not part of the natural order • Nations are hard to define
    10. 10. Creation of the German Nation • Holy Roman Empire Sanctum Romanum Imperium Heiliges Römisches Reich--10th century-1806 • Der Deutsche Bund the German Confederation--1806-1866 • Nord Deutsche Bund --1866-1871 • Second German Reich--1871-1918
    11. 11. Holy Roman Empire, 1648 (lasted from 10th to 19th century)
    12. 12. German Confederation (lasted from 1815-1866)
    13. 13. Wars of Unification
    14. 14. Wars of Unification • Danish War (2nd Schleswig) 1864
    15. 15. Wars of Unification • Danish War (2nd Schleswig) 1864
    16. 16. Wars of Unification • Danish War (2nd Schleswig) 1864 • Austrian War (7 Weeks) 1866
    17. 17. Wars of Unification • Danish War (2nd Schleswig) 1864 • Austrian War (7 Weeks) 1866
    18. 18. Wars of Unification • Danish War (2nd Schleswig) 1864 • Austrian War (7 Weeks) 1866 • Franco-Prussian (German) 1870-71
    19. 19. Danish War
    20. 20. Austro-Prussian War
    21. 21. Prussian Generals at Königgrätz • Bismarck is shown at the top in his white uniform • War Minister Roon is in the center
    22. 22. North German Confederation, 1867-71
    23. 23. North German Confederation, 1867-71
    24. 24. North German Confederation, 1867-71 • The red border following the Main River indicates the territory of the new German Confederacy. Only Bavaria, Baden, Würtemberg, the territory of the Grand Dutchy of Hesse south of the Main, and, of course, Austria remain unaligned with Prussia.
    25. 25. North German Confederation, 1867-71 • The red border following the Main River indicates the territory of the new German Confederacy. Only Bavaria, Baden, Würtemberg, the territory of the Grand Dutchy of Hesse south of the Main, and, of course, Austria remain unaligned with Prussia.
    26. 26. North German Confederation, 1867-71 • The red border following the Main River indicates the territory of the new German Confederacy. Only Bavaria, Baden, Würtemberg, the territory of the Grand Dutchy of Hesse south of the Main, and, of course, Austria remain unaligned with Prussia.
    27. 27. North German Confederation, 1867-71 • The red border following the Main River indicates the territory of the new German Confederacy. Only Bavaria, Baden, Würtemberg, the territory of the Grand Dutchy of Hesse south of the Main, and, of course, Austria remain unaligned with Prussia. • To the victor go the spoils.
    28. 28. The Franco-German War • Here we see Wilhelm with his generals. In this time heads of state still led their armies personally.
    29. 29. The Early Stages • In spite of brave experienced and generally well led troops, the French forces were unable to match the German ability to maneuver and concentrate
    30. 30. Sedan, the decisive battle 1 September 1870
    31. 31. Emperor Napoleon III here seen as Bismarck’s prisoner
    32. 32. Emperor Napoleon III his capture crippled the French here seen as Bismarck’s prisoner
    33. 33. Sedan, 1 Sept 1870 • This remarkable photo of the Brandenburg Gate commemorates the victory which made French defeat inevitable
    34. 34. The Siege of Paris 19 September 1870-28 January 1871
    35. 35. Reichsgründung • On January 18, 1871 the Second Reich is proclaimed in the Hall of Mirrors of the Palais de Versailles. Bismarck is the figure in white, appropriately at the center of the scene.
    36. 36. Member states of the German Empire (peach), with Prussia in blue
    37. 37. The Second German Reich, 1871-1918
    38. 38. Gründerzeit Foundation Period 1871-73 • A period of rapid post-war economic expansion • Railroads • Urbanization>suburban real estate “bubble” • French indemnity > expanded money supply • Industrial expansion, especially iron, coal, and chemicals • The so-called Second Industrial Revolution • Stock market “bubble” Result: “The Long Depression” 1873-1895
    39. 39. Great Power GNP Year Russia France Britain Germany Habsburg Italy Empire 1870 22.9 Year 1870 Russia 22.9 16.8 France 16.8 19.6 Britain 19.6 16.6 Germany 16.6 11.3 Habsburg Empire 11.3 8.2 Italy 8.2 1880 23.2 1880 1890 23.2 21.1 17.3 17.3 19.7 23.5 23.5 29.4 19.9 19.9 26.4 12.2 12.2 15.3 8.78.7 9.4 1890 21.1 19.7 29.4 26.4 15.3 9.4 GNP at market prices, in 1960 U.S. dollars & prices, in billions Paul Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers. 1989, p. 219.
    40. 40. German Industrial Growth Krupp canon factory
    41. 41. German Industrial Growth • The Krupp canon factory is emblematic of the heavy industry of the Ruhrgebeit (Ruhr District) • Alfred Krupp (1812-1887) began the great expansion of the family business with canons and railway wheels of superior design • He also advocated the breech loading Dreyse “needle gun” against prevailing military conservatism • The coal resources of the Saargebeit complemented Germany’s iron industry Krupp canon factory • Scientific education spawned the industrial chemical industry which led the world in technology
    42. 42. Bismarck’s Domestic Policy • Kulturkampf, 1870-78 • Anti-Socialist measures, 1878-80s • Germanization of minorities, 1870 on • duels with the Reichstag • “Reptile Fund”
    43. 43. Bismarck’s Foreign Policy • Dreikaiserbund, 1872 • Congress of Berlin, 1878 • Dual Alliance, 1879 • Reinsurance Treaty, 1877 • Colonial policy • Berlin Conference, 1884-85
    44. 44. 1888 Dreikaiser Jahr • Frederick III, already dying of throat cancer, succeeds his father • Wilhelm II, m. 1881, succeeds his father after only 97 days
    45. 45. Dropping the Pilot • Bismarck dismissed • this Punch cartoon expressed the surprise which greeted the young Kaiser’s decision • the hand which had guided Prussia to her present key position • what sort of leader would the young Kaiser prove to be? • cartoon in Punch, Mar 1890
    46. 46. Who was Wilhelm II ? his first years
    47. 47. As first born, he was expected to reign and rule
    48. 48. As first born, he was expected to reign and rule • compensation and concealment for his withered left arm
    49. 49. As first born, he was expected to reign and rule • compensation and concealment for his withered left arm • a painful device called “the machine” applied daily in childhood
    50. 50. As first born, he was expected to reign and rule • compensation and concealment for his withered left arm • a painful device called “the machine” applied daily in childhood • tutor Georg Hinzpeter responsible for the inculcation of his Spartan values
    51. 51. As first born, he was expected to reign and rule • compensation and concealment for his withered left arm • a painful device called “the machine” applied daily in childhood • tutor Georg Hinzpeter responsible for the inculcation of his Spartan values • horsemanship so that he could command in battle like his father
    52. 52. As first born, he was expected to reign and rule • compensation and concealment for his withered left arm • a painful device called “the machine” applied daily in childhood • tutor Georg Hinzpeter responsible for the inculcation of his Spartan values • horsemanship so that he could command in battle like his father • tours of Germany’s industrial might
    53. 53. As first born, he was expected to reign and rule • compensation and concealment for his withered left arm • a painful device called “the machine” applied daily in childhood • tutor Georg Hinzpeter responsible for the inculcation of his Spartan values • horsemanship so that he could command in battle like his father • tours of Germany’s industrial might • contempt for Liberals, fear of Socialists (SPD), hatred of Anarchists
    54. 54. Nuclear Family • father, Crown Prince, brave soldier but un-Prussian, i.e., liberal • mother, Queen Victoria’s eldest daughter, strong willed • three brothers, two dying in childhood • four sisters
    55. 55. Young Wilhelm and his father visiting Queen Victoria at Balmoral, 1862 from his earliest memories he would both admire and envy the British Empire his grandfather the Kaiser and Bismarck both tried to keep him out of the “English camp”
    56. 56. Extended Family • dynastic foreign policy • Victoria’s grandsons ruled Britain, Germany and Russia in 1914 • Wilhelm’s mixed feelings towards mother, Victoria, “Uncle Bertie,” the Royal Navy, the British Empire • pictured here with cousin George in 1913
    57. 57. Wilhelm’s ruling style • inconsistent, capricious • emotional, “saber rattling” • some even questioned his sanity • his ministers and generals became more and more uncomfortable with his “loose canon” behavior
    58. 58. Object of ridicule • instead of increasing respect from his enemies, his bellicose words and actions have the opposite effect • Kruger telegram, 1896 • “Hun” speech 27 Jul 1900 • Moroccan crisis, 1906 • Daily Telegraph Affair, 1908
    59. 59. The Road to World War I, 1890s-1914
    60. 60. The Road to World War I, 1890s-1914 • Militarism, Arms Race, & Mobilization Plans
    61. 61. The Road to World War I, 1890s-1914 • Militarism, Arms Race, & Mobilization Plans • Economic & Colonialist Rivalries
    62. 62. The Road to World War I, 1890s-1914 • Militarism, Arms Race, & Mobilization Plans • Economic & Colonialist Rivalries • Alliance Systems and Secret Diplomacy
    63. 63. The Road to World War I, 1890s-1914 • Militarism, Arms Race, & Mobilization Plans • Economic & Colonialist Rivalries • Alliance Systems and Secret Diplomacy • Minorities and Ethnic Nationalism
    64. 64. Militarism • Arms Race • Mobilization Plans • Army Organization and Training • Public acceptance of War as not only legitimate but positively beneficial
    65. 65. Dreadnoughts most significant factor of the the Anglo-German Naval Race arms race
    66. 66. Armored Cruiser Moltke postcard from 1910
    67. 67. Considered the best due to from small arms to siege canons their hydraulic recoil dampeners
    68. 68. The Schlieffen Plan an unforgiving timetable
    69. 69. Economic and Colonialist Rivalries • the Industrial Revolution entered a second stage, spread eastward, intensified • colonial rivalries created a new field for competition • America busy “winning the West” until 1898 • Russia expands eastward and southeast toward British India • steam powered ships require coaling stations
    70. 70. Imperialism, the highest stage of capitalism --VI Lenin • the scramble for what was left • Italy & Germany, latecomers •Africa--Cape to Cairo RR, Fashoda, Krueger telegram, Boer War,1st & 2nd Moroccan crises •Berlin to Baghdad RR •Asia
    71. 71. Alliance Systems and Secret Diplomacy • the escalation of Austria’s quarrel with Serbia in 1914 to a world war in only twelve days, was clearly the result of the two rival alliance systems • Wilson’s First Point: Open covenants of peace, openly arrived at, after which there shall be no private international understandings of any kind but diplomacy shall proceed always frankly and in the public view. aimed at removing the suspicion, paranoia, and hostility which had characterized the prewar diplomatic scene
    72. 72. Alliance systems --some secret, some public
    73. 73. France, “Marianne” cartoon from the 1890s weeps, she feels isolated
    74. 74. The Nationalities Question
    75. 75. The Nationalities Question • nationalism increased in the nineteenth century • in multinational Russian, Habsburg, and Ottoman empires, minorities sought independence or autonomy • once some broke away, they sought to incorporate fellow nationals • all this fed the level of violence and “propaganda of the deed,” i.e., assassinations
    76. 76. the Balkans once European Turkey, now becoming “the tinderbox of Europe”
    77. 77. Germans, 35% in the Austrian half of the Dual Monarchy!
    78. 78. Treaty of Berlin, 1878 Ottoman Imperial Decline
    79. 79. Before the Second Balkan War, 1913
    80. 80. After the Second Balkan War
    81. 81. Sarajevo Franz Ferdinand & Sophie shot 28 June 1914
    82. 82. Peace or War?
    83. 83. Peace or War? • crisis management in Vienna and Berlin
    84. 84. Peace or War? • crisis management in Vienna and Berlin • ultimatum to Serbia, 23 July
    85. 85. Peace or War? • crisis management in Vienna and Berlin • ultimatum to Serbia, 23 July • twelve day diplomatic and military struggle
    86. 86. Peace or War? • crisis management in Vienna and Berlin • ultimatum to Serbia, 23 July • twelve day diplomatic and military struggle • by 4 August, all the major European Powers except Italy are at war
    87. 87. Peace or War? • crisis management in Vienna and Berlin • ultimatum to Serbia, 23 July • twelve day diplomatic and military struggle • by 4 August, all the major European Powers except Italy are at war
    88. 88. Germania August 1914 • incredible patriotism and euphoria greeted the outbreak • not just in Germany but in all the belligerent nations • this spirit was remembered in later years with irony and sadness
    89. 89. Crowd in Munich cheers war’s 2 August 1914 outbreak, Hitler among them
    90. 90. The Spirit of Langemarck Ypres seen in the distance October 1914
    91. 91. Stalemate in West • by November, 1914 the Western Front had settled into trenches • efforts by both sides to make gains here and on other fronts were costly and indecisive • peace initiatives made no progress • the world was stunned at the human cost of modern warfare
    92. 92. Verdun,1916 French trench
    93. 93. On the other hand, On the Eastern Front, against Russia
    94. 94. the dread “Russian Steamroller” August, 1914 advanced into Prussia
    95. 95. Until the battle of Tannenberg stopped it-- 17 August-2 September virtually destroying the Russian Second Army Reichsehrenmal
    96. 96. Interior view of the mass grave and memorial to Tannenberg’s “Gefallenen” Hindenburg will be buried here in 1934
    97. 97. Paul v. Hindenburg, 1847-2 Aug 1934 •remember this man • long, undistinguished Prussian army career, retired, 1913 • recalled in 1914, victor of Tannenberg • appointed supreme commander, 1916 • avoided blame for defeat • elected president in 1925
    98. 98. 1915 Oberste Kriegsherr Wm II & Hindenburg, victor of Tannenberg For good or ill, “Supreme Warlord” Wilhelm identifies himself with the course of the war Notice the concealed left arm
    99. 99. The War at Sea Above and beneath the waves
    100. 100. British Grand Fleet Jutland/Skaggerak 31 May 1916 neutralizes Germany’s
    101. 101. U-boat retaliation would April, 1917 bring America in
    102. 102. It seemed that both sides were intent on destroying the world cartoon by Albert Hahn, Dutch artist. Notice the small figures representing neutral countries like the Netherlands
    103. 103. New Years toast, 1917 Leendert Jordaan, NL artist
    104. 104. Unprecedented casualties Not numbers, human beings
    105. 105. Unprecedented casualties Not numbers, human beings
    106. 106. Wilhelm had so publicized his role as war leader that now he had to take the blame cartoon by Dutch artist, Louis Raemakers
    107. 107. Albrecht Dürer’s, “Knight, Death, and the Devil” (1513) Not a very favorable comparison for the Supreme Warlord!
    108. 108. Hindenburg, Wilhelm II, 1917 Ludendorff
    109. 109. German 1918 offensive brings the greatest gains to date freed from two-front war by the Russian armistice, December, 1917
    110. 110. But America’s arrival tips the scale 1 million at the front, June 2 million, August 4 million, November
    111. 111. Hindenburg and Ludendorff told the Supreme Warlord that further resistance here seen in happier times was futile
    112. 112. Wilhelm Abdicates 9 November 1918
    113. 113. Exile here at Doorn, NL Left without a word to his generals Wilhelm dies, 1941
    114. 114. The triumphant Allied negotiators pose by the Compiegne armistice train Notice the absence of the German negotiators. They will become the “November Criminals” of the German Right’s “Backstab Legend” (Dolchstoss Legende)
    115. 115. The Greatest “Crime” of the “November Criminals” would be acceptance of the Versailles Treaty The new Weimar Republic would never be able to shake off the critics from both Right and Left for signing. The only question was which would bring it down
    116. 116. Humiliation repaid. Germany would be required to sign the treaty in the same hall where the Second Reich was proclaimed.

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