iv-Stalin's SSSR; 5Year Plans & Terror


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iv-Stalin's SSSR; 5Year Plans & Terror

  1. 1. !!!" !#$%&'$ Stalin’s SSSR session iv-Socialism in One Country and the Great Terror; 1928-1939 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  2. 2. this session’s major topics I. the Debate II. Five-Year Plans III. Collectivization of Agriculture IV. Kirov’s Assassination V. the Show Trials VI. the Great Terror Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  3. 3. The Debate Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  4. 4. The Debate Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  6. 6. “Trotskyism or Leninism?” 24 November 1924 • in this lecture Stalin used his favorite debating technique. He argued that he was the true interpreter of Lenin’s “infallible” thought • he argued that Trotsky’s “Permanent Revolution” denigrated the Soviet peoples when he stated that socialism could only come after the World Revolution • still, most of the Bolsheviks had believed that this was the case. They had all hoped for the Revolution’s spread in the early 1920s • but by 1924 the revolutionary fires burned low, capitalism was beginning to “recover” • and Lenin had said in 1915 that “it might be possible to achieve the victory of Socialism in one country” • Stalin had just compiled a grab-bag of such quotes for his Fundamentals of Leninism Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  7. 7. PERMANENT REVOLUTION-Trotsky begun 1933 at Rockefeller Center, NYC Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  8. 8. PERMANENT REVOLUTION-Trotsky Annick Bureaud, 1998 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  9. 9. an enduring dream on the Left Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  10. 10. an enduring dream on the Left Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  11. 11. an enduring dream on the Left Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  12. 12. an enduring dream on the Left Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  13. 13. an enduring dream on the Left Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  14. 14. an enduring dream on the Left Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  15. 15. an enduring dream on the Left Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  16. 16. an enduring dream on the Left Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  17. 17. coined at the end of the 1905 Revolution Alexander Helphand (Parvus) and Trotsky had coined the slogan as a response to the seeming victory of tsarist repression in December, 1905. Trotsky was often its lone champion from 1905 to 1917. Then it became Bolshevik orthodoxy. Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  18. 18. Indeed, as we have seen, Lenin and the whole party, including Stalin, were positively giddy in the summer of 1920. They believed that Poland would be “the bridge to Europe” and the uprisings in Germany and Hungary, which had failed the previous year, would re-ignite. But by 1925 there had been a string of disappointments The opening line of the Communist Manifesto (1848) Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  19. 19. in 1925 • US Treasury Secretary Dawes was negotiating a Plan to end hyperinflation, stabilize Germany’s economy and revise downwards the reparations burden • the French had left the Ruhr. Their presence had sparked both Communist and Nazi uprisings • 1924-1929-Germany experienced “stabilization,” let the good times roll… • the “imperialists” seemed to have dodged the bullet of World War I • the “Spirit of Locarno” and the seeming recovery of the League of Nations after a rocky start, still without Russia or the US, seemed to point to good times • and, as with the Nazis, good times were bad times for the Communists Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  20. 20. The Bolsheviks had by now grown accustomed to running an enormous state ‘one-sixth of the whole world’. They gradually acquired the self- confidence and the sense of self-importance that comes from the privileges and responsibilities of power….They needed an idea or slogan that would fully express their newly won self-confidence. ‘Socialism in one country’ did it….Whoever, like Trotsky, and later on Zinoviev and Kamenev, dwelt on the dangers to the revolution inherent in all those circumstances, offended the complacency of the party. Deutscher, Stalin, p. 289 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  21. 21. The central ‘ideological’ issue between them had been socialism in one country--the question whether the Soviet Union would or could achieve socialism in isolation, on the basis of national self - sufficiency, or whether socialism was conceivable only as an international order of society. The answer events have given [written in 1963] is far less clear-cut than were the theoretical arguments, but it comes much closer to Trotsky’s view than to Stalin’s. Long before the Soviet Union came anywhere near socialism, revolution had to spread to other countries. Deutscher, The Prophet Outcast, “Postscript: Victory in Defeat,” pp. 515-516 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  22. 22. Five Year Plans the Great Turn Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  23. 23. Five Year Plans the Great Turn FULFILLMENT OF THE PEOPLE’S DREAMS ! Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  24. 24. Director Cameraman and “Star” Mikhail Kaufman D z i g a V e r t o v FELLOW WITH K I APPARATUS N O Man with a Movie Camera (1929) Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  25. 25. 1929 was the year when the five year plan was announced so in every film or novel of this period you’ll find a sequence or two celebrating labor enthusiasm…’to stimulate the enthusiasm of the somewhat lazy population in a certain part of the vast Soviet Union’ Yuri Tsivirian, audio commentary DVD of Man with a Movie Camera Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  26. 26. In addition to laziness, the Nanny State had to combat alcoholism. Having seen the tribulations of America’s prohibition, the Soviets tried persuasion instead. With no more success. ALCOHOL Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  27. 27. By 1932 the industrial labor force grew from 10 million to 22 million. Urban population rose from 30 million to 60 million. A huge social transformation. Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  28. 28. wnHwith Do KITC EN Slavery! E Y OU GIV A NEW BEING Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  29. 29. Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  30. 30. “Wrecker” NEPman kulak trubka Stalina Stalin’s pipe Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  31. 31. “Wreckers” (()*+&#*%&-vrediteli ) Today it seems impossible that virtually every factory and railway line was being sabotaged by Trotskyite terrorists within their management, but Soviet industry was riddled with mistakes and cursed with thousands of accidents thanks to poor management and the breakneck speed of the Five-Year Plans….How could this happen in a perfect country? “Enemies” among the corrupt elite had surely caused the failures. The arrest of saboteurs and wreckers in the industrial factories and railways spread. Montefiore,Stalin; The Court of the Red Tsar, p. 211 • Stalin’s suspicion of the bourgeois “management specialists” led to their premature replacement by ill-trained proletarian managers • new “proletarians” on the floor, fresh from the rural village were often unskilled and dangerous. And the best among them had been “kicked upstairs” as managers • Stalin’s pre-1917 experiences in the world of Konspiratsia led him to be paranoid Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  33. 33. WE GAVE FOR THE BUILDING OF SOCIALISM IN 1931 Despite many of the targets being unbelievably high (a 250% increase in overall industrial development, with a 330% percent expansion in heavy industry), remarkable results were achieved: ■ Pig iron: 6.2 million tons (compared to 3.3 million tons in 1928, and a prescribed target of 8.0 million tons) ■ Steel: 5.9 million tons (compared to 4.0 million tons in 1928, and a prescribed target of 8.3 million tons) ■ Coal: 64.3 million tons (compared to 35.4 million tons in 1928, and a prescribed target of 68.0 million tons) ■ Oil: 21.4 million tons (compared to 11.7 million tons in 1928, and a prescribed target of 19.0 million tons) ■ Electricity: 13.4 billion kWh (compared to 5.0 billion kWh in 1928, and a prescribed target of 17.0 billion kWh) 8 MILLION TONS OF !"#!"$ Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  34. 34. MAP OF THE ELECTRIFICATION OF RUSSIA (According to the plan GOELRO) Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  35. 35. MAP OF THE ELECTRIFICATION OF RUSSIA (According to the plan GOELRO) Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  36. 36. MAP OF THE ELECTRIFICATION OF RUSSIA (According to the plan GOELRO) Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  37. 37. MAP OF THE ELECTRIFICATION OF RUSSIA (According to the plan GOELRO) DneproGES Dnieper Government Electric Station (under construction; 1930) Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  39. 39. Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  40. 40. Primitive Socialist Accumulation ...constitutes the most critical era in the life of the socialist state after the conclusion of civil war….To go through this period as rapidly as possible and to reach as soon as possible the stage at which the socialist system develops all its advantages vis a vis capitalism is for the socialist economy a matter of life and death. Preobrazhensky, The New Economics, quoted in Deutscher, The Prophet Unarmed, p. 349 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  41. 41. The ancient technique of competition to spur productivity was not invented in the USSR. But the Soviets certainly raised it to new heights. In the second pyatiletka (five year plan) the example of a Donbass coal miner would be held up as an example to all. Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  42. 42. Stakhanovism Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  43. 43. Stakhanovism Alexey Grigoryevich Stakhanov (Russian: Алексе́й Григо́рьевич Стаха́нов; 3 January 1906– 5 November 1977) was a miner in the Soviet Union, Hero of Socialist Labor (1970), and a member of the CPSU (1936). He became a celebrity in 1935 as part of a movement that was intended to increase worker productivity and demonstrate the superiority of the socialist economic system. Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  44. 44. Stakhanovism Alexey Grigoryevich Stakhanov (Russian: Алексе́й Григо́рьевич Стаха́нов; 3 January 1906– 5 November 1977) was a miner in the Soviet Union, Hero of Socialist Labor (1970), and a member of the CPSU (1936). He became a celebrity in 1935 as part of a movement that was intended to increase worker productivity and demonstrate the superiority of the socialist economic system. Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  45. 45. When the evil capitalist [with a Jewish nose(?) and top hat] is shown the FIVEYEAR PLAN in 1928, he responds scornfully: “fantasy,” “delirium,” “utopia”. Then we see his dismay when the reality of Soviet industrialization emerges. Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  46. 46. Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  47. 47. ,&)- & ./%/# serp i molot Stainless steel sculpture for the Paris World’s Fair 1937 by Vera Mukhina )$0/1&2 & 3/%4/5'&6$ rabochii i kolkhoznitsa Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  49. 49. [Stalin] seemed to live in a half-real and half-dreamy world of statistical figures and indices, of industrial orders and instructions, a world in which no target and no objective seemed to be beyond his and the party’s grasp. He coined the phrase that there were no fortresses which could not be conquered by the Bolsheviks, a phrase that was in the course of many years repeated by every writer and orator and displayed on every banner and poster in every corner of the country. Deutscher, pp. 321-322 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  50. 50. finally, National Security was at stake • 1927-Britain had ended diplomatic relations over Soviet and Comintern shenanigans • France continued to demand repayment of Russian Imperial bonds • Japan greedily eyed Russia’s Far Eastern possessions • although industrial development was proceeding, the gap between Soviet and West’s most advanced economies was growing Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  51. 51. Will the Capitalist Powers invade? • the gigantic Red sailor is looking down on Russia’s enemies • in 1919 the Kronstadt sailors had defended Skt Peterburg from the British Navy and the White forces of General Yudenich • the Entente politicians are greedily looking at a map of Russia again, threatening to intervene, as they had in 1919 We don’t forget 1919 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  52. 52. This cartoon from 1934 has been making its way around the internet. It compares FDR’s “hope and change” expansion of government to Stalin’s 5-year plans. Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  53. 53. Collectivization of Agriculture famine and genocide Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  54. 54. WE KEEP OUT Collectivization of Agriculture famine and genocide KULAKS FROM THE COLLECTIVES Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  55. 55. Stalin was acting craftily. He breathed not a word to Bukharin about the war on the countryside he was about to start. On arrival in Novosibirsk, he ordered arrests of ‘anti-Soviet’ kulaks. Grain procurement quotas were to be fulfilled. The campaign started to ‘expand the establishment’ of collective farms….As in 1918-20, Bolsheviks entered villages, summoned peasant gatherings and demanded immediate compliance at gunpoint. Stalin returned to Moscow on 6 February 1928 with wagons of grain seized from ‘hoarders.’ Service, pp. 257-258 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  56. 56. the dynamic owned livestock, kulaks 1.5-2 million larger land holdings, employed or loaned to other peasants also the target for middle peasants 15-18 million forced confiscation of “hoarded” grain still used the wooden plow, poor peasants 5-8 million pulled it themselves! had little land, near to starvation Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  57. 57. “What does kulak mean?”--J Stalin, in a scribbled note One peasant revealed how kulaks were selected: ‘Just between the three of us, the poor peasants of the village get together in a meeting and decide: “So and so had six horses….” They notify the GPU and there you are: so-and-so gets five years.’ During 1930-1931 about 1.68 million people were deported to the east and north. Within months, Stalin and Molotov’s plan had led to 2,200 rebellions involving more than 800,000 people. Montefiore, p. 46 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  58. 58. Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  59. 59. the origins of this brutal drive • underlying it was the classic conflict of farmers wanting higher prices for their produce versus cities and industry wanting cheap food • 1917 on--the breakup of larger farms to satisfy the peasants land hunger plus civil war and “the war against the village” had led to declining productivity, even after peace and the NEP • 1928--some of the richer farmers might have wanted to see the fall of the regime and more NEP-like capitalism, but that wasn’t the major factor behind the “grain withholding.” Most of the farms didn’t produce enough to meet their own demand for subsistence. • so the output fell a few million tons below what the cities needed and, once again, famine loomed • furthermore, if Russia were to industrialize, she must sell grain abroad to finance capital formation • by 1929, Stalin had either to press the farmers for more or disappoint the workers and managers of industry and risk the sort of food riots experienced in 1917 • his choice: forced collectivization Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  60. 60. Even in the spring of 1929….Stalin still maintained that ‘individual … farming would continue to play a predominant part in supplying the country with food and raw materials.’ A few months later, ‘all round’ collectivization was in full swing and individual farming was doomed. Before the year was out Stalin stated: ‘We have succeeded in turning the bulk of the peasantry...away from the old capitalist path of development.’ Deutscher, p. 319 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  61. 61. The kulaks, Stalin elaborated his point [in a speech he gave to the party’s rural agents in December 1929], must not only be expropriated; it was ridiculous to suggest, as some Bolsheviks did, that...they should be allowed to join collective farms. He did not tell his audience what should happen to the two million or so kulaks, who with their families may have numbered eight or ten million people, after they had been deprived of their property and barred from the collective farms. Deutscher, p. 324 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  62. 62. Famine in the Ukrainian countryside John Goto, “the Commissar of Space,” 1992/94 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  63. 63. Kulaks as “white coal” John Goto, “the Commissar of Space,” 1992/94 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  64. 64. White Sea canal, Alexander Rodchenko, 1933 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  65. 65. The White Sea to Baltic Canal Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  66. 66. Rodchenko harnessed photography to greatest effect in an issue of 'USSR in Construction' devoted to the White Sea Canal, trumpeted at home and abroad as a triumph of Soviet engineering and enlightened Soviet penal policies. The canal would be built by criminals and other social undesirables who would be rehabilitated through labour. Rodchenko travelled to the canal to take the photographs that would provide the raw material for this masterpiece of political propaganda…. But Rodchenko's virtuoso post-production conceals a grim truth. These determined-looking workers were mostly political prisoners and the White Sea Canal, a 140 mile long gulag. And far from being rehabilitated through their labour, 200,000 of them would die as a result of it, a reality that can still be glimpsed in the unsmiling faces of the untouched original. http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.bbc.co.uk/photography/genius/gallery/images/ rodchenko.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.bbc.co.uk/photography/genius/gallery/ Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  67. 67. Arbeit macht frei KANALOARMEETS! Agitprop poster used to motivate prison laborers during the construction. The writing on the poster says: 'Canal Army soldier! The heat of your work will melt your prison term!' Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  68. 68. GULAG "Glavnoe Upravlenie Ispravitelno-trudovykh Lagerej", or The Chief Directorate of Corrective Labor Camps BBLag= Belomorskoye-Baltiskoye Lager’ White Sea to Baltic Camp Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  69. 69. There was, indeed, a benevolent model for Ispravitelno-trud (corrective labor). Anton Makarenko, a young teacher, was concerned during the Civil War about the rise of orphans and juvenile delinquents who turned to crime because they faced starvation. He formed a collective called Gorky Colony in 1920. Here he combined work with traditional “book learning” to enable his students to survive. They “rehabed” abandoned buildings and grew their own food. The Pedagogical Poem he wrote describing the colony became a Soviet educational classic. He was then sponsored by the OGPU to create another such penal farm called Dzerzhinsky Commune (1927-1935). Of course, the GULAG was never such a benevolent project, despite the rhetoric. Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  71. 71. Here’s the pretty ON DE face of Stalin’s C’M RA drive for the C OM collectivization of agriculture E OL S IN IV CT EC U LE TH TO Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  72. 72. Feast at a Kolkhoz Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  73. 73. tractors slowly replace (slaughtered) horses 1,500,000 tractors are needed for the full collectivization of Soviet agriculture--Pravda 15 Jan 1930 (that figure would not be reached until 1956!) Zaporozhets 1923 the first Soviet-built tractor Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  74. 74. Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  75. 75. Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  77. 77. LITERACY Any peasant, collective farmer or individual peasant has now the capability to live in a human manner, if he only wants to work honestly, and not to be idle, not to wander and not to plunder collective farm goods. J Stalin Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  78. 78. Here’s its real face Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  79. 79. Here’s its real face Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  80. 80. Голодомор (holodomor, Russian & Ukrainian for death by hunger) Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  81. 81. Holodomor: tragedy or genocide? • political debate: • Ukraine-2006 the parliament passed by a narrow vote a resolution declaring it genocide • Russia-2008 “there was no evidence that the 1933 famine was an act of genocide against the Ukrainian people” • Israel-2008 echoing the Russian conclusion, the Israeli ambassador stated his country’s position • scholarly debate: • 1950s-Raphael Lemkin, who coined the word “genocide” put the charge “on the map” with his History of Genocide • 1986-Robert Conquest’s Harvest of Sorrow; the Terror-Famine furthers the charge • since then the traditional “to-and-fro” continues to this day, see Wiki for the details. Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  82. 82. 7-8 November 1932 celebrating the 15th anniversary of the October Revolution Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  83. 83. was she a casualty of the holodomor? • 8 November 1932-Stalin’s second wife shot herself the night of the celebration of the fifteenth anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution • she had mental and physical problems which predated the last few months • but Montefiore makes no effort to conceal how much he believes the tension generated by the terror famine put both Joseph and Nadya under pressure • although the party bosses continued to travel to their Black Sea dachas for vacations, their trains passed through appalling scenes of suffering in Ukraine • their private correspondence reflects both awareness and anxiety over the grim sights they saw and the reports of the Nadezhda Alliluevna Stalina death tolls 1901-1932 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  84. 84. Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  85. 85. Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  86. 86. Kirov’s Assassination the end of “the vegetarian years”--Anna Akhmatova Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  87. 87. Kirov’s Assassination the end of “the vegetarian years”--Anna Akhmatova Sergei Kirov with Josef and Svetlana Stalin, 1934 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  88. 88. “After Nadya’s tragic death Kirov was the closest person who managed to approach Joseph intimately and simply, to give him that missing warmth and cosiness”--Maria Svanidze Montefiore, p.112 • small, handsome, brown hair and eyes, pock marked • married without children, womanizer • workaholic, avid outdoorsman, enjoyed hunting and camping with his best friend Sergo, mountaineer • 1905-joined RSDLP (b) • 1917-established the Bolsheviks in North Caucasus, in the Civil War “swashbuckling commissar with Sergo and Mikoyan” • 1921-with Sergo, engineered the seizure of Georgia Sergei Kostrikov Kirov 1886-1934 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  89. 89. He had probably met Stalin in 1917 but got to know his patron in 1925….Kirov was a family favorite. Stalin inscribed a copy of his book On Lenin and Leninism: “To SM Kirov, my friend and beloved brother.” In 1926 Stalin removed Zinoviev from his Leningrad power base and promoted Kirov to take over Perer the Great’s capital, now the second largest Party in the State. He joined the Politburo in 1930. Montefiore, p. 113 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  90. 90. The Politburo after Kirov joined, 13 July 1930 the Khozyain Klim Iron Lazar Narkom for War supervised “collectivization” Sergo Narkom for Valya the “All Union Peasant Elder” my Kirich Heavy Industry Gosplan Chairman of Sovnarkom Leningrad boss Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  91. 91. Kirov, Boss of the Leningrad Party apparatus • 26 January 1934-The XVII Party Congress opens, the “Congress of Victors” to celebrate the end of the famine and the “success” of the First Pyatiletka (Five-Year Plan) • publicly, “Our Stalin” was hailed as never before, the indispensable leader • secretly, a cabal of disgruntled Old Bolsheviks met and talked about replacing him with Kirov • when approached by them, Kirov went to Stalin, condemned and disavowed them • but on the last day, when the Congress voted in reverse for the !", Stalin received a shock. Kirov received 1 or 2 “blackballs”; Kaganovich and Molotov, over 100 each; Stalin, 292! • over the next four years, 1,108 of the 1,966 delegates would be arrested. Few survived Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  92. 92. Stalin devised a plan to deal with Kirov’s dangerous eminence, proposing his recall from Leningrad to become one of the four Secretaries, thereby cleverly satisfying those who wanted him promoted to the Secretariat: on paper, a big promotion; in reality, this would bring him under Stalin’s observation, cutting him off from his Leningrad clientele...a promotion to the center was a mixed blessing...Kirov protested...vigorously….Kirov’s request to stay in Leningrad for another two years was supported by Sergo and Kuibyshev. Stalin petulantly stalked off in a huff. Sergo and Kuibyshev advised Kirov to compromise with Stalin: Kirov became Third Secretary but remained temporarily in Leningrad. Montefiore, p. 130 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  93. 93. the death of Kirov John Goto, “the Commissar of Space,” 1992/94 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  94. 94. the assassination • 1 December 1934- as he entered Smolny, Kirov’s NKVD bodyguard fell behind • Kirov was shot in the back of the neck by Leonid Nikolaev, a young Party activist • Stalin himself came to interrogate the killer, who was then sentenced and shot that night • Nikolaev’s wife and other figures who could give evidence also died or were executed • 104 jailed prisoners were also executed as part of a “fascist plot” linked to Kirov’s death Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  95. 95. Instantly the rumor spread that Stalin had connived in Kirov’s liquidation….In fact all the evidence is circumstantial and no proof has ever been found. What is undeniable is that Stalin had no compunction about drastic measures. He had not yet killed a close associate but the assassination of Kirov could have been the first such occasion; and even if he did not order the killing, it was he who most benefitted from it. Kirov’s death permitted him to treat the former oppositionists as he had implied he wanted to in his Central Committee report to the Seventeenth Party Congress. Service, p. 315 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  96. 96. The Show Trials “the meat-eating years” begin--Anna Akhmatova Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  97. 97. The Show Trials “the meat-eating years” begin--Anna Akhmatova Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  98. 98. the beginnings--The Shakhty Affair • January 1928-a coal mine in the Don Basin (Donbass) falls behind its quotas • Stalin orders publicized trials of the engineers and ‘industrial specialists’, including several foreigners • those arrested by Yagoda’s OGPU are beaten into confessing deliberate sabotage, being so-called ‘wreckers’ • Stalin resets the machinery of Soviet politics. Fear becomes widespread • no longer could managers, engineers or planners safely resist unreasonable demands--numbers had to be fudged, dangerous shortcuts, shoddy products, worker’s lives, whatever it took • quotas would be “met”; better, “over-exceeded” Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  99. 99. A succession of such trials occurred in 1929-30. These involved much political inventiveness with Stalin supplying the main momentum….the so-called Academy of Sciences Affair which led to the condemnation of the non-existent All-People’s Union for the Struggle for Russia’s Regeneration in July, 1929. The fictitious Industrial Party…. The Labouring Peasant Party, also non-existent….The so-called Union Bureau of the Mensheviks….Outside the RSFSR there were trials of nationalists….Torture, outlandish charges, and learned-by-rote confessions became the norm. Hundreds of defendants were either shot or sentenced to lengthy terms of imprisonment. Service, p. 268 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  100. 100. the Opposition • January 1928-after being expelled from the Party, Kamenev and Zinoviev repented publicly and were readmitted. Trotsky refused and was sent to internal exile at Alma Ata in Kazakstan • February 1929-Trotsky was exiled to Prinkipo, Turkey according to an agreement with Turkey’s strongman, Mustafa Kemal. Here he publishes Bulletin Oppozitsii • as the crisis around collectivization and the First Five-Year Plan developed, more and more of the Left/Trotskyite Opposition were sent to prison or the GULAG • Stalin used the “carrot” of amnesty to extract humiliating confessions from many of the weaker Opposition members. Trotsky scorned them as ‘capitulators’ • many justified their acceptance of Stalin’s pardon because his Great Turn away from Bukharin and the right wing meant that he now was following the Left’s Trotsky sailing into exile agenda Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  101. 101. the Blumkin Affair • born to a Jewish family, orphaned early in life, raised in Odessa • 1914-joined the Left SRs, became a Chekist after 1917 • 1918-assassinated German Ambassador Mirbach as part of the LeftSR revolt • continued to rise in the Cheka, GPU, OGPU • 1929-visited the exiled Trotsky, took a message from him to Karl Radek • became the first Party member to be executed Yakov Blumkin 1895-1929 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  102. 102. On 30 June [1934--five months before Kirov’s death] Adolf Hitler, newly elected Chancellor of Germany, slaughtered his enemies within the Nazi Party, in the Night of the Long Knives--an exploit that fascinated Stalin. “Did you hear what happened in Germany?” he asked Mikoyan. “Some fellow that Hitler! Splendid! That’s a deed of some skill!” Mikoyan was surprised that Stalin admired the German Fascist but the Bolsheviks were hardly strangers to slaughter themselves. Montefiore, p. 131 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  103. 103. CADRES RESOLVE ALL Another signification of the term “cadre” is the Party. Stalin in a speech in 1920 had made the analogy of the Bolshevik party’s relationship to the people as that of the General’s staff to the army. This poster makes clear who the General is. Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  104. 104. Stalinism and Trotskyism [were left] as the sole contenders for Bolshevik allegiance. But now, by a strangely parallel...development, these two factions were disintegrating, each in its own way, the Trotskyists through endless defections and the Stalinists through doubt and confusion in their own midst. And just as Stalinism, in victory, was being reduced to Stalin’s autocracy, so Trotskyism, in defeat, was becoming identified with Trotsky alone…. Even before the terror mounted to the climax of the great purges, the Trotskyists were unable to use the prisons and the places of exile as bases for political action in the way revolutionaries had used them in Tsarist times: their ideas did not reach the working class and intelligentsia….[Trotsky] had no choice but to substitute himself for the Opposition at large….His voice alone was the voice of the Opposition; and the immense silence of the whole of anti-Stalinist Russia was his sounding board. Thus, against Stalin, the sole trustee of Bolshevism in office, Trotsky stood alone as the proxy of Bolshevism in opposition. His name, like Stalin’s, became something of a myth… Deutscher, The Prophet Outcast, pp.123-124 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  105. 105. the first “Blockbuster” show trial; “The Trial of the Sixteen” August 1936 • Jan 1935-Kamenev & Zinoviev refused to confess to involvement in Kirov’s assassination • but faced with long prison terms, they “cracked” and pled “political and moral responsibility” for the act • Zinoviev received 10 years imprisonment, Kamenev, 5 • 20 Nov 1935-both were charged, along with Trotsky, with espionage on behalf of hostile foreign powers • 29 Jun 1936- discovery of “terrorist activities of the Trotskyist-Zinovievite block” led to the August show trials of the two broken men in Stalin’s hands. All were executed • Budyenny even suggested trying to kidnap Trotsky and bring him back for trial Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  106. 106. Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  107. 107. The Trial of Radek, Piatikov and Sokolnikov; “The trial of the seventeen” January, 1937 • Radek had led the German attempted revolution, served in the Comintern, accused of Trotskyism • spared the death penalty because he “snitched” (falsely) • sentenced to ten years in the GULAG, supposedly killed in a fight there, actually executed by the NKVD in 1939 • Piatikov, a Ukrainian,had headed a Donbass coal mine and was Deputy Director of Gosplan • charged with planning a German-sponsored coup, executed • Sokolnikov, former Finance head, “Trotskyist” • suffered Radek’s fate in the GULAG Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  109. 109. Bukharin’s Trial; “The Trial of the Twenty-one” March 1938 • the fact that Yagoda was one of the accused showed the speed at which the purges were consuming their own • it alleged that Bukharin and others had sought to assassinate Lenin and Stalin, poison Maxim Gorky, partition the Soviet Union and hand over territory to Germany, Japan and Great Britain, among other preposterous charges • even sympathetic observers who had stomached the earlier trials found it hard to swallow the new charges as they became ever more absurd • the purge had now expanded to include virtually every Old Bolshevik except Stalin • for some prominent former communists the Bukharin trial marked their final break with communism Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  111. 111. In 1937 Trotsky’s American admirers convinced John Dewey to head a legal inquiry into the fantastic Moscow trials for the purpose of vindicating him from the more and more fantastic charges. Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  112. 112. The Dewey Commission published its findings in the form of a 422-page book titled Not Guilty. Its conclusions asserted the innocence of all those condemned in the Moscow Trials. In its summary the commission wrote: "Independent of extrinsic evidence, the Commission finds: ■ That the conduct of the Moscow Trials was such as to convince any unprejudiced person that no attempt was made to ascertain the truth. ■ That while confessions are necessarily entitled to the most serious consideration, the confessions themselves contain such inherent improbabilities as to convince the Commission that they do not represent the truth, irrespective of any means used to obtain them. ■ That Trotsky never instructed any of the accused or witnesses in the Moscow trials to enter into agreements with foreign powers against the Soviet Union [and] that Trotsky never recommended, plotted, or attempted the restoration of capitalism in the USSR." The commission concluded: "We therefore find the Moscow Trials to be frame-ups." Wikipedia Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  113. 113. the Army purge; 22 May 1937- Sept 1938 • former aristocrat, Mikhail Tukachevsky, had had a spectacular career Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  114. 114. the Army purge; 22 May 1937- Sept 1938 • former aristocrat, Mikhail Tukachevsky, had had a spectacular career • 1935-hero of the Civil War, he rose to command the Red Army at the young age of 42 • sent to the West on diplomatic and military missions, some began calling him the Red Napoleon Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  115. 115. the Army purge; 22 May 1937- Sept 1938 • former aristocrat, Mikhail Tukachevsky, had had a spectacular career • 1935-hero of the Civil War, he rose to command the Red Army at the young age of 42 • sent to the West on diplomatic and military missions, some began calling him the Red Napoleon • 22 May 1937-he and seven other top generals were secretly arrested and charged with “right wing Trotskyist” conspiracies • convicted by a “confession” which bore stains of his own blood, he and the others were immediately and secretly shot, their convictions and crimes announced only afterwards to avoid a possible army revolt • September 1938- Narkom for Defense Voroshilov reported the dismissal of at the secret trial 37,761 officers and commissars, the arrest of 10,866, and the condemnation of 7,211 for anti-Soviet crimes Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  116. 116. Stalin’s possible motives • a “disinformation” by Heydrich’s Nazi counter-espionage apparatus? • did Tukachevsky and the others really conspire? Trotsky thought so • Stalin’s anti-Semitism. Half of the accused were Jews:Yakir, Primakov, Feldman and Gamarnik. • Stalin harbored long-standing resentments against Red Army commanders with heroic Civil War military records that Stalin, as a mediocre military tactician and war commissar, could never equal • the majority consensus today. Stalin had removed virtually every other possible threat to his power. Only that of a military coup remained. He was still paranoid. Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  117. 117. The Great Terror Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  118. 118. The Great Terror Seance (commemorating the death of Kasimir Malevich) John Goto, “the Commissar of Space,” 1992/94 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  119. 119. To the left: the perpetrators; to the right: the victims Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  120. 120. The French Reign of Terror vs Stalin’s Great Terror SIMILARITIES DIFFERENCES • shocking, brutal • the French Terror came soon after the Revolution began, 1789-1793 • designed for public effect • for almost 20 years the Bolsheviks refused to murder their comrades • “the Revolution devours its own” • the mystifying and absurd Stalinist • Robespierre and Stalin both “confessions” of the “guilty” defeated the left with help from the right, then turned on their former allies and defeated them • Robespierre’s Terror ended in one year with his own death • each was finally the triumphant leader of his faction, in sole possession of power Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  121. 121. The French Reign of Terror vs Stalin’s Great Terror SIMILARITIES DIFFERENCES • shocking, brutal • the French Terror came soon after the Revolution began, 1789-1793 • designed for public effect • for almost 20 years the Bolsheviks refused to murder their comrades • “the Revolution devours its own” • the mystifying and absurd Stalinist • Robespierre and Stalin both “confessions” of the “guilty” defeated the left with help from the right, then turned on their former allies and defeated them • Robespierre’s Terror ended in one year with his own death • each was finally the triumphant leader of his faction, in sole • Stalin died in bed, his regime was possession of power only slowly modified Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  122. 122. the instruments of oppression Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  123. 123. 1922: Cheka transforms into GPU (State Political Directorate), a department of the NKVD (Peopleʼs Commissariat for Internal Affairs) of the Russian SFSR. 1923: GPU leaves the NKVD and becomes all-union OGPU under direct control of the Sovnarkom of the USSR. ■ OGPU - "Joint State Political Directorate" ■ Genrikh Yagoda 1934 - 1936 ■ Nikolai Yezhov 1936 - 1938 ■ Lavrenty Beria 1938 - 1945 1941: The GUGB of the NKVD was briefly separated out into the NKGB, then merged back in, and then in 1943 separated out again. ■ NKGB - "People's Commissariat for State Security" 1946: All People's Commissariats were renamed to Ministries. ■ MGB - "Ministry for State Security" (The East German secret police, the Stasi, took their name from this iteration). 1947: Official decision with the expressed purpose of "upgrading coordination of different intelligence services and concentrating their efforts on major directions". In the summer of 1948 the military personnel in KI were returned to the Soviet military to reconstitute foreign military intelligence service (GRU). KI sections dealing with the new East Bloc and Soviet emigres were returned to the MGB in late 1948. In 1951 the KI returned to the MGB. 1953: MVD and MGB are merged into the MVD by Lavrenty Beria. ■ MVD - "Ministry of Internal Affairs" ■ Lavrenty Beria March, 1953 - June, 1953 1954: Newly independent force became the KGB, as Beria was purged and the MVD divested itself again of the functions of secret policing. After renamings and tumults, the KGB remained stable until 1991. ■ KGB - Committee for State Security ■ In Russia today, KGB functions are performed by the SVR (Foreign Intelligence Service) and the FSB (Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation). The GRU, Main Intelligence Directorate, continues to operate as well. Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  124. 124. ■ Genrikh Yagoda 1934 - 1936 ■ Nikolai Yezhov 1936 - 1938 ■ Lavrenty Beria 1938 - 1945 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  125. 125. “...a taste for French wines and sex toys” --Montefiore • real first name Enoch, son of a jeweler • 1907-joined RSDLP (b) • “devious, short, balding, always in full uniform” • 1929-swapped sides from Bukharin and the Rightists to Stalin • his huge dacha bloomed with “2,000 orchids and roses,” spent almost 4 million rubles decorating • his great accomplishment was the creation by Genrikh Yagoda slave labor of the vast economic empire of the Russian: Генрих Григорьевич Ягода Gulags 1891-1938 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  126. 126. “Blackberry” (yezhevika)--the bloody dwarf (4’11”) • “born to a forest warden, who ran a tearoom-cum-brothel, and a maid in a small Lithuanian town” • after a few years in primary school he went to Petersburg’s Putilov Works • “obsessive autodidact, ‘Kolya the book lover’ “ • drive, hardness, organizational talent and an excellent memory, popular, ladies’ man • 1933-headed the !" Personnel Department, helped his patron, Kaganovich, purge the Party • humor “oafishly puerile,” bread balls, farting contests Nikolai Yezhov Russian: Николай Иванович Ежов • 1936-presided over the Kamenev-Zinoviev trial prep 1895-1940 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  127. 127. “our Himmler”--Stalin • “...brandished the exotic flattery, sexual appetites and elaborate cruelty of a Byzantine courtier in his rise to dominate first the Caucasus, then Stalin’s circle and finally the USSR itself.”--Montefiore • trained as an architect at the Baku Polytechnik • Chekist, double agent during the Civil War • 1926-Sergo, his Caucasian boss, introduced him to Stalin • athletic, coldly competent, fawning, had a genius for cultivating patrons (but ill-stared Nadya hated him) Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beria Georgian: , Lavrenti Pavles dze Beria • 1938-Deputy head of the NKVD under Yezhov, carried Russian: Лаврентий Павлович Берия out the Great Purge 1899-1953 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  128. 128. GULAG (Glavnoye Upravlyeniye Ispravityel'no-Trudovih Lagyeryey i koloniy) of the NKVD (Chief Administration of the Corrective Work Camps and Colonies) Entering the Gulag--Eufrosinia Kersnovskaya --the courtesy note should be displayed stating that this reproduction of the Eufrosinia Kersnovskaya work was made available by the courtesy of Kersnovskaya foundation Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  129. 129. Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  130. 130. Camp guards Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  131. 131. Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  132. 132. Kalinin Khrushchev Kaganovich Mikoyan Yezhov Stalin Molotov In 1937, at the height of the Great Terror, two young magnates join the leadership: Yezhov, now NKVD boss...and his friend Nikita Khrushchev, newly appointed Moscow boss….Stalin trusted the ruthless bumpkin Khrushchev, who later described himself as the Leader’s “pet.” He idolized Stalin. Montefiore Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  133. 133. Montefiore Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  134. 134. Uzhasnii Dom Horrible House The House on the Embankment Home to the Second Tier of the Party Elite Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  135. 135. the Commissar vanishes A famous technique of this period is the doctored photograph. When “Blackberry’s” turn came to be dispatched to the “Meatgrinder,” voila! Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  136. 136. the Commissar vanishes A famous technique of this period is the doctored photograph. When “Blackberry’s” turn came to be dispatched to the “Meatgrinder,” voila! Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  137. 137. people “scratched out” Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  138. 138. Industrialization and collectivization had thrown society into the maelstrom of hunger, migration and the Gulag. Service, p. 312 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  139. 139. The situation brought out the worst in him. In fact he had plenty of badness in him to be brought out long before he held despotic power. To explain is not to excuse: Stalin was as wicked a man as has ever lived. His was a mind that found terror on a grand scale deeply congenial. When he had an opportunity to implement his ideas, he acted with a barbaric determination with few parallels in world history. Service, p. 345 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  140. 140. Altogether, it would seem that a rough total of one and a half million people were seized by the NKVD in 1937-8. Only around two hundred thousand were eventually released….The impression got around--or was allowed to get around--that Stalin used nearly all of the arrestees as forced labourers in the Gulag. In fact the NKVD was under instructions to deliver about half of its victims not to the new camps in Siberia or north Russia but to the execution pits outside most cities. Roughly three quarters of a million persons perished under a hail of bullets in that brief period of two years. Service, p. 356 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  141. 141. Epilog Trotsky’s end 21 August 1940 Tuesday, March 30, 2010
  142. 142. cover of the original 1949 edition Tuesday, March 30, 2010