Ancient Greece; Part 2; session iv-- Hellenism

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The last session on Ancient Greece. The culture of the Greek successor states until the rise of Rome, approximately the beginning of the Common Era.

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Ancient Greece; Part 2; session iv-- Hellenism

  1. 1. ANCIENT GREECE viii-Hellenism
  2. 2. ANCIENT GREECE viii-Hellenism Pergamon Altar, Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  3. 3. PRINCIPAL TOPICS I. The Hellenistic World II. Hellenization III. Hellenistic Culture IV. Art V. Religion and Philosophy VI. Science
  4. 4. This [session] is...about a second generation, the trials of their migration, whom they met and what they said and, above all, what they did with their inheritance. The first generation was that of the Hellenes, the Greeks from Homer to Aristotle; the second generation had no name. Some of them were Greeks, but more were Macedonians, Romans, Syrians, Jews and Egyptians. They all had their own styles, born in some cases, of long and glittering traditions. But they fell, all of them, under the spell of the Hellenes and so became a second generation, condemned or blessed to reap where their spiritual fathers had sown. (continued) F. E. Peters, The Harvest of Hellenism, p. 18
  5. 5. The harvest has been gathered for centuries. We are part of it and can number our own generations across a familiar landscape back to the Romans and then to the Age of Pericles. It is an attractive and generally satisfying genealogical narrative, passing in review most of the monuments of our culture. The history of Hellenism appears to be identical with the spiritual history of the West. Ibid.
  6. 6. I. THE HELLENISTIC WORLD
  7. 7. I. THE HELLENISTIC WORLD
  8. 8. Within the boundaries established by the conquests of Alexander there were dramatic cultural changes as Hellenization spread thousands of miles over the whole of the Middle East. This process used to be seen through rose- tinted spectacles as the innocent gift of civilization to the benighted barbarians; after all the British were doing precisely the same thing in their empire. No doubt the Greeks themselves saw matters in this way. But our own post-colonial age is more aware that culture is imminently bound up with politics: we can see that Greek culture dominated other, ancient cultures, and that this process of Hellenization was in part a product of the power of kings. The creation of new Greek cities was fundamental to the process of Hellenization. Boardman et al. Greece and the Hellenistic World. p. 315
  9. 9. Alexander himself was reported to have founded over seventy cities (the actual figure may have been half that), while the Selucids created over sixty new settlements in the area from western Turkey to Iran. Some of these ‘new’ cities were in fact old settlements with a new, dynastic name and a Greek constitution. Ibid.
  10. 10. After Alexander the Great conquered the Near East in 334 BCE, the existing settlement [Baalbek] was named Heliopolis (Ἡλιούπολις) The city retained its religious function during Greco-Roman times, when the sanctuary of Jupiter-Baal was a pilgrimage site. ! Wikipedia
  11. 11. After Alexander the Great conquered the Near East in 334 BCE, the existing settlement [Baalbek] was named Heliopolis (Ἡλιούπολις) The city retained its religious function during Greco-Roman times, when the sanctuary of Jupiter-Baal was a pilgrimage site. ! Wikipedia
  12. 12. After Alexander the Great conquered the Near East in 334 BCE, the existing settlement [Baalbek] was named Heliopolis (Ἡλιούπολις) The city retained its religious function during Greco-Roman times, when the sanctuary of Jupiter-Baal was a pilgrimage site. ! Wikipedia
  13. 13. The extreme license of the Heliopolitan worship of Aphrodite was often commented upon by early Christian writers, who competed with one another to execrate her worship. Eusebius of Caesarea [263-339 AD] averred that 'men and women vie with one another to honour their shameless goddess; husbands and fathers let their wives and daughters publicly prostitute themselves to please Astarte'. Constantine [272-337 AD], making an effort to curb the Venus cult, built a basilica in Heliopolis. Theodosius I [347-395 AD] erected another. The vast stone blocks of its walls were taken from the temple. Today nothing of the Theodosian basilica remains. ! Wikipedia
  14. 14. While ultimate power resided with the kings, the Greek cities under their aegis retained all the trappings of polis democracy: defensive walls, an agora that served as both market and political forum, a council and assembly a theater, and a gymnasium. As countless inscriptions reveal, they were excellently run, encouraged civic pride, and cooperated one with another when not, as so often, fighting. More widespread than they ever had been in the classical era, they constituted a powerful, if in ways paradoxical, manifestation of what it meant to be a Greek in this new age. ! Green, The Hellenistic Age, p. 48 “...A CURIOUS CIVIC HYBRID.
  15. 15. Alexander himself was reported to have founded over seventy cities (the actual figure may have been half that), while the Selucids created over sixty new settlements in the area from western Turkey to Iran. Some of these ‘new’ cities were in fact old settlements with a new, dynastic name and a Greek constitution. Others were in areas previously not highly urbanized. For example, the second Selucid king founded a new city...naming it Antioch after himself... Boardman et al. Greece and the Hellenistic World. p. 315
  16. 16. Alexander himself was reported to have founded over seventy cities (the actual figure may have been half that), while the Selucids created over sixty new settlements in the area from western Turkey to Iran. Some of these ‘new’ cities were in fact old settlements with a new, dynastic name and a Greek constitution. Others were in areas previously not highly urbanized. For example, the second Selucid king founded a new city...naming it Antioch after himself... Boardman et al. Greece and the Hellenistic World. p. 315
  17. 17. Seleucus I Nicator won the territory of Syria, and he proceeded to found four "sister cities" in northwestern Syria, one of which was Antioch. Like the other three, Antioch was named by Seleucus for a member of his family. Seleucus founded Antioch on a site chosen through ritual means. An eagle, the bird of Zeus, had been given a piece of sacrificial meat and the city was founded on the site to which the eagle carried the offering. He did this in the twelfth year of his reign. Antioch soon rose...to become the Syrian capital. The original city of Seleucus was laid out in imitation of the grid plan of Alexandria. The citadel was on Mt. Silpius and the city lay mainly on the low ground to the north, fringing the river. Two great colonnaded streets intersected in the centre. Shortly afterwards a second quarter was laid out by Antiochus I, which appears to have been the native, as contrasted with the Greek, town. It was enclosed by a wall of its own. Wikipedia
  18. 18. Seleucus I Nicator won the territory of Syria, and he proceeded to found four "sister cities" in northwestern Syria, one of which was Antioch. Like the other three, Antioch was named by Seleucus for a member of his family. Seleucus founded Antioch on a site chosen through ritual means. An eagle, the bird of Zeus, had been given a piece of sacrificial meat and the city was founded on the site to which the eagle carried the offering. He did this in the twelfth year of his reign. Antioch soon rose...to become the Syrian capital. The original city of Seleucus was laid out in imitation of the grid plan of Alexandria. The citadel was on Mt. Silpius and the city lay mainly on the low ground to the north, fringing the river. Two great colonnaded streets intersected in the centre. Shortly afterwards a second quarter was laid out by Antiochus I, which appears to have been the native, as contrasted with the Greek, town. It was enclosed by a wall of its own. Wikipedia AERIAL VIEW OF ANTIOCH ON THE ORONTES. It shows the typical gridiron plan of the Selucid foundations, with five avenues running south-west to north-east and at least twenty streets running cross-wise. Ibid.
  19. 19. In the Orontes, north of the city, lay a large island, and on this Seleucus II began a third walled "city," which was finished by Antiochus III. A fourth and last quarter was added by Antiochus IV Epiphanes (175-164 BC); and thenceforth Antioch was known as Tetrapolis. From west to east the whole was about 6 km in diameter, this area including many large gardens. The new city was populated by a mix of local settlers:Athenians brought from the nearby city of Antigonia, Macedonians, and Jews (who were given full status from the beginning). The total free population of Antioch at its foundation has been estimated at between 17,000 and 25,000, not including slaves and native settlers. During the late Hellenistic period and Early Roman period, Antioch population reached its peak of over 500,000 inhabitants and was the third largest city in the world after Rome and Alexandria. About 6 km west and beyond the suburb Heraclea lay the paradise of Daphne, a park of woods and waters, in the midst of which rose a great temple to the Pythian Apollo, also founded by Seleucus I and enriched with a cult-statue of the god, by Bryaxis. Wikipedia
  20. 20. In the Orontes, north of the city, lay a large island, and on this Seleucus II began a third walled "city," which was finished by Antiochus III. A fourth and last quarter was added by Antiochus IV Epiphanes (175-164 BC); and thenceforth Antioch was known as Tetrapolis. From west to east the whole was about 6 km in diameter, this area including many large gardens. The new city was populated by a mix of local settlers:Athenians brought from the nearby city of Antigonia, Macedonians, and Jews (who were given full status from the beginning). The total free population of Antioch at its foundation has been estimated at between 17,000 and 25,000, not including slaves and native settlers. During the late Hellenistic period and Early Roman period, Antioch population reached its peak of over 500,000 inhabitants and was the third largest city in the world after Rome and Alexandria. About 6 km west and beyond the suburb Heraclea lay the paradise of Daphne, a park of woods and waters, in the midst of which rose a great temple to the Pythian Apollo, also founded by Seleucus I and enriched with a cult-statue of the god, by Bryaxis. Wikipedia Daphne near Antioch, Copperplate print by Abraham Ortelius, Antwerpen, early 17th century
  21. 21. The Attalid kingdom was the rump state left after the collapse of the Kingdom of Thrace. The Attalids, the descendants of Attalus, father of Philetaerus who came to power in 281 BC, were among the most loyal supporters of Rome in the Hellenistic world. Under Attalus I (241-197 BC), they allied with Rome against Philip V of Macedon, during the first and second Macedonian Wars, and again under Eumenes II (197-158 BC), against Perseus of Macedon, during the Third Macedonian War. For support against the Seleucids, the Attalids were rewarded with all the former Seleucid domains in Asia Minor. The Attalids ruled with intelligence and generosity. Many documents survive showing how the Attalids would support the growth of towns through sending in skilled artisans and by remitting taxes. They allowed the Greek cities in their domains to maintain nominal independence. They sent gifts to Greek cultural sites like Delphi, Delos, and Athens. They defeated the invading Celts. They remodeled the Acropolis of Pergamon after the Acropolis in Athens. According to Christian teaching and tradition, Pergamum is where Satan dwells, where his throne is, and the first bishop of Pergamon, Antipas, was martyred there in ca. 92 AD. (Revelation 2:13) ! Wikipedia
  22. 22. The Attalid kingdom was the rump state left after the collapse of the Kingdom of Thrace. The Attalids, the descendants of Attalus, father of Philetaerus who came to power in 281 BC, were among the most loyal supporters of Rome in the Hellenistic world. Under Attalus I (241-197 BC), they allied with Rome against Philip V of Macedon, during the first and second Macedonian Wars, and again under Eumenes II (197-158 BC), against Perseus of Macedon, during the Third Macedonian War. For support against the Seleucids, the Attalids were rewarded with all the former Seleucid domains in Asia Minor. The Attalids ruled with intelligence and generosity. Many documents survive showing how the Attalids would support the growth of towns through sending in skilled artisans and by remitting taxes. They allowed the Greek cities in their domains to maintain nominal independence. They sent gifts to Greek cultural sites like Delphi, Delos, and Athens. They defeated the invading Celts. They remodeled the Acropolis of Pergamon after the Acropolis in Athens. According to Christian teaching and tradition, Pergamum is where Satan dwells, where his throne is, and the first bishop of Pergamon, Antipas, was martyred there in ca. 92 AD. (Revelation 2:13) ! Wikipedia
  23. 23. The Great Altar of Pergamon is in the Pergamon Museum, Berlin. The base of this altar remains on the upper part of the Acropolis. It was perhaps this altar, believed to be dedicated to Zeus, that John of Patmos referred to as "Satan's Throne" in his Book of Revelation. Other notable structures still in existence on the upper part of the Acropolis include: ■ The Hellenistic Theater with a seating capacity of 10,000. This had the steepest seating of any known theater in the ancient world. ! Wikipedia
  24. 24. The new settlements varied enormously in size and status. First, there were the military colonies founded by the Selucids in various parts of their kingdom, from western Turkey to Kurdistan. These settlements might be small, with only a few hundred men, and they had few autonomous institutions and little independence from the king….Secondly, there were the new, independent cities with populations of several thousands, ranging up to Alexandria, a great cultural centre, which in the first century BC was reckoned to be the largest city in the (Mediterranean) world. Boardman, op. cit. p. 316
  25. 25. ALEXANDRIA
  26. 26. In a struggle with the other successors of Alexander, his general, Ptolemy (later Ptolemy I of Egypt) succeeded in bringing Alexander's body to Alexandria. Alexander's tomb became a famous tourist destination for ancient travelers (including Julius Caesar). Inheriting the trade of ruined Tyre [remember Alexander’s seven month siege!] and becoming the center of the new commerce between Europe and the Arabian and Indian East, the city grew in less than a generation to be larger than Carthage. In a century, Alexandria had become the largest city in the world and for some centuries more, was second only to Rome. It became the main Greek city of Egypt, with an extraordinary mix of Greeks from many cities and backgrounds. Alexandria was not only a center of Hellenism but was also home to the largest Jewish community in the world. The Septuagint, a Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible (the Torah and other writings), was produced there. The early Ptolemies kept order and fostered the development of the museum into the leading Hellenistic centre of learning (Library of Alexandria) but were careful to maintain the distinction of its population's three largest ethnicities: Greek, Jewish, and Egyptian. Wikipedia
  27. 27. THE LIBRARY Text According to the earliest source of information the library was initially organized by Demetrius of Phaleron, a student of Aristotle, under the reign of Ptolemy I. Built in the Royal Quarter in the style of Aristotle's Lyceum, adjacent to and in service of the Musaeum (a Greek Temple or "House of Muses", hence the term "museum"), the library comprised a Peripatos walk, gardens, a room for shared dining, a reading room, lecture halls and meeting rooms. However, the exact layout is not known. The influence of this model may still be seen today in the layout of university campuses. Wikipedia
  28. 28. 19 July 1799--Discovery of the Rosetta Stone, 35 miles east of Alexandria
  29. 29. 19 July 1799--Discovery of the Rosetta Stone, 35 miles east of Alexandria
  30. 30. 19 July 1799--Discovery of the Rosetta Stone, 35 miles east of Alexandria
  31. 31. 19 July 1799--Discovery of the Rosetta Stone, 35 miles east of Alexandria
  32. 32. 19 July 1799--Discovery of the Rosetta Stone, 35 miles east of Alexandria
  33. 33. 19 July 1799--Discovery of the Rosetta Stone, 35 miles east of Alexandria
  34. 34. 19 July 1799--Discovery of the Rosetta Stone, 35 miles east of Alexandria
  35. 35. 19 July 1799--Discovery of the Rosetta Stone, 35 miles east of Alexandria
  36. 36. 19 July 1799--Discovery of the Rosetta Stone, 35 miles east of Alexandria
  37. 37. After Alexander the horizons of the Greek world extended as far as India. Even Alexander had been surprised by the size of it all: he wondered if the Caspian Sea was the outer ocean of the world, and in India he began by thinking that the Indus River ran cosily round into Egypt’s Nile. The new horizons were not altogether lost on those whom the Greeks bordered. Around 260 BC the Indian king Asoka dispatched an edict for inscription around his realm which referred to the ‘world my children’. ["All men are my children. I am like a father to them. As every father desires the good and the happiness of his children, I wish that all men should be happy always." --Wikipedia] It listed exactly the Hellenistic kings from his Asian border through Egypt and Macedon to Cyrene in North Africa. A copy stood in Greek near the Greek and Macedonian settlement at Kandahar. Robin Lane Fox, “Hellenistic Culture,” in Boardman et al. Greece and the Hellenistic World, p. 332
  38. 38. After Alexander the horizons of the Greek world extended as far as India. Even Alexander had been surprised by the size of it all: he wondered if the Caspian Sea was the outer ocean of the world, and in India he began by thinking that the Indus River ran cosily round into Egypt’s Nile. The new horizons were not altogether lost on those whom the Greeks bordered. Around 260 BC the Indian king Asoka dispatched an edict for inscription around his realm which referred to the ‘world my children’. ["All men are my children. I am like a father to them. As every father desires the good and the happiness of his children, I wish that all men should be happy always." --Wikipedia] It listed exactly the Hellenistic kings from his Asian border through Egypt and Macedon to Cyrene in North Africa. A copy stood in Greek near the Greek and Macedonian settlement at Kandahar. Robin Lane Fox, “Hellenistic Culture,” in Boardman et al. Greece and the Hellenistic World, p. 332
  39. 39. After Alexander the horizons of the Greek world extended as far as India. Even Alexander had been surprised by the size of it all: he wondered if the Caspian Sea was the outer ocean of the world, and in India he began by thinking that the Indus River ran cosily round into Egypt’s Nile. The new horizons were not altogether lost on those whom the Greeks bordered. Around 260 BC the Indian king Asoka dispatched an edict for inscription around his realm which referred to the ‘world my children’. ["All men are my children. I am like a father to them. As every father desires the good and the happiness of his children, I wish that all men should be happy always." --Wikipedia] It listed exactly the Hellenistic kings from his Asian border through Egypt and Macedon to Cyrene in North Africa. A copy stood in Greek near the Greek and Macedonian settlement at Kandahar. Robin Lane Fox, “Hellenistic Culture,” in Boardman et al. Greece and the Hellenistic World, p. 332
  40. 40. After Alexander the horizons of the Greek world extended as far as India. Even Alexander had been surprised by the size of it all: he wondered if the Caspian Sea was the outer ocean of the world, and in India he began by thinking that the Indus River ran cosily round into Egypt’s Nile. The new horizons were not altogether lost on those whom the Greeks bordered. Around 260 BC the Indian king Asoka dispatched an edict for inscription around his realm which referred to the ‘world my children’. ["All men are my children. I am like a father to them. As every father desires the good and the happiness of his children, I wish that all men should be happy always." --Wikipedia] It listed exactly the Hellenistic kings from his Asian border through Egypt and Macedon to Cyrene in North Africa. A copy stood in Greek near the Greek and Macedonian settlement at Kandahar. Robin Lane Fox, “Hellenistic Culture,” in Boardman et al. Greece and the Hellenistic World, p. 332
  41. 41. II. HELLENIZATION
  42. 42. So-called Ludovisi Gaul and his wife, or “The Galatian Suicide.” Marble, Roman copy after an Hellenistic original from a monument built by Attalus I of Pergamon after his victory over Gauls, ca. 220 BC
  43. 43. A DEFINITION Hellenization is a term used to describe the spread of ancient Greek culture, and, to a lesser extent, language, over foreign peoples conquered by Greece or in its sphere of influence. It is mainly used to describe the spread of Hellenistic civilization during the Hellenistic period... The result of Hellenization was that elements of Greek origin combined in various forms and degrees with local elements. Wikipedia
  44. 44. Hellenization during the Hellenistic period, however, had its limitations. Case in point, areas of southern Syria that were affected by Greek culture mostly entailed Seleucid urban centers where Greek was commonly spoken. The countryside, on the other hand, was largely unaffected since most of its inhabitants spoke Syriac and continued to maintain their native traditions. Moreover, Hellenization did not necessarily involve assimilation of non-Greek ethnic groups since Hellenistic Greeks in regions such as Asia Minor were conscious of their ancestral lineages. [That is, the Greek elites maintained a sort of apartheid over the natives whom they had conquered.] Wikipedia
  45. 45. The culture of [the] cities was strongly Greek. At the most obvious level there developed a new Greek language, the koinē or common language, which transcended the divisions of the old Greek dialects (Dorian, Ionic, and so on). [It also has a simpler grammatical structure than the classical literature]. Boardman loc.sit.
  46. 46. 1 Παῦλος(ἀπ+στολος,(οὐκ(ἀπ1(ἀνθρ5πων(οὐδὲ(δι1(ἀνθρ5που(ἀλλὰ(διὰ(Ἰησοῦ(Χριστοῦ( καὶ(θεοῦ(πατρὸς(τοῦ(ἐγεDραντος(αὐτὸν(ἐκ(νεκρῶν,(2 καὶ(οἱ(σὺν(ἐIοὶ(πJντες(ἀδελφοD,( ταῖς(ἐκκλησ&αις(τῆς(ΓαλατDας:(3 χJρις(ὑIῖν(καὶ(εἰρTνη(ἀπὸ(θεοῦ(πατρὸς(ἡIῶν(καὶ( κυρDου(Ἰησοῦ(Χριστοῦ,
  47. 47. 1 Παῦλος(ἀπ+στολος,(οὐκ(ἀπ1(ἀνθρ5πων(οὐδὲ(δι1(ἀνθρ5που(ἀλλὰ(διὰ(Ἰησοῦ(Χριστοῦ( καὶ(θεοῦ(πατρὸς(τοῦ(ἐγεDραντος(αὐτὸν(ἐκ(νεκρῶν,(2 καὶ(οἱ(σὺν(ἐIοὶ(πJντες(ἀδελφοD,( ταῖς(ἐκκλησ&αις(τῆς(ΓαλατDας:(3 χJρις(ὑIῖν(καὶ(εἰρTνη(ἀπὸ(θεοῦ(πατρὸς(ἡIῶν(καὶ( κυρDου(Ἰησοῦ(Χριστοῦ, 1 Paul the apostle (not from men or through men, but from Jesus Christ and God the Father who raised him from the dead) 2 and all the brothers who are with me, to the assembly [ekklēsiais] of the Galatians: 3 Grace to you and peace from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.
  48. 48. 1 Παῦλος(ἀπ+στολος,(οὐκ(ἀπ1(ἀνθρ5πων(οὐδὲ(δι1(ἀνθρ5που(ἀλλὰ(διὰ(Ἰησοῦ(Χριστοῦ( καὶ(θεοῦ(πατρὸς(τοῦ(ἐγεDραντος(αὐτὸν(ἐκ(νεκρῶν,(2 καὶ(οἱ(σὺν(ἐIοὶ(πJντες(ἀδελφοD,( ταῖς(ἐκκλησ&αις(τῆς(ΓαλατDας:(3 χJρις(ὑIῖν(καὶ(εἰρTνη(ἀπὸ(θεοῦ(πατρὸς(ἡIῶν(καὶ( κυρDου(Ἰησοῦ(Χριστοῦ, 1 Paul the apostle (not from men or through men, but from Jesus Christ and God the Father who raised him from the dead) 2 and all the brothers who are with me, to the assembly [ekklēsiais] of the Galatians: 3 Grace to you and peace from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. The assembly [church] of the Galatians in central Asia Minor are the Christianized descendants of the companions of that dying Gaul and his wife whose statue illustrated the title of this section.
  49. 49. 1 Παῦλος(ἀπ+στολος,(οὐκ(ἀπ1(ἀνθρ5πων(οὐδὲ(δι1(ἀνθρ5που(ἀλλὰ(διὰ(Ἰησοῦ(Χριστοῦ( καὶ(θεοῦ(πατρὸς(τοῦ(ἐγεDραντος(αὐτὸν(ἐκ(νεκρῶν,(2 καὶ(οἱ(σὺν(ἐIοὶ(πJντες(ἀδελφοD,( ταῖς(ἐκκλησ&αις(τῆς(ΓαλατDας:(3 χJρις(ὑIῖν(καὶ(εἰρTνη(ἀπὸ(θεοῦ(πατρὸς(ἡIῶν(καὶ( κυρDου(Ἰησοῦ(Χριστοῦ, 1 Paul the apostle (not from men or through men, but from Jesus Christ and God the Father who raised him from the dead) 2 and all the brothers who are with me, to the assembly [ekklēsiais] of the Galatians: 3 Grace to you and peace from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. The assembly [church] of the Galatians in central Asia Minor are the Christianized descendants of the companions of that dying Gaul and his wife whose statue illustrated the title of this section.
  50. 50. 1 Παῦλος(ἀπ+στολος,(οὐκ(ἀπ1(ἀνθρ5πων(οὐδὲ(δι1(ἀνθρ5που(ἀλλὰ(διὰ(Ἰησοῦ(Χριστοῦ( καὶ(θεοῦ(πατρὸς(τοῦ(ἐγεDραντος(αὐτὸν(ἐκ(νεκρῶν,(2 καὶ(οἱ(σὺν(ἐIοὶ(πJντες(ἀδελφοD,( ταῖς(ἐκκλησ&αις(τῆς(ΓαλατDας:(3 χJρις(ὑIῖν(καὶ(εἰρTνη(ἀπὸ(θεοῦ(πατρὸς(ἡIῶν(καὶ( κυρDου(Ἰησοῦ(Χριστοῦ, 1 Paul the apostle (not from men or through men, but from Jesus Christ and God the Father who raised him from the dead) 2 and all the brothers who are with me, to the assembly [ekklēsiais] of the Galatians: 3 Grace to you and peace from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. The assembly [church] of the Galatians in central Asia Minor are the Christianized descendants of the companions of that dying Gaul and his wife whose statue illustrated the title of this section.
  51. 51. 1 Παῦλος(ἀπ+στολος,(οὐκ(ἀπ1(ἀνθρ5πων(οὐδὲ(δι1(ἀνθρ5που(ἀλλὰ(διὰ(Ἰησοῦ(Χριστοῦ( καὶ(θεοῦ(πατρὸς(τοῦ(ἐγεDραντος(αὐτὸν(ἐκ(νεκρῶν,(2 καὶ(οἱ(σὺν(ἐIοὶ(πJντες(ἀδελφοD,( ταῖς(ἐκκλησ&αις(τῆς(ΓαλατDας:(3 χJρις(ὑIῖν(καὶ(εἰρTνη(ἀπὸ(θεοῦ(πατρὸς(ἡIῶν(καὶ( κυρDου(Ἰησοῦ(Χριστοῦ, 1 Paul the apostle (not from men or through men, but from Jesus Christ and God the Father who raised him from the dead) 2 and all the brothers who are with me, to the assembly [ekklēsiais] of the Galatians: 3 Grace to you and peace from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. The assembly [church] of the Galatians in central Asia Minor are the Christianized descendants of the companions of that dying Gaul and his wife whose statue illustrated the title of this section.
  52. 52. 1 Παῦλος(ἀπ+στολος,(οὐκ(ἀπ1(ἀνθρ5πων(οὐδὲ(δι1(ἀνθρ5που(ἀλλὰ(διὰ(Ἰησοῦ(Χριστοῦ( καὶ(θεοῦ(πατρὸς(τοῦ(ἐγεDραντος(αὐτὸν(ἐκ(νεκρῶν,(2 καὶ(οἱ(σὺν(ἐIοὶ(πJντες(ἀδελφοD,( ταῖς(ἐκκλησ&αις(τῆς(ΓαλατDας:(3 χJρις(ὑIῖν(καὶ(εἰρTνη(ἀπὸ(θεοῦ(πατρὸς(ἡIῶν(καὶ( κυρDου(Ἰησοῦ(Χριστοῦ, 1 Paul the apostle (not from men or through men, but from Jesus Christ and God the Father who raised him from the dead) 2 and all the brothers who are with me, to the assembly [ekklēsiais] of the Galatians: 3 Grace to you and peace from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. The assembly [church] of the Galatians in central Asia Minor are the Christianized descendants of the companions of that dying Gaul and his wife whose statue illustrated the title of this section. Paul’s letters, written in koinē Greek, are the treasured basis of today’s ἐκκλησ&α((church)
  53. 53. THE PHARONIC CORPORATION Ptolemy I Soter found Egypt a sound if sluggish giant. The land was rich and there was a kind of primitive efficiency in the manner in which it was controlled. At the head of the state was the divine Pharaoh. He ruled Egypt as his own property, a personal monopoly governed in his name by an army of bureaucrats and a second army of priests, both of which rested on the broad base of the peasantry, who tilled the soil and paid the taxes and rents. It was the way Egypt had been ruled for centuries, a method sanctioned both by immemorial tradition and unmistakable success. No one had ever succeeded in radically altering the system. (continued) Peters, Harvest, p. 165
  54. 54. Ptolemy I and his successors merely grafted a new class between the body and the head. The Ptolemies ruled as somewhat newfangled Pharaohs, but to do their bidding they had a new class of Hellenes---Greek and Macedonian---to govern the state, fight its battles, enhance its commercial life, and add that intellectual panache for which Egypt became famous during the Hellenistic age. Ibid.
  55. 55. III. HELLENISTIC CULTURE
  56. 56. Jewel for hair 3rd century BC Athens Museum
  57. 57. son of well-to-do Athenian parents, founder of the New Comedy enjoyed the patronage of dictator Demetrius of Phalerum. Won many prizes for his plays declined invitation to Alexandria by Ptolemy I. He preferred to remain at his villa at Peiraeus of his more than 100 plays only one survives in its entirety he was widely copied by Roman playwrights such as Terrance many of his wittiest one-liners were required memorization in the schools, thus have come down Menander Μένανδρος, Menandros ca. 342–291 Roman copy of the Imperial era after a Greek original
  58. 58. THE NEW COMEDY Attic comedy in the days of Aristophanes (c. 446-c. 386) was, like the oratory of Demosthenes, a form of political communication. Even during the latter years of Aristophanes that had ceased to be true, and by the time of Menander politics was an alien ingredient in comedy. The New Comedian wrote with ease and elegance; the turns of phrase were facile and eminently quotable, but they proceeded from a corpus that was almost dead. In antiquity Menander was frequently praised for his realism, and his characters do bear a strong resemblance to the types that walked the streets of Athens at the end of the fourth century. Indeed they are those types, detailed with the archetypal features that graced his friend Theophrastus’ Characters. Both...are faultlessly lifelike, but they are not alive. (continued)
  59. 59. Menander was popular with a Hellenistic readership that was cut off from political comment and solaced itself with situation comedy played by the familiar types of middle-class life in Athens, soldiers slaves, courtesans, and ingénues. The plots are complex, if highly predictable; the action is amorous, though never erotic. New Comedy is Euripides vulgarized... Style had not yet deserted the Athenian spirit, but it was increasingly a style without artistic substance. Menander died in B.C. 292 and by that date Athens had already begun her decline from a political power to a university town. Peters, Harvest of Hellenism, pp. 117-118
  60. 60. THE SCHOOLS In an earlier day Athens’ propagandists could claim that the city was the “school of Greek culture.” At the turn into the third century that statement was more literally true than when it was first uttered [by Pericles in 430]. There were still poets and dramatists at Athens---none of them the equal of the earlier giants---as well as the errant street Cynics spawned by Socrates. But from the time that Plato turned from the Socratic tradition and founded his Academy in B.C. 387, the intellectual life of the city, and through it the whole oikoumene, was dominated by the great schools of philosophy. It was their methods and interests, particularly Aristotle’s Lyceum, that provided models for the new centers of Hellenism at Alexandria, Antioch, Pergamum and eventually Rome. Peters, p. 106
  61. 61. THE LYCEUM Some of the men working in the Lyceum at Aristotle’s death in B.C.322 went back to the old days with Plato...Theophrastus, Aristotle’s successor in the Lyceum, had been a fellow student with Aristotle at the Academy. Others were Aristotle’s own students: Eudemus of Rhodes, Aristoxenus of Tarentum, and Dicaearchus of Messene. Finally, there were the younger men trained by Theophrastus: Cassander’s future governor, Demetrius of Phalerum, Strato of Lampsacus... Ibid.
  62. 62. THE LYCEUM Some of the men working in the Lyceum at Aristotle’s death in B.C.322 went back to the old days with Plato...Theophrastus, Aristotle’s successor in the Lyceum, had been a fellow student with Aristotle at the Academy. Others were Aristotle’s own students: Eudemus of Rhodes, Aristoxenus of Tarentum, and Dicaearchus of Messene. Finally, there were the younger men trained by Theophrastus: Cassander’s future governor, Demetrius of Phalerum, Strato of Lampsacus... Ibid.
  63. 63. THE ARISTOTELIAN METHOD detailed analytical studies based on as wide a sampling of material as possible, whether in politics, in literature or in botany an interest in ethical questions and character typology already noted in connection with the lives of Alexander and later to have an important influence on biography the pursuit of historical antecedents In general these scholars remained faithful to the patterns of research set out by Aristotle: op. cit., pp. 106-107
  64. 64. IV. ART
  65. 65. IV. ART Mosaic emblema with doves. Roman copy after Sosos of Pergamon original from the 2nd century BC. From the Villa Adriana, 1737
  66. 66. Aphrodite of Milos (Greek: Ἀφροδίτη τῆς Μήλου, Aphroditē tēs Mēlou), better known as the Venus de Milo, one of the most famous works of ancient Greek sculpture. It is a marble sculpture, slightly larger than life size. Its arms and original plinth have been lost. From an inscription that was on its plinth, it is thought to be the work of Alexandros of Antioch. It is currently on display at the Louvre. Wikipedia
  67. 67. The statue of Laocoön and His Sons is a monumental sculpture in marble now in the Vatican Museums. The statue is attributed by the Roman author Pliny the Elder to three sculptors from the island of Rhodes. It shows the Trojan priest Laocoön and his sons being strangled by sea serpents.
  68. 68. The Winged Victory of Samothrace, also called the Nike of Samothrace, is a 2nd century BC marble sculpture of the Greek goddess Nike (Victory). Since 1884, it has been prominently displayed at the Louvre and is one of the most celebrated sculptures in the world. The Nike of Samothrace, discovered in 1863, is estimated to have been created around 190 BC. It was created to not only honor the goddess, Nike, but to honor a sea battle. It conveys a sense of action and triumph as well as portraying artful flowing drapery through its features which the Greeks considered ideal beauty. Modern excavations suggest that the Victory occupied a niche in an open-air theater and also suggest it accompanied an altar that was within view of the ship monument of Demetrius I Poliorcetes (337–283 BC). Rendered in white Parian marble, the figure originally formed part of the Samothrace temple complex dedicated to the Great gods, Megaloi Theoi.
  69. 69. THE SEVEN WONDERS I have set eyes on the wall of lofty Babylon on which is a road for chariots, and the statue of Zeus by the Alpheus [at Olympia], and the hanging gardens, and the Colossus of the Sun, and the huge labour of the high pyramids, and the vast tomb of Mausolus; but when I saw the house of Artemis that mounted to the clouds, those other marvels lost their brilliancy, and I said, 'Lo, apart from Olympus, the Sun never looked on aught so grand.' Greek Anthology, 140 BC
  70. 70. “Great is Diana of the Ephesians!” Acts 19, 28
  71. 71. “Great is Diana of the Ephesians!” Acts 19, 28
  72. 72. “Great is Diana of the Ephesians!” Acts 19, 28
  73. 73. The "Croesus" Temple [the second temple to Diana built on this site] was destroyed on July 21, 356 BC, probably very soon after its completion, in a vainglorious act of arson: one Herostratus set fire to the roof-beams, seeking fame at any cost. ! ! ! The Ephesians, outraged, sentenced Herostratus to death and forbade anyone from mentioning his name, under pain of death. However, Theopompus later noted the name. The burning supposedly coincided with the birth of Alexander the Great; Plutarch remarked that Artemis was too preoccupied with Alexander's delivery to save her burning temple. Wikipedia A man was found to plan the burning of the temple of Ephesian Diana so that through the destruction of this most beautiful building his name might be spread through the whole world.
  74. 74. The Ephesians tactfully refused Alexander's offer to pay for the temple's rebuilding, and eventually rebuilt it after his death, at their own expense. Work started in 323 BC and continued for many years. The third temple was larger than the second; 450' long by 225' wide and 60 feet high, with more than 127 columns. Literary sources describe the temple's adornment by paintings, gilded columns of gold and silver, and religious works of renowned Greek sculptors. Wikipedia
  75. 75. THE PHAROS The Lighthouse of Alexandria ( ὁ Φάρος Ἀλεξανδρινóς), was a tower built between 280 and 247  BC on the island of Pharos. Its purpose was to guide sailors into the port of Alexandria. With a height variously estimated at somewhere between 393 and 450 ft., it was for many centuries among the tallest man-made structures on Earth. It was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Wikipedia
  76. 76. The Colossus of Rhodes, erected by Chares of Lindos between 292 and 280 BC.• ! I t w a s c o n s t r u c t e d t o celebrate Rhodes' victory over Antigonus One-Eye, whose son unsuccessfully besieged Rhodes in 305 BC. • ! Before its destruction, the Colossus stood over 30 meters (107  ft) high, making it one of the tallest statues of the ancient world.
  77. 77. The Colossus of Rhodes, erected by Chares of Lindos between 292 and 280 BC.• ! I t w a s c o n s t r u c t e d t o celebrate Rhodes' victory over Antigonus One-Eye, whose son unsuccessfully besieged Rhodes in 305 BC. • ! Before its destruction, the Colossus stood over 30 meters (107  ft) high, making it one of the tallest statues of the ancient world.
  78. 78. The Colossus of Rhodes, erected by Chares of Lindos between 292 and 280 BC.• ! I t w a s c o n s t r u c t e d t o celebrate Rhodes' victory over Antigonus One-Eye, whose son unsuccessfully besieged Rhodes in 305 BC. • ! Before its destruction, the Colossus stood over 30 meters (107  ft) high, making it one of the tallest statues of the ancient world.
  79. 79. The Colossus of Rhodes, erected by Chares of Lindos between 292 and 280 BC.• ! I t w a s c o n s t r u c t e d t o celebrate Rhodes' victory over Antigonus One-Eye, whose son unsuccessfully besieged Rhodes in 305 BC. • ! Before its destruction, the Colossus stood over 30 meters (107  ft) high, making it one of the tallest statues of the ancient world.
  80. 80. The Colossus of Rhodes, erected by Chares of Lindos between 292 and 280 BC.• ! I t w a s c o n s t r u c t e d t o celebrate Rhodes' victory over Antigonus One-Eye, whose son unsuccessfully besieged Rhodes in 305 BC. • ! Before its destruction, the Colossus stood over 30 meters (107  ft) high, making it one of the tallest statues of the ancient world.
  81. 81. Those three are the Greek Hellenistic “wonders”. We already noted the other two Classical Greek ones: the statue of Zeus at Olympia which continued to inspire sculptors and painters down to the Lincoln Memorial, and the Mausoleum, copied in downtown Cincinnati and elsewhere. The remaining two non-Greek “wonders are the “Hanging Gardens of Babylon” [part of Saddam Hussein’s restoration project] and the Great Pyramid of Giza, the only one to survive relatively intact.
  82. 82. V. RELIGION AND PHILOSOPHY
  83. 83. Ἐγ,-εἰ0ι-ὁ-ποι0ὴν-ὁ-καλ6ς- egō$eimi$ho$poimēn$ho$kalos$ “I am the good shepherd,” Jn 10: 11
  84. 84. Hellenistic religion amalgamated the many religions of the Cosmopolis. This practice predated the period. The earliest Greek myths had borrowed concepts from the older Mesopotamian and Egyptian beliefs. So Alexander could be hailed at Siwa as the son of Ammon/Zeus. But with Alexander’s creation of the first “global ecumene” (historian Wm MacNeill’s term) the extent of borrowing and mixing increased dramatically. An interesting hypothesis about the timing of the birth of Christianity suggests that this moment in the history of humankind was especially propitious for bringing the Word into the world because the Greek language (St Paul’s medium) had become so widespread throughout the Mediterranean and Middle Eastern worlds. jbp SYNCRETISM (ΣΥΝΚΡΗΤΙΣΜΟΣ)
  85. 85. Hellenistic religion is any of the various systems of beliefs and practices of the people who lived under the influence of ancient Greek culture during the Hellenistic period and the Roman Empire (c. 300 BCE to 300 CE). There was much continuity in Hellenistic religion: the Greek gods continued to be worshiped, and the same rites were practiced as before. Change came from the addition of new religions from other countries, such as including the Egyptian god(esse)s of Isis and Serapis, and the Syrian gods of Atargatis and of Hadad, which provided a new outlet for people seeking fulfillment in both the present life and the afterlife. The worship of Hellenistic rulers was also a feature of this period, most notably in Egypt, where the Ptolemies adopted earlier pharaonic practice, and established themselves as god-kings. Elsewhere rulers might receive divine status without the full status of a god. Magic was practiced widely, and these too, were a continuation from earlier times. Throughout the Hellenistic world, people would consult oracles, and use charms and figurines to deter misfortune or to cast spells. Also developed in this era was the complex system of astrology, which sought to determine a person's character and future in the movements of the sun, moon, and planets. The systems of Hellenistic philosophy, such as Stoicism and Epicureanism, offered an alternative to traditional religion, even if their impact was largely limited to the educated elite. Wikipedia
  86. 86. Hellenistic religion is any of the various systems of beliefs and practices of the people who lived under the influence of ancient Greek culture during the Hellenistic period and the Roman Empire (c. 300 BCE to 300 CE). There was much continuity in Hellenistic religion: the Greek gods continued to be worshiped, and the same rites were practiced as before. Change came from the addition of new religions from other countries, such as including the Egyptian god(esse)s of Isis and Serapis, and the Syrian gods of Atargatis and of Hadad, which provided a new outlet for people seeking fulfillment in both the present life and the afterlife. The worship of Hellenistic rulers was also a feature of this period, most notably in Egypt, where the Ptolemies adopted earlier pharaonic practice, and established themselves as god-kings. Elsewhere rulers might receive divine status without the full status of a god. Magic was practiced widely, and these too, were a continuation from earlier times. Throughout the Hellenistic world, people would consult oracles, and use charms and figurines to deter misfortune or to cast spells. Also developed in this era was the complex system of astrology, which sought to determine a person's character and future in the movements of the sun, moon, and planets. The systems of Hellenistic philosophy, such as Stoicism and Epicureanism, offered an alternative to traditional religion, even if their impact was largely limited to the educated elite. Wikipedia
  87. 87. Hellenistic religion is any of the various systems of beliefs and practices of the people who lived under the influence of ancient Greek culture during the Hellenistic period and the Roman Empire (c. 300 BCE to 300 CE). There was much continuity in Hellenistic religion: the Greek gods continued to be worshiped, and the same rites were practiced as before. Change came from the addition of new religions from other countries, such as including the Egyptian god(esse)s of Isis and Serapis, and the Syrian gods of Atargatis and of Hadad, which provided a new outlet for people seeking fulfillment in both the present life and the afterlife. The worship of Hellenistic rulers was also a feature of this period, most notably in Egypt, where the Ptolemies adopted earlier pharaonic practice, and established themselves as god-kings. Elsewhere rulers might receive divine status without the full status of a god. Magic was practiced widely, and these too, were a continuation from earlier times. Throughout the Hellenistic world, people would consult oracles, and use charms and figurines to deter misfortune or to cast spells. Also developed in this era was the complex system of astrology, which sought to determine a person's character and future in the movements of the sun, moon, and planets. The systems of Hellenistic philosophy, such as Stoicism and Epicureanism, offered an alternative to traditional religion, even if their impact was largely limited to the educated elite. Wikipedia
  88. 88. ee-set becomes Isis in Greek when the ancient Egyptian cult becomes a Hellenistic staple Plutarch, a Greek scholar (46 CE-120 CE) wrote Isis and Osiris: “a goddess exceptionally wise and a lover of wisdom...the statue of Athena in Sais, whom they believe to be Isis “I am all that has been, and is, and shall be…” “Queen of Heaven” reintroduction of the Magna Mater Isis Ἶσις!!2nd century Roman statue
  89. 89. a Graeco-Egyptian god. Serapis was devised during the 3rd century BC on the orders of Ptolemy I of Egypt as a means to unify the Greeks and Egyptians in his realm depicted as Greek in appearance, but with Egyptian trappings, and combined iconography from a great many cults, signifying both abundance and resurrection Serapis Σέραπις !statuette from Afghanistan
  90. 90. a Graeco-Egyptian god. Serapis was devised during the 3rd century BC on the orders of Ptolemy I of Egypt as a means to unify the Greeks and Egyptians in his realm depicted as Greek in appearance, but with Egyptian trappings, and combined iconography from a great many cults, signifying both abundance and resurrection the Ptolemaic kings also built a splendid Serapeum in Alexandria Serapis Σέραπις !statuette from Afghanistan
  91. 91. a Graeco-Egyptian god. Serapis was devised during the 3rd century BC on the orders of Ptolemy I of Egypt as a means to unify the Greeks and Egyptians in his realm depicted as Greek in appearance, but with Egyptian trappings, and combined iconography from a great many cults, signifying both abundance and resurrection the Ptolemaic kings also built a splendid Serapeum in Alexandria 389 AD-the destruction of the Serapeum by a mob led by the Patriarch Theophilus of Alexandria is one of the key events in the downfall of ancient paganism Serapis Σέραπις !statuette from Afghanistan
  92. 92. HELLENISTIC JUDAISM ...a movement which existed in the Jewish diaspora [“scattering,” Gk.] that sought to establish a Hebraic-Jewish religious tradition within the culture and language of Hellenism. The major literary product of the contact of Judaism and Hellenistic culture is the Septuagint translation from Biblical Hebrew and Biblical Aramaic to Koine Greek, which began in the 3rd century BCE in Alexandria. The decline of Hellenistic Judaism in the 2nd century CE is obscure. It may be that it was marginalized by, absorbed into or became Early Christianity. Wikipedia
  93. 93. RAPHIA
  94. 94. SELUCID VS PTOLEMID The Battle of Raphia was a battle fought on 22 June 217 BC between the forces of Ptolemy IV Philopator, king of Egypt and Antiochus III the Great of the Seleucid kingdom during the Syrian Wars. It was one of the largest battles of the Hellenistic kingdoms of the Diadochi and was waged to determine the sovereignty of Syria and Judaea. Wikipedia
  95. 95. SELUCID VS PTOLEMID
  96. 96. SELUCID VS PTOLEMID
  97. 97. Antiochus IV Epiphanes Ἀντίοχος Ἐπιφανής (God Manifest) c. 215 BC – 164 BC
  98. 98. ruled the Seleucid Empire from 175 BC until his death Antiochus IV Epiphanes Ἀντίοχος Ἐπιφανής (God Manifest) c. 215 BC – 164 BC
  99. 99. ruled the Seleucid Empire from 175 BC until his death a son of King Antiochus III the Great Notable events during the reign of Antiochus IV include his near-conquest of Egypt and the rebellion of the Jewish Maccabees The First and Second Book of Macabees painted the Maccabean Revolt as a national resistance of a foreign political and cultural oppression. Modern scholars argue that the king was intervening in a civil war between the traditionalist Jews in the country and the Hellenized Jews in Jerusalem his often eccentric behavior and capricious actions led some of his contemporaries to call him Epimanes ("The Mad One"), a word play on his title Epiphanes. Antiochus IV Epiphanes Ἀντίοχος Ἐπιφανής (God Manifest) c. 215 BC – 164 BC
  100. 100. In 168 BC Antiochus led a second attack on Egypt and also sent a fleet to capture Cyprus. Before reaching Alexandria, his path was blocked by a single, old Roman ambassador named Gaius Popillius Laenas, who delivered a message from the Roman Senate directing Antiochus to withdraw his armies from Egypt and Cyprus, or consider themselves in a state of war with the Roman Republic. Antiochus said he would discuss it with his council, whereupon the Roman envoy drew a line in the sand around him and said, "Before you cross this circle I want you to give me a reply for the Roman Senate" – implying that Rome would declare war if the King stepped out of the circle without committing to leave Egypt immediately. Weighing his options, Antiochus decided to withdraw. Only then did Popillius agree to shake hands with him. This “Day of Elusis” [the village on the outskirts of Alexandria where this meeting took place] ended the Sixth Syrian War and Antiochus' hopes of conquering Egyptian territory. ! Wikipedia, articles on “Antiochus iv” and “Syrian Wars” DRAWING A LINE IN THE SAND
  101. 101. THE 1 MACCABEES When Epiphanes became ruler, the High Priest in Jerusalem was Onias III. To Antiochus, the High Priest was merely a local governor within his realm, who could be appointed or dismissed at will, while to orthodox Jews he was divinely appointed. Jason, the brother of Onias, bribed Antiochus to make him High Priest instead. Jason abolished the traditional theocracy and constituted Jerusalem as a Greek polis. Menelaus then bribed Antiochus and was appointed High Priest in place of Jason. Menelaus had Onias assassinated. Menelaus' brother Lysimachus stole holy vessels from the Temple, causing riots that led to his death. Menelaus was arrested for Onias' murder, and was arraigned before Antiochus, but he bribed his way out of trouble. Jason subsequently drove out Menelaus and became High Priest again. Antiochus pillaged the Temple, attacked Jerusalem and "led captive the women and children". Wikipedia
  102. 102. THE 1 MACCABEES When Epiphanes became ruler, the High Priest in Jerusalem was Onias III. To Antiochus, the High Priest was merely a local governor within his realm, who could be appointed or dismissed at will, while to orthodox Jews he was divinely appointed. Jason, the brother of Onias, bribed Antiochus to make him High Priest instead. Jason abolished the traditional theocracy and constituted Jerusalem as a Greek polis. Menelaus then bribed Antiochus and was appointed High Priest in place of Jason. Menelaus had Onias assassinated. Menelaus' brother Lysimachus stole holy vessels from the Temple, causing riots that led to his death. Menelaus was arrested for Onias' murder, and was arraigned before Antiochus, but he bribed his way out of trouble. Jason subsequently drove out Menelaus and became High Priest again. Antiochus pillaged the Temple, attacked Jerusalem and "led captive the women and children". Wikipedia
  103. 103. He made possession of the Torah a capital offense and burned the copies he could find He banned many traditional Jewish religious practices: Jewish sacrifice was forbidden, sabbaths and feasts were banned Circumcision was outlawed, and mothers who circumcised their babies were killed along with their families Altars to Greek gods were set up and animals prohibited to Jews were sacrificed on them. The idol of Olympian Zeus was placed on the altar of the Temple [the “abomination of desolation” (tohu wa bohu--Hebrew)--jbp]. From this point onwards, Antiochus pursued a zealous Hellenizing policy: The motives of Antiochus are unclear. He may have been incensed at the overthrow of his appointee, Menelaus, or he may have been responding to an orthodox Jewish revolt that drew on the Temple and the Torah for its strength and was encouraged by a group of radical Hellenizers among the Jews. Wikipedia
  104. 104. Atargatis[ (in Aramaic ‘Atar‘atah), was a Syrian deity, " great goddess of northern Syria","the great mistress of the North Syrian lands,” commonly known to the ancient Greeks by a shortened form of the name, Aphrodite primarily she was a goddess of fertility, but, as the baalat (“mistress”) of her city and people, she was also responsible for their protection and well-being popularly described as the mermaid-goddess, from her fish-bodied appearance at Ascalon and in Diodorus Siculus doves and fish were considered sacred by her, doves as an emblem of the Love- Goddess, and fish as symbolic of the fertility and life of the waters ATARGATIS
  105. 105. Coin of Demetrius III. Obv: Diademed head of Demetrius III. Rev: Figure of Atargatis, veiled, holding flower, barley stalks at each shoulder. Greek legend ΒΑΣΙΛΕGΣ ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ ΘΕΟΥ ΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ ΣGΤΗΡΟΣ "King Demetrius, God, Father-loving and Saviour".
  106. 106. Demetrius III (died 88 BC), called Eucaerus was a ruler of the Seleucid kingdom, the son of Antiochus VIII Grypus and his wife Tryphaena. By the assistance of Ptolemy IX Lathyros, king of Egypt, he recovered part of his father's Syrian dominions ca 95 BC, and held his court at Damascus, from where he tried to enlarge his dominions. To the south he defeated the Maccabean king Alexander Jannaeus in battle, but the hostility of the Jewish population forced him to withdraw. While attempting to dethrone his brother, Philip I Philadelphus, he was defeated by the Arabs and the Parthian Empire, and taken prisoner. He was kept in confinement in Parthia by Mithridates II until his death in 88.
  107. 107. a northwest Semitic storm and rain god, cognate in name and origin with the Akkadian god Adad Hadad was often called simply Ba‘al (Lord), but this title was also used for other gods The bull was the symbolic animal of Hadad. He appeared as a bearded deity, often shown as holding a club and thunderbolt while wearing bull horned headdress Hadad was equated with the Anatolian storm-god Teshub; the Egyptian god Osiris; the Greek god Zeus; and the Roman god Jupiter the lord of the sky who governs the rain and thus the germination of plants with the power of his desire that they be fertile. He is the protector of life and growth to the agricultural people of the region Baal Hadad 15th-13th century BC. Found at the acropolis in Ras Shamra (ancient city of Ugarit)
  108. 108. The supremacy of the [Egyptian] royal family over all levels of society was symbolized by the institution of an official cult of the living ruler and his ancestors. Monarchs encouraged belief in their own divinity as a way of legitimizing their use of absolute power, while subjects enjoyed participating in ruler cults as a means of demonstrating patriotism, loyalty and gratitude. In recognition of their belief in monotheism and of their support of the regime, only the [Egyptian] Jews were formally excused from these observances. Ptolemy II used both sculpture and coinage to announce the apotheosis [ Gk. word meaning becoming divine] of members of his family. In ruler cults [a practice deriving from Alexander] men generally represented themselves as Dionysus or Heracles, while females were portrayed as Aphrodite. Through syncretism, however, they were often equated with Osiris and Isis and considered to be actual incarnations of the divinities. Pomeroy, et al., pp. 483-484
  109. 109. a Greek NeoPythagorean philosopher from the town of Tyana in the Roman province of Cappadocia in Asia Minor Apollonius of Tyana Ἀπολλώνιος ὁ Τυανεύς; ca. 15?–ca. 100? CE
  110. 110. a Greek NeoPythagorean philosopher from the town of Tyana in the Roman province of Cappadocia in Asia Minor Apollonius of Tyana Ἀπολλώνιος ὁ Τυανεύς; ca. 15?–ca. 100? CE
  111. 111. a Greek NeoPythagorean philosopher from the town of Tyana in the Roman province of Cappadocia in Asia Minor “...appears to have been a wandering ascetic/philosopher/ wonderworker of a type common to the eastern part of the early empire. “Philostratus describes Apollonius as a wandering teacher of philosophy and miracle worker who was mainly active in Greece and Asia Minor but also traveled to Italy, Spain and North Africa and even to Mesopotamia, India, and Ethiopia. “[he also] implies that upon his death, he underwent heavenly assumption. “...Being a 1st-century orator and philosopher around the time of Christ, he was compared with Jesus of Nazareth by Christians Apollonius of Tyana Ἀπολλώνιος ὁ Τυανεύς; ca. 15?–ca. 100? CE Wikipedia
  112. 112. a Jewish wandering ascetic/philosopher/wonderworker of a type common to the eastern part of the early empire. c. 49-66(?) Saul of Tarsus, the last and “least” (or greatest?) of the Apostles wrote the earliest surviving descriptions of his life. He also implies that upon his death, he underwent heavenly assumption “Most modern historians agree that Jesus existed and was a Jewish teacher from Galilee in Roman Judaea, who was baptized by John the Baptist, and was crucified in Jerusalem on the orders of the Roman Prefect, Pontius Pilate. “Scholars have offered competing descriptions and portraits of Jesus, which at times share a number of overlapping attributes, such as a rabbi, a charismatic healer, the leader of an apocalyptic movement, a self-described Messiah, a sage and philosopher, or a social reformer who preached of the "Kingdom of God" [η βασελεια του θεου] as a means for personal and egalitarian social transformation.” Jesus Ἰησοῦς 7–2 BC/BCE to 30–36 AD/CE Wikipedia
  113. 113. “...in scholarly circles over the past hundred years, researchers have been looking at Western textual or historical evidence for who Jesus was and what he said. In some extreme viewpoints, the factual evidence of Jesus was considered a myth and was presumed to have no reality outside the text. In others, presuppositions about the nature of early Christianity prejudiced the opinions of scholars about which strands of text were the oldest and so the most historically accurate. In addition, since the primary Western and Orthodox church texts were in Greek, scholars saw no point in looking at Aramaic or Hebrew versions. To do so would have underlined Jesus’ Jewishness. Most often, scholars interpreted Jesus according to Greek or Hellenistic influences of his time [emphasis added], rather than Middle Eastern ones. The “historical Jesus” emerged as a multitude of conflicting figures, varying according to the disposition of the scholar and the facts she or he selected. Neil Douglas-Klotz, The Hidden Gospel, pp. 2-3
  114. 114. c. 49-66(?) Saul of Tarsus, the last and greatest of the Apostles wrote the earliest surviving descriptions of Jesus’ life. He also implies that upon his death, he underwent heavenly assumption Paul Παυλος c. 5-67 AD
  115. 115. c. 49-66(?) Saul of Tarsus, the last and greatest of the Apostles wrote the earliest surviving descriptions of Jesus’ life. He also implies that upon his death, he underwent heavenly assumption Paul Παυλος c. 5-67 AD Tarsus
  116. 116. c. 49-66(?) Saul of Tarsus, the last and greatest of the Apostles wrote the earliest surviving descriptions of Jesus’ life. He also implies that upon his death, he underwent heavenly assumption “of the stock of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, an Hebrew of the Hebrews; as touching the law, a Pharisee.” Phil. 3:5 although definitely not a Hellenized Jew, Saul/Paul wrote in koine Greek and styled himself apostle (αποστολος) to the Gentiles, i.e., the Hellenized world outside of Judaism many modern theologians criticize him as first of the Hellenizing Patres Graeces (Greek Fathers) who injected Platonic, Persian dualist, and other alien concepts into the teachings of Jesus ironically, that is just what modern missionaries are taught to do! Address the prospects with ideas which match their culture Paul Παυλος c. 5-67 AD Wikipedia
  117. 117. Facial composite of Saint Paul; created by experts of the Landeskriminalamt of North Rhine-Westphalia using historical sources, proposed by Düsseldorf historian Michael Hesemann ! Wikipedia
  118. 118. Some have suggested that this Greek-speaking Jew, rather than Jesus, rather than Saint Peter, is the true founder of Christianity. A lively debate on this topic is available on the web. Just Google: Saint Paul founder of Christianity. See also the Wiki article “Pauline Christianity”.
  119. 119. ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Regardless of the polemic (πολεµος) over who is the founder, Paul’s conversion, journeys and epistles postdate the “birthday of the Church” -- the most enduring of the Hellenistic religions
  120. 120. Πεντηκοστή [ἡµέρα], Pentēkostē [hēmera], "the Fiftieth [day] ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Wikipedia Western depiction of the Pentecost, painted by Jean Restout, 1732
  121. 121. JESUS AND BUDDHA ! ! ! The Christian tradition [originally created by Hellenistic theologians saturated in Greek philosophy--jbp] became so concerned with making Jesus into its God and making sure everybody believed that Jesus was God that it often ignored his very practical and clear teachings. (How many of us love our enemies?) Instead, we made the questions theological and metaphysical ones about the nature of God (which asked almost nothing of us!). Most of our church fights have been on that level, and no one ever really "wins,” so it goes on for centuries. What Buddha made clear is that the questions are first of all psychological and personal and here and now. We created huge theories about how the world was saved by Jesus. I think what Jesus was primarily talking about was the human situation and describing liberation for us right now. Clearly the Kingdom of God is here and now, as Jesus said. However, we turned Jesus' message into a reward or punishment contest that would come later, instead of a transformational experience that was verifiable here and now by the fruits of the Holy Spirit (Galatians 5:22-23). For Jesus and for the Buddha both rewards and punishments are first of all inherent to the action and in this world. Goodness is its own reward and evil is its own punishment, and then we must leave the future to the mercy and love of God, instead of thinking we are the umpires and judges of who goes where, when, and how. Fr. Richard Rohr, OFM, Richard’s Daily Meditations, 25 July 2012
  122. 122. The Buddha, in Greco- Buddhist style, 1st-2nd century CE, Kandahar (Modern eastern Afghanistan).
  123. 123. Greco-Buddhism refers to the cultural syncretism between Hellenistic culture and Buddhism, which developed between the 4th century BCE and the 5th century CE in the area covered by the Indian sub-continent, and modern Afghanistan, Pakistan and north-western border regions of modern India. It was a cultural consequence of a long chain of interactions begun by Greek forays into India from the time of Alexander the Great, carried further by the establishment of Indo-Greek rule in the area for some centuries, and extended during flourishing of the Hellenized empire of the Kushans. Greco-Buddhism influenced the artistic, and perhaps the spiritual development of Buddhism, particularly Mahayana Buddhism, which represents one of the two main branches of Buddhism. The Buddhist religious system was then adopted in Central and Northeastern Asia, from the 1st century CE, ultimately spreading to China, Korea and Japan. Wikipedia
  124. 124. “...in the large multiethnic hellenistic states, the average man was no longer as intensely invested in politics as he had been in, say, Classical Athens. Private life occupied a larger share of people’s energy. Schools of thought like Stoicism, Epicureanism, Cynicism and Skepticism addressed the same feelings of stress and anxiety that trouble men and women today. Whereas the philosophies of Plato and Aristotle were designed for affluent men who could expect to participate in the government of their poleis, the philosophies that developed during the Hellenistic Age spoke to a broader spectrum of the human community including women. Pomeroy et al., Ancient Greece, p. 463
  125. 125. not to be confused with Zeno of Elea. The word zēnōn means stranger or foreigner. He is from the Phoenician polis of Citium 300BC-founder of the Stoic school of philosophy. It is named after their meeting place, the painted portico (Στοα Ποικιλη, stoa poikilē) in the Athenian agora. The Stoics were “Porchers” Zeno of Citium Ζήνων ὁ Κιτιεύς Zēnōn ho Kitiéŭs c. 334 BC – c. 262 BC
  126. 126. not to be confused with Zeno of Elea. The word zēnōn means stranger or foreigner. He is from the Phoenician polis of Citium 300BC-founder of the Stoic school of philosophy. It is named after their meeting place, the painted portico (Στοα Ποικιλη, stoa poikilē) in the Athenian agora. The Stoics were “Porchers” Zeno of Citium Ζήνων ὁ Κιτιεύς Zēnōn ho Kitiéŭs c. 334 BC – c. 262 BC
  127. 127. not to be confused with Zeno of Elea. The word zēnōn means stranger or foreigner. He is from the Phoenician polis of Citium 300BC-founder of the Stoic school of philosophy. It is named after their meeting place, the painted portico (Στοα Ποικιλη, stoa poikilē) in the Athenian agora. The Stoics were “Porchers” Zeno of Citium Ζήνων ὁ Κιτιεύς Zēnōn ho Kitiéŭs c. 334 BC – c. 262 BC
  128. 128. not to be confused with Zeno of Elea. The word zēnōn means stranger or foreigner. He is from the Phoenician polis of Citium 300BC-founder of the Stoic school of philosophy. It is named after their meeting place, the painted portico (Στοα Ποικιλη, stoa poikilē) in the Athenian agora. The Stoics were “Porchers” urged his followers to attain an inner tranquillity (ἀπάθεια apatheia absence of passion) as a defense against excessive pleasure or pain he taught under the classic categories of logic, physics, and ethics his patron was King Antigonus II Gonatas, (319-239) Zeno of Citium Ζήνων ὁ Κιτιεύς Zēnōn ho Kitiéŭs c. 334 BC – c. 262 BC
  129. 129. Zeno stretched out his fingers, and showed the palm of his hand, - "Perception," - he said, - "is a thing like this."- Then, when he had closed his fingers a little, - "Assent is like this." - Afterwards, when he had completely closed his hand, and showed his fist, that, he said, was Comprehension. From which simile he also gave that state a new name, calling it (κατάλεπσις katalepsis). But when he brought his left hand against his right, and with it took a firm and tight hold of his fist: - "Knowledge" - he said, was of that character; and that was what none but a wise person (σοφός sophos) possessed. Wikipedia ZENO’S LOGIC Zeno said that there were four stages in the process leading to true knowledge (γνῶσις gnōsis), which he illustrated with the example of the flat, extended hand, and the gradual closing of the fist:
  130. 130. “As with Socrates, the theoretical life is the best. It is important to understand that this does not, to a Greek of [Zeno’s] time, imply seclusion from the world and a turning away from its affairs. In the first place, the ethical life involves activity, though this should be disinterested….In the second place, the good citizen must fulfill his civic duties and perform various servces, both in peace and war. The ivory tower conception of philosophy is due to the Stoics. It was their turning away from the world of sense that caused the drying up of the scientific movement. Russell, Wisdom of the West, pp. 92-93
  131. 131. 306-moved to Athens from Samos and established a school for men and women in his house called “the Garden” the universe (ὃ κοσµὸς ho cosmos) was composed of atoms which made up a multiplicity of substances “...the entire universe combined by chance….This construction left little room for the gods….After death, the atoms that had comprised the soul and body of each person merely dissolved “In the absence of eternal rewards and punishments, [he] viewed happiness on earth as the purpose of life...Greece and the Hellenistic World’s first humanist philosopher…. “He defined happiness as the attainment of ataraxia, an untroubled state free from excessive pleasure and pain, much like [Zeno’s] “Unlike Zeno, he advocated withdrawal from politics (which the Stoics had praised)….Despite their differences [both sought] tranquillity in a turbulent world.”--Pomeroy et al., pp. 479-480 Epicurus Ἐπίκουρος "ally, comrade" 341 BC – 270 BC
  132. 132. A mosaic from Pompeii featuring Epicurean icons of life's transience.
  133. 133. “A similar aim [tranquillity in a turbulent world]characterized two other schools of thought that evolved around the same time, Cynicism and Skepicism. The principal theorist of the Cynic movement was Diogenes of Sinope (c. 400-325 BC), who identified himself as a “citizen of the world” (kosmopolitēs), He encouraged his followers to become self-sufficient by shedding the trappings of civilization for the naturalness of animals. [He] scandalized contemporaries and earned for himself the [opprobrious] name of the Cynic (κυων kuōn=dog) by brazenly maintaining that people should follow instincts just as animals do---urinating or masturbating in public, for example. The heirs to the Cynics’ rejection of civilized norms were the Skeptics, who also shared the Epicureans’ disillusionment with public life. Skepticism, associated with the name of Pyrrhon of Elis (c. 365-275 BC), became popular around 200 BC. Stressing the impossibility of certain knowledge, Skeptics urged people to withdraw from the world….The quest for truth, after all, was hopeless, as was the quest for power….the philosophies we associate with the Hellenistic world contrast sharply with those of Plato and Aristotle, who really believed that knowledge was possible and could be gained through education. Pomeroy et al., p. 481
  134. 134. “A similar aim [tranquillity in a turbulent world]characterized two other schools of thought that evolved around the same time, Cynicism and Skepicism. The principal theorist of the Cynic movement was Diogenes of Sinope (c. 400-325 BC), who identified himself as a “citizen of the world” (kosmopolitēs), He encouraged his followers to become self-sufficient by shedding the trappings of civilization for the naturalness of animals. [He] scandalized contemporaries and earned for himself the [opprobrious] name of the Cynic (κυων kuōn=dog) by brazenly maintaining that people should follow instincts just as animals do---urinating or masturbating in public, for example. The heirs to the Cynics’ rejection of civilized norms were the Skeptics, who also shared the Epicureans’ disillusionment with public life. Skepticism, associated with the name of Pyrrhon of Elis (c. 365-275 BC), became popular around 200 BC. Stressing the impossibility of certain knowledge, Skeptics urged people to withdraw from the world….The quest for truth, after all, was hopeless, as was the quest for power….the philosophies we associate with the Hellenistic world contrast sharply with those of Plato and Aristotle, who really believed that knowledge was possible and could be gained through education. Pomeroy et al., p. 481
  135. 135. “A similar aim [tranquillity in a turbulent world]characterized two other schools of thought that evolved around the same time, Cynicism and Skepicism. The principal theorist of the Cynic movement was Diogenes of Sinope (c. 400-325 BC), who identified himself as a “citizen of the world” (kosmopolitēs), He encouraged his followers to become self-sufficient by shedding the trappings of civilization for the naturalness of animals. [He] scandalized contemporaries and earned for himself the [opprobrious] name of the Cynic (κυων kuōn=dog) by brazenly maintaining that people should follow instincts just as animals do---urinating or masturbating in public, for example. The heirs to the Cynics’ rejection of civilized norms were the Skeptics, who also shared the Epicureans’ disillusionment with public life. Skepticism, associated with the name of Pyrrhon of Elis (c. 365-275 BC), became popular around 200 BC. Stressing the impossibility of certain knowledge, Skeptics urged people to withdraw from the world….The quest for truth, after all, was hopeless, as was the quest for power….the philosophies we associate with the Hellenistic world contrast sharply with those of Plato and Aristotle, who really believed that knowledge was possible and could be gained through education. Pomeroy et al., p. 481
  136. 136. “A similar aim [tranquillity in a turbulent world]characterized two other schools of thought that evolved around the same time, Cynicism and Skepicism. The principal theorist of the Cynic movement was Diogenes of Sinope (c. 400-325 BC), who identified himself as a “citizen of the world” (kosmopolitēs), He encouraged his followers to become self-sufficient by shedding the trappings of civilization for the naturalness of animals. [He] scandalized contemporaries and earned for himself the [opprobrious] name of the Cynic (κυων kuōn=dog) by brazenly maintaining that people should follow instincts just as animals do---urinating or masturbating in public, for example. The heirs to the Cynics’ rejection of civilized norms were the Skeptics, who also shared the Epicureans’ disillusionment with public life. Skepticism, associated with the name of Pyrrhon of Elis (c. 365-275 BC), became popular around 200 BC. Stressing the impossibility of certain knowledge, Skeptics urged people to withdraw from the world….The quest for truth, after all, was hopeless, as was the quest for power….the philosophies we associate with the Hellenistic world contrast sharply with those of Plato and Aristotle, who really believed that knowledge was possible and could be gained through education. Pomeroy et al., p. 481
  137. 137. VI. SCIENCES
  138. 138. VI. SCIENCES The Antikythera Mechanism the world’s first known analog computer
  139. 139. An ancient analog computer designed to calculate astronomical positions. It was recovered in 1900–1901 from the Antikythera wreck, but its significance and complexity were not understood until a century later. Technological artifacts approaching its complexity and workmanship did not appear again until the 14th century A.D., when mechanical astronomical clocks began to be built in Western Europe. Professor Michael Edmunds of Cardiff University, who led the most recent study of the mechanism, said: "This device is just extraordinary, the only thing of its kind. The design is beautiful, the astronomy is exactly right. The way the mechanics are designed just makes your jaw drop. Whoever has done this has done it extremely carefully ... in terms of historic and scarcity value, I have to regard this mechanism as being more valuable than the Mona Lisa." The Antikythera mechanism is displayed at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens, accompanied by a reconstruction made and donated to the museum by Yale University Professor Derek de Solla Price. His published interpretation argued convincingly that the object was a calendar computer. From gear settings and inscriptions on the mechanism's faces, he concluded that the mechanism was made about 87 BC and lost only a few years later. Wikipedia
  140. 140. It has more than 30 gears, although Michael Wright has suggested there may have been as many as 72 gears, with teeth formed through equilateral triangles. When a date was entered via a crank (now lost), the mechanism calculated the position of the Sun and Moon or other astronomical information, such as the locations of planets. Front panel of a 2007 model
  141. 141. Hecataeus of Miletus (c. 550 – 476 BCE) Reconstruction of Hecataeus' map Hecataeus of Miletus is credited with a work entitled Ges Periodos ("Travels round the Earth" or "World Survey'), in two books each organized in the manner of a periplus, a point-to-point coastal survey.
  142. 142. Posidonius (c. 150 – 130 BCE) A 1628 reconstruction of Posidonius ideas about the positions of continents (many details couldn't have been known by Posidonius) Posidonius (or Poseidonius) of Apameia (c. 135 BCE - 51 BCE), was a Greek stoic philosopher[7] who traveled throughout the Roman world and beyond and was a celebrated polymath throughout the Greco-Roman world, like Aristotle and Eratosthenes.
  143. 143. Ptolemy (c. 150) A 15th century manuscript copy of the Ptolemy world map, reconstituted from Ptolemy's Geographia The Ptolemy world map is a map based on the description of the world contained in Ptolemy's book Geographia, written Circa 150. Although authentic maps of Ptolemy have never been found, the Geographia contains thousands of references to various parts of the old world, with coordinates for most, which seem to have influenced early Islamic maps, and allowed European cartographers to reconstruct Ptolemy's world view when an ancient Greek manuscript was translated into Latin around 1300.
  144. 144. Syene (S) is located on the Tropic of Cancer, so that at summer solstice the sun appears at the zenith, directly overhead. In Alexandria (A) the sun is φ south of the zenith at the same time. So the circumference of earth can be calculated being 360º/φ times the distance δ between S and A . Erastothenes measured the angle to be 1/50 of a circle and his access to knowledge of the size of Egypt gave a north/south distance between Alexandria and Syene of 5000 stadia. His circumference of the Earth was therefore 250 000 stadia. Certain accepted values of the length of the stadia in use at the time give an error of less than 6% for the true value for the polar circumference. Wikipedia Eratosthenes' measurement of the Earth's circumference
  145. 145. Measurements taken at Alexandria and Syene. Eratosthenes calculated the circumference of the Earth without leaving Egypt. Eratosthenes knew that on the summer solstice at local noon in the Ancient Egyptian city of Swenet (known in Greek as Syene, and in the modern day as Aswan) on the Tropic of Cancer, the sun would appear at the zenith, directly overhead (he had been told that the shadow of someone looking down a deep well would block the reflection of the Sun a t n o o n ) . H e a l s o k n e w , f r o m measurement, that in his hometown of Alexandria, the angle of elevation of the sun was 1/50th of a circle (7°12') south of the zenith on the solstice noon. Assuming that the Earth was spherical (360°), and that Alexandria was due north of Syene, he concluded that the meridian arc distance from Alexandria to Syene must therefore be 1/50 = 7°12'/360°, and was therefore 1/50 of the total circumference of the Earth. Wikipedia
  146. 146. Archimedes and his principle of buoyant force here he is immersing a gold wreath in a basin of water and preparing to measure the amount of water displaced
  147. 147. Archimedes and his principle of buoyant force “…[Like Alexandria] Syracuse continued serenely as one of the great centers of Greek life, although its social life had had its ups and downs between radical revolution and despotic, oligarchic oppression. Fortunately, in the third century B.C., Syracuse came under the power of a comparatively enlightened ruler, Hieron II, who reigned for 54 years according to Polybius “without killing, exiling, or injuring a single citizen.” Under Hieron worked one of the foremost of the Greek men of science. Archimedes, observing that water ran out of his bath as he himself got in, evolved the physical principle for which he is best known: A body immersed in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the displaced fluid.” Everyday Life in Ancient Times, p. 265 here he is immersing a gold wreath in a basin of water and preparing to measure the amount of water displaced
  148. 148. While taking a bath, he noticed that the level of the water in the tub rose as he got in, and realized that this effect could be used to determine the volume of the crown For practical purposes water is incompressible, so the submerged crown would displace an amount of water equal to its own volume. By dividing the mass of the crown by the volume of water displaced, the density of the crown could be obtained. This density would be lower than that of gold if cheaper and less dense metals had been added Archimedes then took to the streets naked, so excited by his discovery that he had forgotten to dress, crying "Eureka!" ("εὕρηκα!," meaning "I have found it!"). The test was conducted successfully, proving that silver had indeed been mixed in.
  149. 149. The Archimedes' screw, also called the screwpump, is a machine historically used for transferring water from a low-lying body of water into irrigation ditches. The screw pump is c o m m o n l y a t t r i b u t e d t o Archimedes on the occasion of his visit to Egypt, but this tradition may reflect only that the apparatus was unknown before Hellenistic times and introduced in his lifetime by unknown Greek engineers. Wikipedia ARCHIMEDES’ SCREW
  150. 150. When Syracuse was besieged by the Romans a few years after the death of Hieron, Archimedes invented all sorts of engines of war: grapnels that drew enemy ships up out of the water by one end and then allowed them to fall back and sink: great engines for hurling stones: and mirrors that concentrated the sun’s rays and set the ships afire. Although the Roman general Marcellus had given strict orders to spare his life, he was killed by an impetuous Roman soldier whom he declined to accompany until he had finished a mathematical problem. Everyday Life in Ancient Times, p. 265
  151. 151. ΕΠΙΛΟΓΟΣ (EPILOGUE)
  152. 152. ...Alexander’s rejection of constitutional government, of civic militarism, and of municipal autonomy ensured that his conquests would never result in a stable Hellenic civilization in Asia, or even liberty in Greece--but simply the Successor’s kingdoms (323-31 B.C.) of his like-minded marshals who followed. For three centuries theocrats--Macedonians, Epirotes, Seleucids, Ptolemies, Attalids--would rule, fight, plunder and live in splendor amid a Hellenic veneer of court elites and professionals in Asia and Africa until at last they were subdued by the legions of republican Rome. The latter, unlike the Hellenistic Greeks, really would combine the ideas of Hellenic politics, civic militarism, and decisive battle, to forge vast and deadly forces of voting citizens, whose government created the army, rather than the army the government. Hanson, Carnage and Culture, p. 82 But, that’s another story, a story of Justice & Power...

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