19th century Europe; Intellectual History, 1815-1848

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the ideas which drove European History during the period between the end of Napoleon's empire and the Liberal Revolutions of 1848

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19th century Europe; Intellectual History, 1815-1848

  1. 1. Nineteenth Century Europe Intellectual History, 1815-1848 1848--“The turning point which failed to turn”
  2. 2. topics I. Economic and Social Thought II. Religious and Political Thought III. The “Hungry Forties” IV.“The Failed Revolution of 1848”
  3. 3. I. Economic and Social Thought
  4. 4. Walt Whitman Rostow 1916-2003
  5. 5. WW Rostow, The Stages of Economic Growth; A non- communist manifesto (1960) The Five Stages
  6. 6. WW Rostow, The Stages of Economic Growth; A non- communist manifesto (1960) The Five Stages 1. Traditional Societies
  7. 7. WW Rostow, The Stages of Economic Growth; A non- communist manifesto (1960) The Five Stages 1. Traditional Societies 2. Pre-conditions to Take-off
  8. 8. WW Rostow, The Stages of Economic Growth; A non- communist manifesto (1960) The Five Stages 1. Traditional Societies 2. Pre-conditions to Take-off 3. Take-off
  9. 9. WW Rostow, The Stages of Economic Growth; A non- communist manifesto (1960) The Five Stages 1. Traditional Societies 2. Pre-conditions to Take-off 3. Take-off 4. Drive to Maturity
  10. 10. WW Rostow, The Stages of Economic Growth; A non- communist manifesto (1960) The Five Stages 1. Traditional Societies 2. Pre-conditions to Take-off 3. Take-off 4. Drive to Maturity 5. Age of High Mass Consumption
  11. 11. Panics, Recessions, Depressions US Britain 1814 1815 1818-1819 1818-1819 1825-26 1836-1837 1836-1837 the business cycle 1847 1857 1857 Agricultural Industrial Financial 1866 1873 1873 1884 1893 1890
  12. 12. Britain Birthplace of the Industrial Revolution
  13. 13. Consumer and Heavy Industry 1760s to 1820s textile mills Watt’s steam engine (original use--pumping water power out coal mines) Arkright’s “Water iron mills--”puddling” Frame” transportation--”Puffing Hargreave’s “Spinning Billy” & Fulton’s Jenny” “Clermont” Crompton’s “Mule”
  14. 14. “Puffing Billy” 1813-14 for Wylam Colliery near Newcastle upon Tyne (not retired until 1862)
  15. 15. The Classical Economists Smith, Malthus & Ricardo
  16. 16. Adam Smith (1723-1790) Scottish moral philosopher and father of political economy An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776) opposed governmental interference with domestic and international trade “the invisible hand” of competition and rational self interest--> laissez-faire cornerstone of 19th century Liberalism
  17. 17. Thomas Robert Malthus (1766-1834) English political economist and demographer An Essay on the Principle of Population (1798) population appears to be expanding more rapidly than the food supply thus only war, famine and pestilence will restore the balance, welfare for the poor only encourages more of them! known as Malthusian catastrophe and economics came to be called the dismal science (Thomas Carlyle)
  18. 18. David Ricardo (1772-1823) born in London, third of seventeen children in a Sephardic Jewish family from Portugal followed his father as a successful stock trader, became wealthy and an MP in 1799 read Smith and began to write on economics Principles of Political Economy and Taxation (1817) “the Iron Law of Wages” favored free trade, repeal of the corn laws
  19. 19. “The Iron Law of Wages”
  20. 20. “The Iron Law of Wages” Labour, like all other things which are purchased and sold, and which may be increased or diminished in quantity, has its natural and its market price. The natural price of labour is that price which is necessary to enable the labourers, one with another, to subsist and to perpetuate their race, without either increase or diminution. David Ricardo, On Wages, 1817
  21. 21. The Utopian Socialists Owen, St Simon & Fourier
  22. 22. Robert Owen (1771-1858) Welsh social reformer with a wide following “people were the product of their environment”, hence he supported education and labor reform his textile mill at New Lanark, Scotland (1800) , followed these principles and was financially successful argued for reform of the Poor Laws (1817) American experiment, New Harmony, IN (1826) Grand National Consolidated Trades Union (1834)
  23. 23. the vision for New Harmony
  24. 24. Claude Henri de Rouvroy, comte de Saint- Simon (1760-1825) aristocratic reformer, fought in the American Revolution, imprisoned during the French Revolution urged social and political reform where scientists and industrialists would replace church and nobility as the leaders considered the founder of French socialism quot;The whole of society ought to strive towards the amelioration of the moral and physical existence of the poorest class; society ought to organize itself in the way best adapted for attaining this end.quot;
  25. 25. François Marie Charles Fourier (1772-1837) born to a wealthy bourgeois family in Besançon; travelled extensively as a youth coined the word “féminisme” in 1837 his symbol for collective life, the beehive, became an icon for the Mormons his communes were called Phalanxes, their group home, a Phalanstery none were established in Europe but his American followers tried for several years to make his ideas work
  26. 26. The Radicals Blanqui, Proudhon, Bakunin, Marx
  27. 27. Louis Auguste Blanqui (1805-1881) studied both law and medicine, but found his vocation in radical politics a member of the Carbonari since 1824 took part in the July Revolution of 1830 joined Amis du Peuple and condemned to prison for advocating republicanism inspired an uprising May, 1839--Blanquism joined by the League of the Just condemned to death, 1840, commuted to life imprisonment, freed during the 1848
  28. 28. Pierre Joseph Proudhon (1809-1865) political philosopher, the first self-styled anarchist working class printer, taught self Latin to print books in that language What is Property? (1840) His famous answer: property is theft! Marx read it and began a correspondence their friendship ended in disputes over Proudhon’s The Philosophy of Poverty (1847) Marx replied with The Poverty of Philosophy
  29. 29. Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin (1814-1876) noble birth, a junior officer in the Russian Army, resigned his commission in 1835 studied philosophy in Moscow, influenced by radicals, Alexander Herzen 1842 left for Dresden, then Paris where he met George Sand, Proudhon, and Marx deported from France for criticizing Russia’s oppression of Poland 1849 arrested in Dresden for his participation in the Czech revolution of 1848, handed over to Russia, sent to a Siberian labor camp
  30. 30. Karl Heinrich Marx (1818-1883) born the third of seven children in a very bourgeois Jewish family in Trier, Rhenish Prussia father Heinrich converts the family to Lutheranism in order to advance his law practice mediocre philosophy student at several universities, “mail order PhD” from Jena Young Hegelian, materialist, journalist 1843-48 in Paris and Brussels, meets Friedrich Engels
  31. 31. II. Religious and Political Thought
  32. 32. Gregory XVI (1765-1831-1846) strongly conservative & traditionalist, Ultramontanism
  33. 33. Catechism on Revolution, 1831 Q Does the Holy Law of God permit rebellion against the legitimate temporal sovereign? A No, never, because the temporal power comes from God.
  34. 34. Joseph de Maistre (1753-1821) RC Savoyard nobleman, Freemason admired American and initial French Revolutions Considerations on France, 1797 Sardinian ambassador to St Petersburg, 1803-1817 reactionary
  35. 35. Considerations on France, 1797
  36. 36. Considerations on France, 1797 man is not “born free” (Rousseau) “we are all attached to the throne of the Supreme Being by a supple chain that restrains us without enslaving us” French Revolutionary leaders “criminals, mediocrities, monsters, rascals...in reality, merely the led” for all was in God’s hands the Revolution was punishment for France’s sins “radically bad” bordering on “satanic” natural law useless as a basis for civil law which requires divine principles executioners, a necessary evil the papacy is a check on royal absolutism
  37. 37. the quest for the historical Jesus the Enlightenment “higher criticism” David Friedrich Strauss, Leben Jesu (1835) Ernest Renan, Vie de Jesus (1864) Bruno Bauer
  38. 38. Christian Socialism “the social question” Frederick Maurice and Charles Kingsley Thomas Hughes, Rugby, TN trade unions working men’s colleges
  39. 39. Blessed Adolph Kolping (1813-1865) Father of All Apprentices
  40. 40. Parliamentary Politics France (after 1830) and Britain
  41. 41. French political factions 1815-1830 Radicals Liberals Doctrinaires Ultra Royalists 1830-1848 Socialists Republicans Liberals Doctrinaires Bonapartists Royalists
  42. 42. Liberals vs Doctrinaires the middle ground both bourgeois, both constitutional Adolphe Thiers François Guizot (1797-1877) (1787-1874) • base: professionals, the new • base: “old money” & the new elites, and petit bourgeois haut bourgeois industrialists • desired wider franchise (more and financiers voters) • narrower franchise • adventurous foreign policy • cautious foreign policy
  43. 43. Arc de Triomphe commissioned in 1806 during the Restoration construction was halted work was completed during the July Monarchy, 1833-1836 the “timidity” of Louis Philippe’s foreign policy led to nostalgia for la Gloire and Bonapartism
  44. 44. cast of the head of the figure “La Marsellaise” detail from the Arc de Triomphe
  45. 45. Napoleon’s body returns, 1840
  46. 46. British parties/factions
  47. 47. British parties/factions Tories and Whigs are 17th century names for the “court” and “country” factions. As modern political parties replaced the earlier patterns, the names Conservative and Liberal came into use. But old patterns of personal loyalties versus “party discipline” persist to this day.
  48. 48. from Tory to Conservative a case study the Right Honourable Sir Robert Peel 2nd Baronet (1788-1850) statue in Parliament Square
  49. 49. early career born in Lancashire to wealthy textile industrialist and MP Sir Robert Peel Harrow, Oxford, double first in classics and mathematics entered Parliament at the young age of 21 from the “rotten” borough of Cashel, Ire. “best maiden speech since Wm Pitt” rising star of the Tory party under the wing of the Duke of Wellington first enters cabinet, 1822, as Home Secretary
  50. 50. Metropolitan Police Act, 1829 Peel, as Home Secretary, created the first modern urban police force previously, soldiers in red coats kept order with firearms, cf the “Peterloo Massacre” (1819) the Bobbies or Peelers wore blue and were armed only with truncheons (billy clubs) regular beat patrols to deter crime polite, professional, present--all part of Peel’s organization thereafter copied worldwide London Bobby on a bicycle
  51. 51. middle career Peel’s first term as Prime Minister Whigs were in power, 1830-1834 passing many reforms including the Great Reform of 1832 King William asked Peel to form a government when the Whigs became divided as a minority government he depended on support from some of the Whigs as his statement of policy at the general election of January, 1835, he issued the Tamworth Manifesto one of the most crucial points at which Tories became the Conservative Party
  52. 52. the Tamworth Manifesto, 18 December 1834 an appeal to the electorate for the new parliament Peel accepted that the Reform Act of 1832 was quot;a final and irrevocable settlement of a great constitutional questionquot;. He promised that the Conservatives would undertake a quot;careful review of institutions, civil and ecclesiasticalquot;. Where there was a case for change, he promised quot;the correction of proved abuses and the redress of real grievancesquot;. Peel offered to look at the question of church reform in order to preserve the quot;true interests of the Established religionquot;. Peel's basic message, therefore, was that the Conservatives quot;would reform to survivequot; However, he opposed what he saw as unnecessary change, fearing quot;a perpetual vortex of agitationquot; thus he distinguished his faction from the “old Tories” of his mentor, Wellington
  53. 53. leader of the Opposition, 1835-1841 after only 100 days in power Peel abandoned his efforts to legislate and Lord Melborne formed a Whig (Liberal) ministry in 1837 Victoria, age 18, ascends to the throne Melborne, a father figure, with his own rooms at Windsor, tutors her and rumors suggest that she is too closely influenced by her ladies in waiting, wives and relatives of the Whig politicians in 1839, Victoria asks Peel to form a minority government he asks the Queen to replace her Whig ladies in waiting--> the Bedchamber Crisis
  54. 54. second Peel government, 1841-1846 the general election of July, 1841 brought a Tory majority and Peel as PM he kept his pledge of moderate reform with the Factory Act, 1844 it was aimed at the industrialists, who were the chief backers of the Whigs, “the party of reform”! limited the hours of women and children set rudimentary safety standards for machinery interestingly, it continued his father’s earlier factory reforms
  55. 55. repeal of the Corn Laws, 1846 Peel’s crowning accomplishment, but also the cause of his ouster within days of its passage! he (a traitor to his party) and the “Iron Duke” (a traitor to his class) led the fight in Commons and Lords the emerging human tragedy in Ireland provided the spark for passage. Removing the protection for grain would lower the cost of food in Britain the Whig industrialists favored it because of “The Iron Law of Wages.” Cheaper food meant that wages could be lowered the move towards Free Trade marked Britain’s transition from “Workshop of the World” to export powerhouse of the world unnoticed until later, America was gaining on Britain as the technological leader of the Industrial Revolution. Samuel Colt had to bring Yankee machinists to his Manchester plant in 1844. His revolver required closer tolerances than British standards of the day, 1/100th of an inch vs 1/10th of an inch
  56. 56. III. The Hungry Forties An Gorta Mor (Irish)
  57. 57. the European experience the potato blight, most famous for its effect upon Ireland, was experienced continent-wide beginning in 1845 harsh weather affected grain crops in both 1846 and 1847 food prices rose, in Germany by 50%, 1844-47
  58. 58. Thomas Ruggles, Annals of Agriculture, 1792
  59. 59. Thomas Ruggles, Annals of Agriculture, 1792 Everybody knows that bread covers at least two-thirds of the expenditure on food. A laborer's wage must be at least sufficient to maintain himself and his family, and must allow for something over. Were the wages not to do so, then the race of such workers would not last beyond the first generation. In Great Britain, therefore, the wages of the laborer must be evidently more than what is precisely necessary to bring up a family, and the price of grain must determine everything in regard to the economics of labor. However, failure to implement this level of wages may, perhaps, be mitigated by the adoption by the poor of the potato, a nutritious and cheap substitute. Nonetheless, the poor will not eat potatoes if they can get anything else, for the daintiness and ignorance of the poor in regard to the wonderments of this root has been the chief obstacle to its adoption.
  60. 60. Ireland, the extreme case background
  61. 61. Ireland, the extreme case background 1801, after the United Irishmen Rebellion (1798-1799) England passed the Act of Union this placed executive power in Lords Lieutenant and Chief Secretaries appointed from England 105 members of Commons and 28 “Irish” Lords sat in Parliament. Some like the Earl of Lucan owned 60,000 acres. Until Catholic Emancipation (1829) the MPs had to be Church of Ireland (Anglican Protestant). the “ascendency class” English or Anglo-Irish landowners had almost limitless power over their landless tenants. Absenteeism increased the evil. cattle raised for export to England monopolized the best lands. Monoculture of potatoes became the dominant support of the poorest farmers, a majority 1801-1845, 114 commissions and 61 special committees reported on “the Irish problem”--”on the verge of starvation, population increasing, 75% unemployment, housing conditions appalling and the standard of living unbelievably low”
  62. 62. 1845
  63. 63. 1845 following earlier reports in America and England, on 13 October potato blight was first reported in Ireland by mid-October it was widespread Peel acted promptly, began the campaign for repeal of the Corn Laws 18 October, he established a scientific commission to go to Ireland and report 31 October, an emergency Cabinet meeting created a Relief Commission 9 November, Peel secretly ordered £100,000 worth of Indian corn from America 20 November, the Relief Commission first met unable to convince his Cabinet to repeal the Corn Laws, on 5 December Peel tendered his resignation to the Queen he was reinstated days later when Lord John Russell was unable to form a Whig government
  64. 64. 1846
  65. 65. 1846 the first deaths from hunger took place in early 1846 in March Peel set up a program of public works his success with repeal led to the fall of his government, 29 June Lord Russell’s Whig belief in laissez-faire led him to end both food relief and the public works program. Many hundreds of thousands were without work, money or food grain continued to be exported from the country the Central Relief Committee of the Society of Friends (Quakers) and other private initiatives tried to fill the gap. Eventually the government reinstated the programs but bureaucracy slowed their effect the 1846 crop was almost totally destroyed and the Famine worsened considerably by December a third of a million destitute people were employed in public works
  66. 66. 1847 --”black ’47”
  67. 67. 1847 --”black ’47” 1847’s exceptionally hard winter made conditions even worse a typhus epidemic killed tens of thousands including wealthier people as towns were now also affected. Malnutrition increased people’s susceptibility to all disease the harvest was largely unaffected by blight but too few potatoes had been planted so the famine continued unabated the Soup Kitchens Act provided financial assistance to local authorities to help them feed famine victims, but this Act was ended in September and once again relief became a local responsibility this was an impossible burden especially in the rural west and south emigration reached new heights and the infamous coffin-ships crossed the Atlantic in large numbers carrying people, often against their will
  68. 68. 1848
  69. 69. 1848 the blight returned in 1848 outbreaks of cholera were reported evictions became common among those who couldn’t meet the demands of their British landlords victims on outdoor relief peaked in July at almost 840,000 people July 29, an uprising led by William Smith O’Brien broke out in Ballingary, County Tipperary the government had no trouble putting it down the fortunate fled to America, the less fortunate were sentenced to transportation (exile on prison ships to Australia)
  70. 70. 1849 the potato crop failed again famine was again accompanied by cholera outbreaks a famous cholera casualty was poet James Clarence Mangan this was the last year of the famine. Estimates range from 20-25% of Ireland’s population was lost to death or emigration it has never recovered to pre-Famine size a Malthusian catastrophe, just as predicted in 1798
  71. 71. IV. 1848 “The turning point in European history that failed to turn” A. J. P. Taylor
  72. 72. “When France catches cold all Europe sneezes” Metternich 22-24 February--Paris 4 March--Munich 13 March--Vienna 15 March--Buda & Pest 17 March--Venice & Cracow 18 March--Milan & Berlin
  73. 73. Revolutions of 1848
  74. 74. five European-wide themes
  75. 75. five European-wide themes 1) widespread opposition to the ancients regimes
  76. 76. five European-wide themes 1) widespread opposition to the ancients regimes 2) a bid for greater political participation and reforms
  77. 77. five European-wide themes 1) widespread opposition to the ancients regimes 2) a bid for greater political participation and reforms 3) the social question had become much more urgent than ever before
  78. 78. five European-wide themes 1) widespread opposition to the ancients regimes 2) a bid for greater political participation and reforms 3) the social question had become much more urgent than ever before 4) the assertion of national self-determination & the attempt to set up independent nation states (central, eastern & southern Europe)
  79. 79. five European-wide themes 1) widespread opposition to the ancients regimes 2) a bid for greater political participation and reforms 3) the social question had become much more urgent than ever before 4) the assertion of national self-determination & the attempt to set up independent nation states (central, eastern & southern Europe) 5) the slowly growing success of the counter-revolution
  80. 80. Vive la Hurrah for the Republique! Republic! Freiheit, Gleichheit, Brüderschaft. Hoch lebe die Republik. ___________________________________________ Große republikanische Mass - Versammlung im P A R K im Ehere der Großen Europäischen Revolutiongehalten am Montag den 3. April Nachmittag am 4 Uhr. Reden in deutscher, englischer, und französischer Sprache
  81. 81. One Revolution or Many?
  82. 82. Two states where revolution was averted
  83. 83. Two states where revolution was averted Britain Russia
  84. 84. Chartist meeting Kennington Commons
  85. 85. the Petrashevsky Circle Petrashevsky Tsar Nicholas I Dostoevsky, 1872 Mock execution Count Benckendorff Nechaev
  86. 86. France 1848-1850
  87. 87. “Reform Banquets” the bad harvest of ’47 and the business cycle combined to increase the popular dissatis- faction with Louis-Philippe’s regime the opposition scheduled a series of “reform banquets” countrywide “the main item on the bill of fare was oratory and anti-government resolutions were passed” instead of compromising, the government sought to ban these gatherings a monster banquet in Paris on 22 February led to “massacre on the Rue des Capucines”
  88. 88. the end of the July Monarchy for the last eight years Guizot had been the leading figure of a conservative cabinet he resisted suggestions to expand (from 200,000 in a country of 36 million) the franchise or to combat corruption in the face of an uprising in Paris, Guizot resigned on 23 February the barricades held, the king abdicated and fled to England Francois Guizot
  89. 89. Lamartine in front of the Hôtel de Ville de Paris, on the 25 February 1848, by Philippoteaux
  90. 90. the Second Republic from the beginning there were two rival governments, badly merged; one bourgeois liberal republican, the other radical socialist --”wildly disorganized” on 2 March universal male suffrage was proclaimed; 9 million voters of varied educational levels were added to the 200,000 of the bourgeois monarchy the other principal goal was unemployment relief . This goal was assigned to the socialist half of the provisional government 479 newspapers were founded. There was a proliferation of radical political clubs there was a 54% decline of businesses in Paris, as most of the wealthy left, credit was unobtainable, people working the luxury trades were unemployed after a month conservatives demanding “order” began to organize a resistance
  91. 91. The Revolutionary Club (April, 1848) Bettmann Archive
  92. 92. Louis Blanc (1811-1882) studied law in Paris, lived in poverty, wrote for various journals The Organization of Labor (1839) “from each according to his abilities, to each according to his needs” social workshops in 1848 proposed the National Workshops poorly run by a rival, they led to the “June Days” disaster
  93. 93. victory for “the party of order” an Executive Committee was created on March 9 to await the work of the Constituent Assembly to be elected by universal suffrage the property qualification for the National Guard was abolished so the workmen of Paris were enrolled and armed, a mistake with fatal consequences to effect the National Workshops, a sort of Industrial Parliament was established under Louis Blanc at the Luxembourg Palace, a sort of socialist state-within-a- state August Blanqui led an armed mob on 15 May which the bourgeois battalions of the National Guard put down workmen from all over France streamed to Paris for the 2 francs a day “make work” jobs finally on June 21, the government announced the closing of the workshops with the suggestion that able bodied workmen should enlist in the army
  94. 94. The “June Days” uprising 1,460 killed (KIA) 3,000 hunted down and killed afterward 12,000 deported in chains “a legacy of class hatred” Craig, p. 135
  95. 95. General Louis-Eugene Cavaignac (1802-1857) served in combat in Algeria, promoted to general there and made governor-general offered the position of Minister for War in 1848, but declined it when he was denied the power to station troops in Paris elected to the National Assembly, he returned to Paris, 17 May 24 June made de facto dictator to put down the workers’ uprising continued to preside over the Executive Committee until the presidential election
  96. 96. the presidential candidates, December, 1848
  97. 97. the presidential candidates, December, 1848 Alexandre Ledru-Rollin
  98. 98. the presidential candidates, December, 1848 Alexandre Ledru-Rollin Louis-Eugene Cavaignac
  99. 99. the presidential candidates, December, 1848 Alexandre Ledru-Rollin Louis-Eugene Cavaignac Louis Napoleon
  100. 100. The Judgment of Paris Henri Daumier
  101. 101. the winner by a landslide 75% son of Louis Bonaparte, brother of Napoleon I after the Restoration he was raised in Switzerland and in line for the Bonapartist claim he and an older brother joined the Carbonari in 1836 at Strasbourg and again in 1840 at Boulogne he tried to make a Bonapartist coup comfortably imprisoned for life after the second attempt, he escaped to England in May, 1846 after the revolution of ’48, he returned to France and served in the Constituent Assembly
  102. 102. The Germanies 1848-1850
  103. 103. comic opera in Bavaria Ludwig I (1786-1825-1848-1868)
  104. 104. comic opera in Bavaria Ludwig I (1786-1825-1848-1868)
  105. 105. comic opera in Bavaria Ludwig I (1786-1825-1848-1868)
  106. 106. comic opera in Bavaria Ludwig I (1786-1825-1848-1868)
  107. 107. comic opera in Bavaria Ludwig I (1786-1825-1848-1868)
  108. 108. comic opera in Bavaria Ludwig I (1786-1825-1848-1868)
  109. 109. comic opera in Bavaria Ludwig I (1786-1825-1848-1868)
  110. 110. comic opera in Bavaria Ludwig I (1786-1825-1848-1868)
  111. 111. comic opera in Bavaria Elizabeth Rosanna Gilbert aka Lola Montez Ludwig I (1786-1825-1848-1868)
  112. 112. comic opera in Bavaria Ludwig I (1786-1825-1848-1868)
  113. 113. comic opera in Bavaria
  114. 114. Carl Schurz (1829-1906) The word democracy was on all tongues and many thought it a matter of course that, if the princes should try to withhold from the people the rights and liberties demanded, force would take the place of mere petition.
  115. 115. Berlin, 18 March • initially reluctant to “cave” with concessions • orders army to crush demonstrations • evening of 17 March, on the shattering news of Metternich’s downfall, calls his civilian advisors • drafts a manifesto: convoke the Prussian Diet at the beginning of April grant a constitution and internal reforms use Prussian influence to reorganize the Bund • announces the good news the next morning • disaster strikes Fredrick William IV
  116. 116. 19th century urban warfare
  117. 117. Barricades in Frankfurt am Main March, 1848
  118. 118. Berlin, 19 März
  119. 119. Frankfurt Assembly
  120. 120. Frankfurt Assembly
  121. 121. HERE MET THE GERMAN PRE-PARLIAMENT FROM 31 MARCH UNTIL 3 APRIL 1848 AND THE GERMAN NATIONAL- -ASSEMBLY FROM 18 MAY 1848 UNTIL 30 MAY 1849
  122. 122. Paulskirche, frankfurt am Main
  123. 123. Paulskirche, frankfurt am Main
  124. 124. Paulskirche, frankfurt am Main
  125. 125. Paulskirche, frankfurt am Main
  126. 126. Paulskirche, frankfurt am Main
  127. 127. Paulskirche, frankfurt am Main
  128. 128. The Unity of Germany the Work of the Imperial Tailors in Frankfurt am Main
  129. 129. the Paulskirche constitution, 1849
  130. 130. Groß oder Kleindeutsch?
  131. 131. Groß oder Kleindeutsch? greater German • must embrace all German states, including the Austrian Habsburg lands • implied a Habsburg emperor and a Catholic majority
  132. 132. Groß oder Kleindeutsch? greater German lesser German • must embrace all German • all of Austria must be states, including the Austrian excluded Habsburg lands • implied that Prussia would be dominant • implied a Habsburg emperor • implied a Hohenzollern and a Catholic majority emperor and a Protestant majority
  133. 133. Kaiserdeputation to Berlin, March,
  134. 134. BUT, Prussia had made a counterrevolution in June, 1848, while a provisional government argued over a constitution, radical republicans seized an armory in Berlin the king’s brother, Wilhelm, put down the uprising which had driven most of the bourgeoisie into the conservative camp in December, Friedrich Wilhelm issued a constitution “from the throne” he created a National Assembly, a Reichstag, which would be controlled by conservatives last until 1918
  135. 135. “If the thousand-year-old crown of the German Reich, in abeyance now these forty-two years, is again to be given away, it is I and my likes who will give it.”--Frederick William III to the Kaiser Deputation, March, 1849
  136. 136. the Stuttgart Rump Parliament expelled, 18 June 1849
  137. 137. Austrian Empire 1848-1850
  138. 138. Austrian Empire 1848-1850
  139. 139. 13 March
  140. 140. 13 March Ja,derfn s’denn das? Yes but, are they allowed to do that? Emperor Maximilian
  141. 141. Metternich
  142. 142. thrown aside he was told, after holding office for 39 years, that he had resigned Metternich
  143. 143. the man of the hour Lajos Kossuth
  144. 144. danger on many fronts Italy, Palermo uprising (15 January) German Bund, demonstrations in Mannheim, Stuttgart and elsewhere (early March)Berlin, the manifesto promising reforms (18 March) Hungary, the Diet publishes a new constitution (15 March) Czechs, demand a similar Diet and constitution “Five Days of Milan”(18-22 March) Bavaria, King Ludwig I abdicates (20 March) Venice, Daniele Manin creates a republic (22 March) Sardinia Piedmont, King Charles Albert agrees to support them (23 March)
  145. 145. Johann Josef Wenzel Graf Radetzky von Radetz (1766-1858) • immortalized by Johann Strauss I’s “Radetzky March” • Czech nobleman, 82 in 1848 • served in the military over seventy years, commander in Italy, 1831-1857, 100,000 soldiers, probably the best trained in Europe • after the “Cinque Giornate” withdrew to the Quadrilateral • demanded that Vienna make concessions and send him reinforcements • crushed the initial Italian revolution, finally at Novara (23 March 1849) General Radetzky
  146. 146. Unification of Italy 1815-1870
  147. 147. Unification of Italy 1815-1870
  148. 148. To Milan
  149. 149. To Milan
  150. 150. To Milan
  151. 151. the key compromise
  152. 152. the key compromise at Radetzky’s insistance, Vienna accepted the reforms in Hungary and Bohemia
  153. 153. the key compromise at Radetzky’s insistance, Vienna accepted the reforms in Hungary and Bohemia in Austria, unpopular ministers (like Sedlnitzky) were sacked
  154. 154. the key compromise at Radetzky’s insistance, Vienna accepted the reforms in Hungary and Bohemia in Austria, unpopular ministers (like Sedlnitzky) were sacked the sales tax on food was reduced, censorship abolished, and a general political amnesty declared
  155. 155. the key compromise at Radetzky’s insistance, Vienna accepted the reforms in Hungary and Bohemia in Austria, unpopular ministers (like Sedlnitzky) were sacked the sales tax on food was reduced, censorship abolished, and a general political amnesty declared the imperial manifesto of 11 April promised to free the peasants from all serf-like duties
  156. 156. the key compromise at Radetzky’s insistance, Vienna accepted the reforms in Hungary and Bohemia in Austria, unpopular ministers (like Sedlnitzky) were sacked the sales tax on food was reduced, censorship abolished, and a general political amnesty declared the imperial manifesto of 11 April promised to free the peasants from all serf-like duties this exercised a moderating influence, turned the peasants into a conservative force
  157. 157. barricades in Prague, June, 1848
  158. 158. Alfred Fürst zu Windisch-Graetz (1787-1862) • came from a Styrian noble family • served in the Austrian army, 1804-1849 • fought Napoleon, made Fieldmarshall • appointed head of the army in Bohemia, 1840 • his wife was killed by a stray bullet during the popular uprising in Prague, June, 1848 • quot;They do not want to hear about the Grace of God? They will hear the grace of the cannon.quot; • put down the rebels in Vienna, October • initially victorious against the Magyars 62 years old in 1848
  159. 159. the tide turns; Vienna, October, 1848
  160. 160. the tide turns; Vienna, October, 1848 In Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Germany (1852), Friedrich Engels wrote: quot;The fact that fate of the revolution was decided in Vienna and Berlin, that the key issues of life were dealt with in both those capitals without taking the slightest notice of the Frankfurt assembly - that fact alone is sufficient to prove that the institution was a mere debating club, consisting of an accumulation of gullible wretches who allowed themselves to be abused as puppets by the governments, so as to provide a show to amuse the shopkeepers and tradesmen of small states and towns, as long as it was considered necessary to distract their attention.quot; [
  161. 161. Schicksalstag 9.xi.1848
  162. 162. Schicksalstag 9.xi.1848 What other events?
  163. 163. Schicksalstag 9.xi.1848 What • Weimar Republik, 1918 other events?
  164. 164. Schicksalstag 9.xi.1848 What • Weimar Republik, 1918 • Bierkeller Putsch, 1923 other events?
  165. 165. Schicksalstag 9.xi.1848 What • Weimar Republik, 1918 • Bierkeller Putsch, 1923 other • Kristalnacht, 1938 events?
  166. 166. Schicksalstag 9.xi.1848 What • Weimar Republik, 1918 • Bierkeller Putsch, 1923 other • Kristalnacht, 1938 • Berliner Mauer, 1989 events?
  167. 167. Schicksalstag 9.xi.1848 What • Weimar Republik, 1918 • Bierkeller Putsch, 1923 other • Kristalnacht, 1938 • Berliner Mauer, 1989 events? • (Napoleon’s coup, 1799)
  168. 168. Hungary’s time on the cross
  169. 169. Hungary’s time on the cross Poet Sandor Petofi
  170. 170. Hungary’s time on the cross Poet Sandor Petofi
  171. 171. Hungary’s time on the cross Poet Sandor Petofi
  172. 172. Hungary’s time on the cross Poet Sandor Petofi Croat General Josip Jelacic
  173. 173. Hungary’s time on the cross Polish General Josef Bem Poet Sandor Petofi Croat General Josip Jelacic
  174. 174. Hungary’s time on the cross Polish General Josef Bem Istvan Szechenyi -- “The Greatest Hungarian” Sandor Petofi Poet Croat General Josip Jelacic
  175. 175. Hungary’s time on the cross Polish General Josef Bem Istvan Szechenyi -- “The Greatest Hungarian” Sandor Petofi Poet Croat General Josip Jelacic
  176. 176. Hungary’s time on the cross Polish General Josef Bem Istvan Szechenyi -- “The Greatest Hungarian” Sandor Petofiof Brescia General Haynau--the Hyena Poet Croat General Josip Jelacic
  177. 177. Hungary’s time on the cross Polish General Josef BemBatthyani Premier Casimir Istvan Szechenyi -- “The Greatest Hungarian” Sandor Petofiof Brescia General Haynau--the Hyena Poet Croat General Josip Jelacic
  178. 178. the cult of the personality
  179. 179. the cult of the personality
  180. 180. the cult of the personality
  181. 181. the cult of the personality
  182. 182. the cult of the personality
  183. 183. the cult of the personality
  184. 184. the cult of the personality
  185. 185. the cult of the personality
  186. 186. the cult of the personality
  187. 187. Russia’s “crowning mercy” Vilagos, August 13, 1849 140,000 Russian troops compel the Hungarian surrender
  188. 188. the Italian States 1848-1849
  189. 189. Unification of Italy 1815-1870
  190. 190. Sardinia Piedmont Savoy
  191. 191. the Papal States Note the purple area is annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1860; the gray, in 1870
  192. 192. Giovanni Mastai Ferretti (1792-1846-1878) • after the reactionary papacy of Gregory XVI (1831-46) Cardinal Ferretti’s ascension was welcomed • he inspired Italian liberals with initial reforms: political amnesties, limited freedom of speech and press • at the beginning of 1848 he created a council of elected deputies to share in the government of Rome • initial hopes that Pio Nono would lead the Italian revolution were dashed on 29 April when he announced that papal troops would not fight Catholic Austria Pio Nono Pius IX
  193. 193. the Roman Republic liberals in Rome deserted the pope after his April announcement defeated in the north, Italian soldiers came to Rome over the summer of 1848 swelling the radical element there 15 November, the pope’s chief minister was assasinated on a public square. The next day a mob demonstrated and fired on the Swiss guards 24 November, Pius fled to Naples disguised as a simple priest provisional government-->constituent assembly-->Roman Republic (February, 1849) triumvirate headed by Giuseppi Mazzini
  194. 194. proclamation of the Roman Republic Rosetti, Proclamazione… (1861)
  195. 195. Camilio Benso, Conte di Cavour (1810-1861) Prime Minister of Piedmont- Sardinia, founder of the Italian Liberal Party, statesman and diplomat
  196. 196. Giuseppi Mazzini (1805-1872) poet, Carbonaro, publicist, exile, Triumvir of the Roman Republic, Italian nationalist, Revolutionary
  197. 197. Guiseppi Garibaldi (1807-1882) “a heart of gold and the brains of an ox” soldier, hero, sea captain, military leader, inspirer
  198. 198. the camicia rossa (red shirt) “...in the camicia rossa the Italian Revolution found for itself a cheap pageantry, simple in gaudiness, unmistakable, satisfying the desire of youth to flaunt its principles in some form.” G.M. Trevelyan, Garibaldi’s Defense of the Roman Republic, p. 152
  199. 199. Attacco garibaldino contro i francesi, 30 Aprile 1849 “For a few soldi the student or the workman could in a minute transform himself, in appearance at least, into the soldier of a redoubtable force, the semi-official missionary of a great cause.” Ibid.
  200. 200. On that narrow white road...were mowed down the chosen youth of Italy, the men who would have been called to make her laws and lead her armies,and write her songs and history, when her day came, but that they judged it necessary to die here in order that her day should come. G.M. Trevelyan, Garibaldi’s Defense of the Roman Republic, 1848-9. 1907, p.13
  201. 201. the fall of the Republic, 1849 the Catholic world was shocked at the pope’s fate military assistance was offered by many states but Louis Napoleon’s France was first in April with 10,000 troops when these were defeated (30 April) by Garibaldi, leading the motley defenders, an additional 40,000 were added during the month of June, French military science prevailed both Mazzini and Garibaldi went into exile to return again with Radetzky’s northern “mopping up” the Risorgimento was temporarily over
  202. 202. Ugo Bassi (1800-1849) L’Italia è qui nel nostro campo, l’Italia è Garibaldi; è siamo noi!
  203. 203. a footnote
  204. 204. Manifesto of the Communist Party put forth in February 1848 ______________ Proletarians of every land unite ___________ London
  205. 205. By 1850 the fires of revolution had burned themselves out, and the victories of March, 1848 seemed a remote and unreal memory. After all the rhetoric and the resolutions and the bravery on the barricades and in the field, the continent of Europe seemed to be, on the whole, unchanged. Craig, p. 142

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