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SeasonsWhat do your students think causes the seasons?                           Images at http://nix.ksc.nasa.gov/info   ...
Let’s Look at Some Data!• Temperatures around the World• Daylight hours
Average Daily Temperatures (°F) in Tourist Cities                               (from http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A00045...
True color images     December                                                                        MarchJune           ...
Animation-Earth’s Life through Seasons
Daylight Hours Across the Globe                               Time is indicated as number of hours (h)               Jan  ...
Let’s Start with some Observations• Using free downloaded computer program,  Stellarium: http://www.stellarium.org/   – St...
Height of Sun for USAWinter: The Sun rises in the southeast, stayslow in the sky, and sets in the southwest.Spring: The Su...
What Causes Earth’s Seasons?• Earth’s axis is tilted 23.5 degrees – it always points in  the same direction (Polaris, the ...
Northern Hemisphere Summer  More daylight hours, more direct sunlight               Image at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/educa...
Earth’s orbit is almost a perfect circle   • Earth is CLOSEST to our Sun (91 million   miles) in winter—January 3   • Eart...
Seasons on Other Planets     • In some cases, the changing distances from the Sun       will affect the seasons.     • In ...
Seasons on PlanetsPlanet    Axial Tilt    Eccent.   Orbit         Perihelion      AphelionMercury       0°          0.21  ...
Mars’ Orbit and Seasons                    At vernal equinox, Mars is 145                    million miles from the Sun   ...
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Seasons

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Seasons

  1. 1. SeasonsWhat do your students think causes the seasons? Images at http://nix.ksc.nasa.gov/info Created by the Lunar and Planetary Institute For Educational Use OnlyLPI is not responsible for the ways in which this powerpoint may be used or altered.
  2. 2. Let’s Look at Some Data!• Temperatures around the World• Daylight hours
  3. 3. Average Daily Temperatures (°F) in Tourist Cities (from http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0004587.html ))   January April July October Cape Town (South Africa) 69 66 60 65 Caracas (Venezuela) 75 81 78 79 London (United Kingdom)  44 56 73 58 Mexico City (Mexico) 66 77 73 70 Montreal (Canada) 22 51 79 56 Moscow (Russia)  21 47 76 46 Nairobi (Kenya) 77 75 69 77 Paris (France)  42 60 76 59 San José (Costa Rica) 75 79 77 77 Seoul (Korea) 33 62 84 67 Singapore  86 89 87 88 Stockholm (Sweden) 31 45 70 48 Sydney (Australia)  79 73 62 72  Tokyo (Japan)  48 64 84 70
  4. 4. True color images December MarchJune SeptemberImages at http://www.nasa.gov/vision/earth/features/blue_marble.html
  5. 5. Animation-Earth’s Life through Seasons
  6. 6. Daylight Hours Across the Globe Time is indicated as number of hours (h) Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov DecMiami 10.5 h 11 h 12 h 12.5 h 13 h 14 h 14.5 h 14 h 12.5 h 12.5 h 11 h 11.5 hBrisbane 14.5 h 13.5 h 13.5 h 12.5 h 11 h 11 h 11 h 11.5 h 11.5 h 12.5 h 14 h 14.5 hNairobi 12 h 12 h 12 h 12 h 12 h 12 h 12 h 12 h 12 h 12 h 12 h 12 hPunta Arenas 17.5 h 15.5 h 13.5 h 11.5 h 10 h 8.5 h 8.5 h 9.5 h 11.5 h 13 h 15 h 16.5 hNome 5h 7h 10 h 13.5 h 17.5 h 21.5 h 22 h 18 h 15.5 h 11.5 h 8.5 h 5.5 hSingapore 12 h 12 h 12 h 12 h 13 h 13 h 12 h 12 h 12 h 12 h 12 h 12 hCape Town 15 h 14 h 13.5 h 12.5 h 11.5 h 10 h 10.5 h 11 h 11.5 h 12.5 h 14 h 14 hSeattle 9h 10 h 11 h 13.5 h 15 h 17 h 16.5 h 15.5 h 13.5 h 11.5 h 10.5 h 9.5 hVostok 24 h 24 h 19 h 14.5 h 0h 0h 0h 0h 7h 15 h 24 h 24 h http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/skytellers/seasons/activities/light.shtml
  7. 7. Let’s Start with some Observations• Using free downloaded computer program, Stellarium: http://www.stellarium.org/ – Stellarium is planetarium software that shows exactly what you see when you look up at the stars. Its easy to use, and free.• Let’s look at sunrise & sunset, and Sun’s height in the sky.
  8. 8. Height of Sun for USAWinter: The Sun rises in the southeast, stayslow in the sky, and sets in the southwest.Spring: The Sun rises due east, moves higherin the sky than in winter, and sets due west.Summer: The Sun rises in the northeast,travels high (near zenith), and sets in thenorthwest.Fall: The Sun rises due east, travels to amedium-height in the sky, and sets due west.
  9. 9. What Causes Earth’s Seasons?• Earth’s axis is tilted 23.5 degrees – it always points in the same direction (Polaris, the North Star) as we orbit our Sun once a year• This tilt causes the hemispheres to alternate in the amount of our Sun’s light and heat they receive through the year Image at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/skytellers/seasons/about.shtml
  10. 10. Northern Hemisphere Summer More daylight hours, more direct sunlight Image at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/skytellers/seasons/about.shtml
  11. 11. Earth’s orbit is almost a perfect circle • Earth is CLOSEST to our Sun (91 million miles) in winter—January 3 • Earth is farthest from on our Sun (94 million miles) in summer –July 4
  12. 12. Seasons on Other Planets • In some cases, the changing distances from the Sun will affect the seasons. • In others, the axial tilt will make a huge difference!Image at http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02963 Image at http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01589
  13. 13. Seasons on PlanetsPlanet Axial Tilt Eccent. Orbit Perihelion AphelionMercury 0° 0.21 88 days 28 mill. Miles 43 mill. milesVenus 177° 0.01 224 daysEarth 23° 0.02 365 days 91 mill. miles 94 mill. milesMars 25° 0.09 686 days 129 mill. miles 155 mill. milesJupiter 3° 0.05 12 yearsSaturn 27° 0.06 30 yearsUranus 98° 0.05 84 yearsNeptune 30° 0.01 165 years
  14. 14. Mars’ Orbit and Seasons At vernal equinox, Mars is 145 million miles from the Sun At winter solstice, Mars is 128 million miles from the Sun At summer solstice, Mars is 153 million miles from the Sun At autumnal equinox, Mars is 134 million miles from the SunOriginal images from http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/index.html

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