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The Pacific Theater


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The Pacific Theater

  1. 1. The Pacific Theater<br />
  2. 2. Bell Ringer<br />Why did Japan bomb Pearl Harbor?<br />Discuss with partner<br />30 seconds<br />
  3. 3. After Pearl Harbor<br />Japan attacked:<br />Dec 7: Philippines (Clark Island Base)<br />Dec 8: Wake Island<br />Dec 10: Guam<br />DEC 7<br />DEC 8<br />DEC 10<br />DEC 7<br />
  4. 4. In the Beginning…<br />For the first 6 months of 1942 Japan ruled:<br />Japanese ships ruled the water<br />Japanese army ruled the land<br />Japanese air force ruled the skies<br />
  5. 5. General Douglas MacArthur<br />Led American forces in the Philippines<br />March 1942 - ordered to go to Australia<br /> “I shall return…”<br />By April 1942 - Japan overran Phil & Am surrendered<br />
  6. 6. Bataan Death March<br />Why surrender?<br />Low on supplies & ammo<br />Counted on humane treatment as per the Geneva Accord<br />
  7. 7. Bataan Death March (cont.)<br />Japan broke the Geneva Accord <br />Japanese force-marched 76,000 Am & Phil POWs over the Bataan Peninsula (Phil)<br />60-mile march<br />POWs were abused, tortured, executed<br />
  8. 8. The Bataan Death Marchstory & photos from:<br />
  9. 9. The Bataan Death March began at Mariveles on April 10, 1942. Any troops who fell behind were executed.<br />
  10. 10.
  11. 11. Japanese troops beat soldiers randomly, and denied the POWs food and water for many days.<br />
  12. 12. On the rare occasion they were given any food, it was only a handful of contaminated rice. When the prisoners were allowed to sleep for a few hours at night, they were packed into enclosures so tight that they could barely move. Those who lived collapsed on the dead bodies of their comrades.<br />
  13. 13. One of their tortures was known as the sun treatment. The Philippines in April is very hot. Therefore, the POWs were forced to sit in the sun without any shade, helmets, or water. Anyone who dared ask for water was executed.<br />
  14. 14. For only a brief part of the march would POWs be packed into railroad cars and allowed to ride. Those who did not die in the suffocating boxcars were forced to march about seven more miles until they reached their camp.<br />
  15. 15. It took the POWs over a week to reach their destination.<br />
  16. 16. In The End…<br />No one knows for certain the exact number dead<br />Estimates range from 7,000 to 28,000 Am & Phil killed as a result of the Bataan Death March and the subsequent POW camps endured by our soldiers<br />Memorial in Philippines<br />
  17. 17. The Battle of the Coral Sea<br />May 7-8, 1942<br />Japan at heighth of its power<br />First naval battle in history where no ship fired on the other<br />How is this possible?<br />
  18. 18. Coral Sea (cont.)<br />Japan & America used airplanes (launched from aircraft carriers)<br />
  19. 19. Outcomes of Coral Sea<br />America Lost:<br />Carriers - the Lexington (sunk) & Yorktowne (damaged)<br />1/2 its planes<br />Japan Lost:<br />1 carrier sunk, 1 damaged<br />1/2 its planes<br />Ultimately it was a draw; however, it prevented Japan from going into Australia<br />Way of fighting became central to the war in the Pacific<br />
  20. 20. The Battle of Midway<br />June 4-7, 1942<br />Japan made its move on Midway (1st), then the US Mainland<br />Unbeknownst to the Japanese, a US naval cryptologist (Com. Joseph Rochefort) had cracked the JN-25 secret code<br />The US now knew where & when the Japanese were going to go<br />
  21. 21. Midway (cont.)<br />As a result, US sent everything we had and we out-shipped/planned/manned/gunned Japan<br />US ambushed Japan when most vulnerable - refueling<br />
  22. 22. Outcomes of Midway<br />Japan lost:<br />4 aircraft carriers<br />US lost:<br />1 aircraft carrier<br />US maintained control of Midway <br />Midway was the turning point in the Pacific Theater for the US<br />Japan never able to go on the offensive again<br />
  23. 23. FYI…<br />Japan was never able to crack the US secret code<br />US = “Code Talkers”<br />420 Navajo<br />Used their language<br />Efficient<br />Only code in modern military history that has not been broken<br />See movie, Code Talkers<br />
  24. 24. Island Hopping<br />US began to use strategy of island hopping<br />Island hopping is a military strategy of selectively attacking specific enemy-held islands & bypassing others<br />Strategy: helped US cut off the bypassed islands’ supplies & reinforcements, thus rendering those islands useless to Japan<br />
  25. 25. Battle of Guadalcanal<br />Guadalcanal is in the Solomon Islands archipelago<br />Australia is <br />over here<br />
  26. 26. Guadalcanal (cont.)<br />Aug 7, 1942 - Feb 9, 1943<br />First major offensive of Allied forces<br />
  27. 27. Guadalcanal (cont.)<br />US Marines encountered jungle warfare<br />Crossed rivers, swamps<br />Hacked through vines/underbrush<br />Made easy targets for Japanese snipers hiding in trees & underbrush<br />
  28. 28. Outcomes of Guadalcanal<br />US Gained:<br />Control of the waterways near the islands<br />Their 1st piece of Japanese territory<br />
  29. 29. Battle for Iwo Jima<br />Feb 19-March 26, 1945<br />1st attack on Japanese soil<br />American planes & warships used:<br />7,000 T of bombs<br />20,000 shells<br />After 3 days of battle, Am Marines had advanced only 700 yds. inland<br />
  30. 30. Iwo Jima (cont.)<br />Critical for Am. to take Mt. Surabachi - highest point on Iwo Jima<br />Gave the world one of the most famous war photos ever…<br />
  31. 31. This photo by Joe Rosenthal came to symbolize the struggles & sacrifices of American soldiers during WWII<br />
  32. 32. Outcomes of Iwo Jima<br />Apx 25,000 Japanesedefended Iwo Jima; in the end only 216 left to surrender<br />Am. won the battle, but lost nearly 7,000 men<br />This was the first time in history that any foreign flag had ever flown over Japanese soil<br />
  33. 33. Okinawa<br />April - June 1945<br />Okinawa - last obstacle to an allied invasion of mainland Japan<br />
  34. 34. Outcomes of Okinawa<br />Japan Lost:<br />Over 1/3 of civilian population on Okinawa (apx. 150,000)<br />Over 100,000 soldiers<br />America - costliest engagement in Pacific:<br />Over 50,000 casualties (12,000 KIA or MIA)<br />
  35. 35. Japanese Honor in War<br />kamikaze & banzai <br />suicide over surrender<br />Saipan<br />Iwo Jima<br />
  36. 36. Kamikaze<br />Suicide planes<br />Loaded w/ bombs & deliberately crashed into enemy ships to inflict maximum damage<br />Became very popular during the Battle of Leyte Gulf<br />
  37. 37. Banzai!<br />An attack in which the soldier tries to kill as many of the enemy as possible until they themselves are killed<br />
  38. 38. Closure<br />Name one WW II battle in the Pacific, state its significance, and what the outcome was.<br />Discuss with your partner - each choosing a different battle: 1 minute<br />