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  1. 1. The Age of Napoléon<br />1799-1815<br />
  2. 2. Napoléon Bonaparte<br />Born 1769 - Corsica<br />Military School<br />Army<br />
  3. 3. Early Military Career<br />1792 - Captain<br />1794 - Brigadier General<br />1796 - Commander of the French Armies in Italy<br />Original “Blitzkrieg”<br />Easily defeated enemies<br />Strong leader<br />
  4. 4. Love Life<br />Joséphine Beauharnais<br />Widow <br />French Revolution<br />First impressions…<br />Married 1796<br />“To Destiny…”<br />
  5. 5. Egyptian Campaign<br />1797 - attempt to strike Britain indirectly<br />If France could secure Egypt, it would cripple Britain’s trade route to India<br />Disaster strikes<br />Professional<br />Personal<br />
  6. 6. Return Home<br />1799 - defeated, but did bring home the Rosetta Stone<br />Divorce?<br />Stayed with Josephine, but had numerous affairs over the years as a payback<br />
  7. 7. Coup d’État<br />1799 - overthrew Directory <br />Became “First Consul”<br />1802 - “Consul for Life”<br />1804 - Emperor of France<br />
  8. 8. Concordat of 1801<br />Negotiated peace with the Catholic Church<br />Napoléon recognized Catholicism as the national religion & in turn, pope allowed state to keep property seized during revolution<br />
  9. 9. Becoming Emperor<br />
  10. 10. Legal System<br />Prior to the FR, France had over 300 different legal systems<br />Under Napoleon, 7 law codes were created<br />Most important = the Civil Code, or Code Napoléon<br />
  11. 11. Code Napoléon (1804)<br />Preserved many revolutionary principles:<br />Equality of all citizens before the law<br />Right of the individual to choose a profession<br />Religious toleration<br />Abolition of serfdom/feudal system<br />
  12. 12. Women and the Code<br />Civil Code was a step back for women<br />More difficult to:<br />Divorce husbands<br />Inherit property <br />Not allowed to testify in court<br />Women = officially “less equal than men”<br />
  13. 13. New Bureaucracy<br />Created a strong centralized administration<br />Officials hired on merit, not birthright<br />
  14. 14. New Aristocracy<br />1808 - 1814 - created 3,200 new nobles<br />Based on meritorious service to France<br />Most (60%) were military officers and were middle class in origin<br />Only 22% were from “old” aristocratic families<br />
  15. 15. Napoleonic Wars<br />From 1807 - 1812, Napoleon was the master of Europe<br />Empire comprised of 3 major parts:<br />The French Empire<br />Dependent States<br />Allied States <br />See map on page 364 in your textbook<br />
  16. 16. Napoleon’s Nemesis: Great Britain<br />One place Napoleon just couldn’t defeat<br />England = strong navy<br />France + Spain = invasion of GB (1805)<br />Failed (infamous Battle of Trafalgar)<br />Implemented Continental System to disrupt GB’s trade & cripple it economically<br />Failed (allies didn’t want Napoleon telling them what to do)<br />
  17. 17. Nationalism<br />A sense of unique identity of a people based on common language, religion, and national symbols<br />Napoleon created a sense of nationalism throughout the places he conquered (commonality = their hatred of him)<br />
  18. 18. The Russian Campaign<br />June 1812 - 600,000 French troops invaded Russia<br />Expected quick victory<br />Russians refused to fight<br />
  19. 19. Russian Campaign<br />Russians retreated deeper into their own country<br />Burned their own villages & countryside<br />WHY???<br />
  20. 20. Defeat in Russia<br />French were:<br />Deep in Russia<br />Winter (no proper clothes)<br />Without food/supplies<br />Demoralized<br />What do you think Napoleon did?<br />
  21. 21. The Great Retreat<br />As Napoleon and his troops retreated, many died of starvation and freezing<br />When they reached Poland in January 1813, only 40,000 of the original 600,000 were alive<br />
  22. 22. Napoleon Falls<br />Other European states attacked France while it was weak<br />Paris was captured in March 1814<br />Napoleon was sent into exile on the island of Elba (off NW Coast of Italy)<br />Monarchy restored - Louis XVIII (Louis XVI’s brother) now king<br />
  23. 23. What About Josephine?<br />Because she could not produce an heir, Napoleon divorced her January 10, 1810<br />He remarried Marie-Louise of Austria 2 months later (who did give him a son)<br />Josephine died of pneumonia on May 29, 1814<br />
  24. 24. He’s Baaaack…<br />Napoleon returned March 20, 1815<br />He would rule for 100 days<br />He raised an army and proceeded to Waterloo, Belgium<br />
  25. 25. Waterloo<br />Napoleon was defeated by the Duke of Wellington (commanding Prussian & British armies)<br />Exiled to St. Helena <br />He died there in 1821 of stomach cancer<br />Last words, “France, the army, Josephine…”<br />