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Enlightenment Society & Politics


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Enlightenment Society & Politics

  1. 1. The Enlightenment<br />Politics & Philosophy<br />
  2. 2. Bell Ringer<br />In your notebooks, answer:<br />What was the Enlightenment?<br />How did the SR impact the Enlightenment?<br />
  3. 3. Political Enlightenment<br />
  4. 4. Three Themes in the Political Realm<br />Property<br /><ul><li>Central feature
  5. 5. Gives an individual a stake in society</li></ul>Rights<br /><ul><li>Every individual is entitled to basic rights simply because they exist</li></ul>Law<br /><ul><li>That which makes 1 & 2 work
  6. 6. Guarantees property & rights</li></li></ul><li>Political Philosophes<br />
  7. 7. John Locke1632-1704<br /> Most influential writing was “Two Treatises of Civil Government” written in 1690<br />
  8. 8. Locke’s Philosophy<br />The individual must become a “rational creature”<br />Virtue can be learned & practiced<br />Human beings possess free will<br /><ul><li>They should be prepared for freedom
  9. 9. Obedience should be out of conviction, not fear</li></li></ul><li>Locke’s Philosophy (cont.)<br />Legislators owe their power to a contract with the people<br />Neither kings nor wealth are divinely ordained<br />There are certain natural rights that are endowed by God to all human beings<br /><ul><li>Life, liberty, & property</li></ul>Favored a republic<br />
  10. 10. Baron de Montesquieu(1689-1755)<br /> Most influential writing was “Spirit of the Laws” written in 1748<br />“Countries are well-cultivated, not as they are fertile, but as they are free.”<br />
  11. 11. Montesquieu’s Philosophy<br /><ul><li> Used England’s government as a model for:
  12. 12. The separation of powers
  13. 13. Executive Power = King
  14. 14. Legislative Power = Parliament
  15. 15. Judicial Power = Courts
  16. 16. Checks & balances
  17. 17. Monarchs should be subject to constitutional limits on their power</li></li></ul><li>Jean-Jacques Rousseau1712-1778<br /> Most influential writing was “The Social Contract” written in 1762<br />
  18. 18. Rousseau’s Philosophy<br /><ul><li>Tabula Rasa (blank slate)
  19. 19. Best traits of human character are products of nature
  20. 20. Society corrupts people, therefore, we must fix society</li></li></ul><li>Rousseau (cont.)<br />In The Social Contract:<br /><ul><li>The right kind of political order could make people truly moral & free
  21. 21. Individual moral freedom could be achieved only by learning to subject one’s individual interests to the “General Will”</li></li></ul><li>Rousseau - Social Contract (cont.)<br /><ul><li>Individuals could do this by entering into a social contract - not with their rulers, but with each other
  22. 22. This social contract was derived from human nature -NOT from history, tradition, or the Bible
  23. 23. People = most free & moral under a republican form of government with a direct democracy</li></li></ul><li>Philosophical Enlightenment<br />
  24. 24. Marquis de Condorcet1743-1794<br />Most influential writing: Progress of the Human Mind (1794)<br />
  25. 25. Condorcet’s Philosophy<br />Expectation of universal happiness<br />Every individual guided by reason could enjoy true independence<br />Advocated:<br /><ul><li>Free & equal education
  26. 26. Constitutionalism
  27. 27. Equal rights for women</li></li></ul><li>Immanuel Kant1724-1804<br /> Most influential work:<br /> Critique of Pure Reason (1781) <br />
  28. 28. Kant’s Philosophy<br />Investigated the structure & limitations of reason<br />Believed he created a compromise between the empiricists and the rationalists (reason + experience = Enlightenment)<br />
  29. 29. Denis Diderot1713-1784<br />Most influential writing:<br />The Encyclopedia (1751)<br />(coauthor: Jean le Rond d’Alembert)<br />
  30. 30. Diderot’s Encyclopédie<br />Complete cycle of knowledge that changed the general way of thinking<br />28 volumes<br />Alphabetical, cross-referenced, illustrated<br />
  31. 31.
  32. 32.
  33. 33. Voltaire1694-1778<br />François Marie Arouet<br />Most famous book: Candide (1759)<br />Known for sharp wit that was often critical of the church and state<br />
  34. 34. Voltaire (cont.)<br />Wrote plays, novels, poetry, essays, & letters<br />Fierce defender of civil liberties, especially:<br /><ul><li>Religious freedom
  35. 35. Free trade
  36. 36. Freedom of speech</li></ul>Spent time imprisoned in the Bastille<br />
  37. 37. Voltaire (cont.)<br />Life (video)<br />Last words<br />
  38. 38. Words of Wisdom from Voltaire<br />Each group will get a quote from Voltaire<br />Your job is to: <br /><ul><li>Discuss the quote & figure out what Voltaire meant
  39. 39. Offer to the class your group’s interpretation of Voltaire’s wisdom & how it relates to the Enlightenment</li></li></ul><li>Homework<br />Worksheet: Rousseau’s The Social Contract<br />Due next class period<br />