19th Century Britain & France


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19th Century Britain & France

  1. 1. Politics inVictorian England<br />
  2. 2. Britain<br />Constitutional Monarchy<br />House of Windsor<br />Queen Victoria (1837-1901)<br />Era of material progress, literary growth, and political stability<br />
  3. 3. British Parliament<br /><ul><li>Tories and Whigs - worked together
  4. 4. 1832 Reform Bill - two political parties seemed indistinguishable
  5. 5. But, by the 1860s, the middle class and working class had grown  they wanted the franchise expanded!</li></li></ul><li>Parliament (cont.)<br /><ul><li>This era saw the realignment of political parties in the House of Commons:</li></ul>Tory Party  Conservative Party under Benjamin Disraeli<br />Whig Party  Liberal Party under William Gladstone<br />
  6. 6. William GladstonePrime Minister 4 times between 1868-1894<br />-Education Act of 1870 – state-supported public education<br />-Introduced secret ballot (Ballot Act of 1872)<br />-Legalized labor unions<br />-Promoted civil service exam<br />-Eliminated sale of commissions in the army<br />-Worker’s compensation<br />
  7. 7. The Irish Question<br />Biggest problem = Ireland<br />Irish nationalists sought Home Rule (not granted until 1912)<br />Home Rule = control of local gov’t<br />
  8. 8. Irish Potato Famine<br />British & Irish tensions<br />Video Clip: Moments in Time: Famine to Freedom: The Great Irish Journey<br />
  9. 9. Gladstone & The Irish Question<br />Two major legislative pieces:<br />1869 – Disestablishment Act: Irish Catholics did not have to pay taxes to support the Anglican church in Ireland<br />1870 – Irish Land Act: curtailed absentee Protestant landowners from evicting their Irish Catholic tenants without compensation<br />Supported Home Rule for Ireland<br />
  10. 10. Benjamin DisraeliPrime Minister 1874-1880<br />-Expanded electorate  big step toward democracy<br />-Extended laws regulating public sanitation (Public Health Act of 1875)<br />-Safety laws for mines and factories<br />-Regulated housing conditions for poor (Artisans Dwelling Act of 1875)<br />
  11. 11. Labour Party<br />At turn of century, 3rd party established: Labour Party<br />Caused Liberals to worry (losing their base to Labour Party)<br />Result: <br />Liberals in power from 1906-1916<br />Set up massive social welfare programs<br />Sickness, accident, old-age, and unemployment insurances were all adopted<br />Progressive tax established (wealthy pay a higher % rate of tax<br />Conservatives pushed for more laissez-faire gov’t<br />
  12. 12. Life in Victorian England<br />Victorian Buzzwords<br /><ul><li>Family
  13. 13. Virtuous
  14. 14. Modesty
  15. 15. Morality
  16. 16. Rationality
  17. 17. Etiquette</li></li></ul><li>Expectations<br />Citizens expected to spend time in a respectable, productive, rational manner<br />All activities had to be good for both the soul and for the country<br />High moral standing and respectability were the qualities of true ladies & gentlemen<br />
  18. 18. Role Model<br />Queen Victoria was seen as, “the very model of marital stability and domestic virtue…”<br />She represented “a kind of femininity which was centered on the family, motherhood, and respectability.”<br />Quotes from BBC Victorian Britain<br />
  19. 19. How to Be a Gent for Dummies<br />Books on how to be a proper British citizen abounded to assist the middle class on the road to morality<br />The book, Happy Homes and the Hearts that Make Them (1882) suggests,<br />“The true gentleman is one who has been fashioned after the highest models…his qualities depend not on fashion or manners but on moral worth - not on personal possessions but upon personal qualities.”<br />
  20. 20. Oscar Wilde<br />Antithesis of Victorian Ideals<br />Irish Author/Playwright<br />Aesthetic movement: <br />“L’art pour l’art” <br />art should exist solely for its own sake, independent of social and moral concerns<br />Only purpose = to look pretty<br />
  21. 21. Aesthetes in a Victorian World<br />Victorian Buzzwords<br /><ul><li>Family
  22. 22. Virtuous
  23. 23. Modesty
  24. 24. Morality
  25. 25. Rationality
  26. 26. Etiquette</li></ul>Aestheticism Buzzwords<br /><ul><li>Decadence
  27. 27. Symbolism
  28. 28. Decoration
  29. 29. Materialism
  30. 30. Extravagance
  31. 31. Caprice</li></li></ul><li>Wilde’s Words of Wisdom<br />In all unimportant matters, style, not sincerity is the essential. In all important matters, style, not sincerity is the essential.<br />We can forgive a man for making a useful thing as long as he does not admire it. The only excuse for making a useless thing is that one admires it intensely. All art is quite useless.<br />The only way to get rid of a temptation is to yield to it. Resist it and your soul grows sick with longing for the things it has forbidden to itself…<br />I wonder who it was that defined man a rational animal. It was the most premature definition ever given. Man is many things, but he is not rational.<br />
  32. 32. You Little Bugger…<br />Epistemology<br />Wilde’s Woes<br />Court - writings used against him<br />Guilty: “Gross Indecency” <br />Jail time…<br />
  33. 33. Goodbye, Oscar<br />Died - Nov. 30,1900 <br />Meningitis<br />Paris Hotel<br />Final Words…<br />
  34. 34.
  35. 35. Women in Victorian England<br />Focus = family<br />Ideal woman = Queen Victoria<br />Read Handout <br />“Women in Victorian England” & “Victorian Women”<br />
  36. 36. Women’s Suffrage<br />Many women became more vocal about their demands for social & political equality<br />“Suffragettes”<br />
  37. 37. Emmeline Pankhurst<br /><ul><li>militants - arrested and imprisoned
  38. 38. 1917: She and her daughter, Christabel, formed the Women’s Party in 1917:</li></ul>Equal pay for equal work<br />Equal marriage & divorcelaws<br />Equality of rights & opportunities in public service<br />A national system of maternity benefits<br />
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  46. 46. Representation of the People Act<br /><ul><li>1918 - Women over 30 got the right to vote
  47. 47. All men gained suffrage</li></ul>Property qualifications were completely eliminated!<br /><ul><li>Reform Act of 1928</li></ul>Women over 21 years of age gained the right to vote at last!<br />
  48. 48. La Belle Epoque<br />The Beautiful Age<br />1870-1914<br />
  49. 49. France<br />Franco-Prussian War (1870-71)<br />France “goaded” into declaring war by Bismarck<br />France loses – Napoleon III is captured<br />1871 – German unification<br />Emphasizes the weakness of France<br />
  50. 50. Third French Republic Declared!<br /><ul><li>September, 1870
  51. 51. Napoleon III abdicated
  52. 52. New government headed by Adolphe Thiers
  53. 53. continued the fight against the Germans
  54. 54. France surrendered in February, 1871 after 40,000 Parisians died</li></li></ul><li>The Third French Republic<br /><ul><li>Thiers’ government was seen as:</li></ul>Too conservative<br />Too royalist<br />Too ready to accept a humiliating peace with Prussia<br /><ul><li>French government established itself at Versailles, NOT in Paris.</li></ul>Parisians angry<br />Opposed policies of new gov’t<br />Attempted to restore order in Paris<br />
  55. 55. Paris in Revolt!<br /><ul><li>The Paris Commune [Communards] was elected on March 28 and established itself at the Hôtel de Ville</li></li></ul><li>Attempted CommunardReforms<br /><ul><li>Allowed trade unions & workers cooperatives to take over factories not in use and start them up again
  56. 56. Set up unemployment exchanges in town halls
  57. 57. Provide basic elementary education for all  they were strongly against church-controlled schools
  58. 58. Attempted to set up girls schools
  59. 59. Daycare near factories for working mothers</li></li></ul><li>Civil War!<br />Communards<br />Troops from Versailles<br /><ul><li>The Commune was suppressed by government troops led by Marshal Patrice MacMahon during the last week of May, 1871
  60. 60. Known as the “Bloody Week”</li></li></ul><li>The Communards<br />
  61. 61. Paris City Hall Destroyed<br />
  62. 62. Communard Casualties<br />
  63. 63. Declaring the3rd French Republic<br />
  64. 64. An Overview of the 3rd French Republic<br /><ul><li>Politically very unstable.
  65. 65. Rivalry between monarchists and republicans
  66. 66. A number of scandals including The Dreyfus Affair [L’Affaire]
  67. 67. Because there were so many factions, all governments were coalitions
  68. 68. Still, it survived longer than any other regime since 1789!</li></li></ul><li>The Dreyfus Affair<br />
  69. 69. The Dreyfus Affair<br /><ul><li>In 1894 a list of French military documents [called a bordereau] were found in the waste basket of the German Embassy in Paris
  70. 70. French counter-intelligence suspected Captain Alfred Dreyfus, from a wealthy Alsatian </li></ul> Jewish family  one of the <br /> few Jews on the General Staff<br />
  71. 71. The Dreyfus Affair<br /><ul><li>Dreyfus was tried, convicted of treason, and sent to Devil’s Island in French Guiana
  72. 72. The real culprit was a Major Esterhazy, whose handwriting was the same as that on the bordereau
  73. 73. The government tried him and found him not guilty in two days</li></li></ul><li>The Dreyfus Affair<br /><ul><li>A famous author, Emile Zola, published an open letter called J’Accuse!</li></ul>He accused the army of a mistrial and cover-up<br />The government prosecuted him for libel<br />Found him guilty  sentenced to a year in prison<br />
  74. 74. J’Accuse!<br />
  75. 75. The Dreyfus Affair<br />Dreyfusards<br />Anti-Dreyfusards<br /><ul><li>Public opinion was divided  it reflected the divisions in Fr. society
  76. 76. The Dreyfusards were anti-clericals, intellectuals, free masons, & socialists
  77. 77. For Anti-Dreyfusards, the honor of the army was more important than Dreyfus’ guilt or innocence</li></ul>Were army supported, monarchists, & Catholics.<br />
  78. 78. Dreyfus, the Traitor!<br />
  79. 79. The Dreyfus Affair<br /><ul><li>Dreyfus finally got a new trial in 1899
  80. 80. Brought back from Devil’s Island a broken man
  81. 81. Results:</li></ul>Found guilty again, BUT with extenuating circumstances<br />Was given a presidential pardon<br />Exonerated completely in 1906<br />Served honorably in World War I<br />Died in 1935<br />
  82. 82. 19th C. French Life <br />
  83. 83. World Exposition<br />1889<br />Gustave Eiffel<br />1,063 ft tall<br />7,300 tons<br />$1.6 million to build<br />Entrance to Fair<br />
  84. 84.
  85. 85. Vive La Bohème!<br />
  86. 86. The Bohemian Way<br />Challenged status quo by rejecting mainstream values and mocking the bourgeoisie<br />Comprised of <br />Artists<br />Students<br />Writers<br />
  87. 87. The Bohemians<br />Motto: “Truth, beauty, freedom and love”<br />Frequented cafés & music halls<br />Most popular areas:<br />Latin Quarter<br />Montmartre<br />
  88. 88. The Bourgeoisie<br />Fashion, behavior, etiquette mimicked the aristocracy<br />Frequented:<br />Theater<br />Opera<br />Restaurants<br />Casinos<br />Gardens<br />
  89. 89. Montmartre<br />
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  95. 95. Le Moulin Rouge<br />Est. 1889<br />Most famous symbol of the Bohemian life<br />
  96. 96. At The Moulin Rouge<br />Dancers (Can-Can)<br />Elephant<br />Drink<br />Absinthe<br />
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  98. 98. OMG! It’s the Can-Can!<br />