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OPEN EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES
IN AQUACULTURE EDUCATION
AND TRAINING
World Aquaculture 2015
John Bostock
University of Stirlin...
What are Open Educational Resources?
OER are teaching, learning, and
research resources that reside in
the public domain o...
What does OER include?
Open educational resources
include full courses, course
materials, modules, textbooks,
streaming vi...
How are OER licenced?
Image source: http://www.creativecommons.org
The use of Creative Commons licenses is not
essential, ...
How are CC licences specified?
Image source: http://www.creativecommons.org &
http://www.masternewmedia.org/how-to-publish...
Where can I find OER?
http://www.merlot.org/
OER can be found in many different
places on the Internet. There have been
su...
Where can I find and contribute OER?
There are also
independent projects
to create open online
learning resources
such as ...
Searching for CC licensed media
Media with CC licenses and hence potential for use in OER can also be found
through variou...
When searching for images on Google, you can select “Search tools” and then
“Usage rights” to filter the results according...
Why use OER?
Image source: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/communication-and-information/access-to-knowledge/open-
educationa...
Why aren’t all learning materials OER?
Image source: Internet search - http://farm9.static.flickr.com/8508/8383353010_c394...
MOOCs and other free education
Image sources: claxtoncreative.com & http://ielanguages.com/blog/open-lectures-course-mater...
OER and Open Access Publications
Image sources: http://www.lotpublications.nl/ & http://www.aston.ac.uk/library/additional...
Why OER can only be part of the picture
Image source: http://cde.athabascau.ca/online_book/ch2.html
Good access to high qu...
OER granularity and use in context
Image source: Krull & Mallinson 2001 reproduced at:
http://classroom-aid.com/2013/05/25...
So how about OER for
aquaculture teaching and
learning?
Testing the portals – search “aquaculture”
MERLOT – www.merlot.org
6 hits for materials, 401 hits for members
OER Africa –...
Testing media search – “aquaculture”
(reuse allowed)
Flickr – www.flickr.com
2,186 hits
Google Images – www.google.com
103...
Google Scholar – aquaculture + “open
educational resources”
52 hits (some broken) including:
Reference to the EU VOR3R pro...
Aquaculture industry case studies as
Open Educational Resources with
learning activities and supporting
country profiles o...
A 5 ECTS course has been developed to introduce European Aquaculture, making
use of the resources on the web site. There a...
Conclusions
Image source: http://pixabay.com/en/learn-note-sign-directory-64058/
To date, relatively few aquaculture orien...
Thank you for your attention
Email: j.c.bostock@stir.ac.uk
Website: www.aquatnet.com
Slideshare: http://www.slideshare.net...
• The Open Educational Resources Movement has gained momentum in recent years, facilitated by
Internet technologies and su...
Aqua-tnet project – http://www.aquatnet.com
Aqua-tnet AquaCase website – http://www.aquacase.org
Aqua-tnet photo share on ...
This presentation is based on work carried out
within the framework of the AQUA-TNET project
which received funding from t...
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Open Educational Resources in Aquaculture Education and Training

Presentation given at the World Aquaculture Society meeting in Jeju, South Korea on 28th May 2015

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Open Educational Resources in Aquaculture Education and Training

  1. 1. OPEN EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES IN AQUACULTURE EDUCATION AND TRAINING World Aquaculture 2015 John Bostock University of Stirling, UK LLP – Erasmus – Erasmus Network
  2. 2. What are Open Educational Resources? OER are teaching, learning, and research resources that reside in the public domain or have been released under an intellectual property license that permits their free use and re-purposing by others. Source: The Hewlett Foundation. http://www.hewlett.org/programs/education/open-educational-resources OER have been defined in various ways but a key concept is that they can be adapted by others
  3. 3. What does OER include? Open educational resources include full courses, course materials, modules, textbooks, streaming videos, tests, software, and any other tools, materials, or techniques used to support access to knowledge Source: The Hewlett Foundation. http://www.hewlett.org/programs/education/open-educational-resources OER can include any resources used in teaching or for personal learning
  4. 4. How are OER licenced? Image source: http://www.creativecommons.org The use of Creative Commons licenses is not essential, but these have been widely adopted for use with OER
  5. 5. How are CC licences specified? Image source: http://www.creativecommons.org & http://www.masternewmedia.org/how-to-publish-a-book-under-a-creative-commons-license/ The 4 basic questions covered by Creative Commons licenses can be combined in six ways which can be displayed as a logo and included in web page and other computer code
  6. 6. Where can I find OER? http://www.merlot.org/ OER can be found in many different places on the Internet. There have been substantial efforts to create and curate OER repositories such as MERLOT (California State University) or portals that provide access to resources elsewhere on the Internet such as TEMOA (Latin America) or OER Africa. http://www.temoa.info/ http://www.oerafrica.org
  7. 7. Where can I find and contribute OER? There are also independent projects to create open online learning resources such as Wikiversity – a side project to Wikipedia – inviting contributions from anyone with relevant expertise http://www.wikiversity.org
  8. 8. Searching for CC licensed media Media with CC licenses and hence potential for use in OER can also be found through various search tools such as the one at http://search.creativecommons.org or by using appropriate rights filters with Google
  9. 9. When searching for images on Google, you can select “Search tools” and then “Usage rights” to filter the results according to CC license e.g. image search on Google
  10. 10. Why use OER? Image source: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/communication-and-information/access-to-knowledge/open- educational-resources// http://openeducationeuropa.eu and http://icore-online.org/ The development and use of OER is strongly supported by the European Union, The United Nations Education, Science and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) and many other organisations for a range or reasons including: • Belief in a principle of wide and free access to learning • Potential for cost saving in education if efficiency in producing materials is improved • Potential for increased quality through peer review and community improvement • Opportunities for industry to contribute to enhancing relevance of available materials
  11. 11. Why aren’t all learning materials OER? Image source: Internet search - http://farm9.static.flickr.com/8508/8383353010_c394f891ef.jpg Despite much policy support, most teaching and learning materials are not published as OER. Reasons for this include: • Without potential for direct financial return the production of materials by the private sector or individuals will be inhibited • Individuals may see little benefit and potential risks in releasing their own materials for peer use and review • OER threatens competition between institutions based on the materials they produce and may alter existing funding arrangements or hand more power to a smaller number of global players • A focus on open access to materials encourages learner-centred pedagogies and diminishes the role of teaching
  12. 12. MOOCs and other free education Image sources: claxtoncreative.com & http://ielanguages.com/blog/open-lectures-course-materials-moocs- itunes-u-the-internet-is-for-learning/ The Open Education Movement is part of a wider ecosystem of free or low-cost education provision. The most widely publicised and debated initiatives in recent years have been the Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) from some of the leading universities. In most cases the materials are provided free of charge, but remain the copyright of the author or publishing institution, so are not OER. An increasing number of institutions are also providing materials through Apple’s iTunesU or Google’s YouTube EDU. In the long-term participants in these projects expect to make financial returns through attracting students to other courses or charging for additional tuition, accreditation or other additions to the free offering.
  13. 13. OER and Open Access Publications Image sources: http://www.lotpublications.nl/ & http://www.aston.ac.uk/library/additional-information-for/open- access-publishing-for-aston-authors/open-access-how-to-publish/open-access-compliance-form/ Open Access is related to OER as it aims to make the results of research available to everyone and allows redistribution. However it does not generally allow repurposing (altering the content) Nevertheless, Open Access references fit well with OER as part of a broader learning package and are included in portals such as Temoa
  14. 14. Why OER can only be part of the picture Image source: http://cde.athabascau.ca/online_book/ch2.html Good access to high quality teaching and learning materials can only be part of the answer to building knowledge and skills, particularly if they need to be accredited. Much of the process of learning exists in the type and quality of interactions that the learner has with other learners and the people they are learning from as well as the way the whole learning process is managed and the feedback and support that is available.
  15. 15. OER granularity and use in context Image source: Krull & Mallinson 2001 reproduced at: http://classroom-aid.com/2013/05/25/what-you-should-know-about-learning-object-part-ii/ OER resources vary from single images, through complete lessons to all the materials needed for a taught course or guided learning. Using appropriate OER in the right context greatly enhances their value (i.e. focus on pedagogy first)
  16. 16. So how about OER for aquaculture teaching and learning?
  17. 17. Testing the portals – search “aquaculture” MERLOT – www.merlot.org 6 hits for materials, 401 hits for members OER Africa – www.oerafrica.org 2 hits OpenEducationEuropa – openeducationeuropa.eu 5 hits (3 projects, 1 MOOC, 1 News item) TEMOA – www.temoa.info 364 hits (290 English, 36 Spanish, 32 Portuguese)
  18. 18. Testing media search – “aquaculture” (reuse allowed) Flickr – www.flickr.com 2,186 hits Google Images – www.google.com 103 hits Wikimedia Commons – commons.wikimedia.org 643 hits YouTube – www.youtube.com 1080 hits (all Creative Commons)
  19. 19. Google Scholar – aquaculture + “open educational resources” 52 hits (some broken) including: Reference to the EU VOR3R project - http://voa3r.eu/ (Virtual Open Access Agriculture & Aquaculture Repository) Links to resources in DOER - Commonwealth Universities directory of OER Policy Document from the Tasmanian Government promoting use of OER and eLearning
  20. 20. Aquaculture industry case studies as Open Educational Resources with learning activities and supporting country profiles on video Example: AQUA-TNET Collaborative Learning Platform
  21. 21. A 5 ECTS course has been developed to introduce European Aquaculture, making use of the resources on the web site. There are also some presentation slides and other materials on research project management, data management and communication of results. Most materials have a CC licence. Example: AQUA-TNET Collaborative Learning Platform www.aquacase.org
  22. 22. Conclusions Image source: http://pixabay.com/en/learn-note-sign-directory-64058/ To date, relatively few aquaculture oriented learning materials have been explicitly published with a CC license that encourages adaptation and reuse. With the exception of the AQUA-TNET project there seems to have been relatively little debate and focus on the potential benefits of OER for the aquaculture industry and few directly funded projects or collections of aquaculture OER Many teachers and learners use OER, but also use other accessible materials that are not specifically labelled for re-use. Conversely few teachers publish materials as OER (and/or may be prevented from doing so by their institution) Further exploration of the potential benefits of OER for the aquaculture sector and how this can be developed is strongly encouraged.
  23. 23. Thank you for your attention Email: j.c.bostock@stir.ac.uk Website: www.aquatnet.com Slideshare: http://www.slideshare.net/jbostock
  24. 24. • The Open Educational Resources Movement has gained momentum in recent years, facilitated by Internet technologies and supported by many universities and international institutions including at the policy level, the European Commission. Open Educational Resources (OER) can be distinguished from other free educational materials through a licence that enables their repurposing and reuse by others. OER can help teachers develop courses more efficiently and potentially with higher quality; whilst their free availability opens up educational opportunities for people who would otherwise be excluded for reasons of finance, location or personal situation. • Although OER offer significant social benefits, there are many barriers to widespread adoption. These range from issues of funding, a desire to protect individual or corporate copyright, concerns over greater transparency, academic and institutional competition, and critique on the basis of pedagogical principles. • The availability of OER for aquaculture education is limited, although increasing through project initiatives such as Aqua-tnet. Potential drivers for further development include the increasing support for open access publications, the evolution of MOOCs, the activities of online communities of practice and the widespread sharing of photos, videos and presentations online. • Examples of OER for aquaculture are identified and considered in relation to the wider OER movement, and prospects for increased uptake within the aquaculture sector are discussed with reference to industry benefits and wider community engagement. Abstract
  25. 25. Aqua-tnet project – http://www.aquatnet.com Aqua-tnet AquaCase website – http://www.aquacase.org Aqua-tnet photo share on Flickr - http://www.flickr.com/groups/aqua-tnet/ Aqua-tnet video share on YouTube - https://www.youtube.com/user/aquatnet Aqua-tnet links share on Diigo - https://groups.diigo.com/group/aqua-tnet Aqua-tnet discussions on LinkedIn - http://www.linkedin.com/groups?gid=4447985 Aqua-tnet discussions on Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/groups/aquatnet/ Aqua-tnet news on ScoopIt! - http://www.scoop.it/t/aqua-tnet Aquaculture International Special Edition on Advances in Teaching & Learning from Aqua-tnet - http://link.springer.com/journal/10499/23/3 Wikiversity - https://www.wikiversity.org/ Open Education Europa portal – http://openeducationeuropa.eu Temoa - http://www.temoa.info/ OER Africa - http://www.oerafrica.org/ African Virtual University Resources - http://oer.avu.org/ OER from the UK Open University - http://www.open.ac.uk/about/open-educational-resources/ Creative Commons Education - http://creativecommons.org/education UNESCO OER - http://www.unesco.org/new/en/communication-and-information/access-to-knowledge/open- educational-resources/ Martin Weller book: The Battle for Open - http://www.ubiquitypress.com/site/books/detail/11/battle-for-open/ Useful web links
  26. 26. This presentation is based on work carried out within the framework of the AQUA-TNET project which received funding from the European Union’s Lifelong Learning Programme, Erasmus Thematic Networks under grant agreement No. 2011-3997/001-001 and Project No. 518700-LLP- 1-2011-1-UK-ERASMUS-ENW. This presentation reflects the views only of the author, and the European Union cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Graphic images used in this presentation were sourced from the Internet with the origin cited on the appropriate slide. Disclaimer

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