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Life BEYOND
the ILLUSION
of PRESENT
Jonas Bonér
CTO Typesafe
@jboner
"Time is what prevents everything from happening at once."
- John Archibald Wheeler
Newton's
PHYSICS
THIS SIMPLIFIED MODEL IS
VERY APPEALING TO US
von Neumann
ARCHITECTURE
BACK THEN
LIFE WAS GOOD
THEN, ALONG CAME
CONCURRENCY
MADE LIFE MISERABLE
Jim Gray's
TRANSACTIONS
SAVE THE DAY
WELL, ALONG CAME
DISTRIBUTION
MADE LIFE MISERABLE, again...
But don't be surprised
UNFORTUNATELY,
THIS IS NOT
HOW THE WORLD WORKS
"The future is a function of the past."
- A. P. Robertson
"The (local) present is a merge function of
multiple concurrent pasts."
— Me
val newLocalPresent = observedPasts.
foldLeft(oldLocalPresent) { _ merge _ }
WE NEED TO EXPLICITLY MODEL THE
LOCAL PRESENT AS
FACTS DERIVED FROM THE
MERGING OF MULTIPLE
CONCURRENT PASTS
INFORMATION IS ALWAYS FROM THE PAST
THE TRUTH
IS CLOSER TO
EINSTEIN'S
PHYSICS
INFORMATION HAS
LATENCY
THE COST OF MAINTAINING
THIS ILLUSION IS INCREASED
CONTENTION &
COHERENCY
AS LATENCY GETS HIGHER, THE
ILLUSION CRACKS EVEN MORE
DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS
EVERYWHERE
THE NETWORK IS RELIABLE...NAT
"If a tree falls in a forest and no one is around to hear it, does it make a
sound?"
— Charles Riborg Mann
Information CAN (and will) GET LOST
HOW DO WE DEAL WITH
INFORMATION LOSS
IN REAL LIFE?
WE USE A SIMPLE PROTOCOL OF
Confirm, Wait & Repeat
We fill in THE BLANKS
...AND IF WE ARE WRONG, WE TAKE
COMPENSATING ACTIONAPOLOGY-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING - PAT HELLAND (IN MEMORIES, GUESSES, AND A...
The bottom line:
WE CAN'T FORCE THE WORLD INTO A
SINGLE GLOBALLY CONSISTENT
PRESENT
Should we just GIVE UP?
I BELIEVE THAT THERE IS A
PATH FORWARD
WE NEED TO TREAT
TIME AS A
FIRST CLASS CONSTRUCT
WHAT IS TIME, really?
TIME IS THE
SUCCESSION OF
CAUSALLY RELATED EVENTS
How can we
MANAGE
TIME?
Think in FACTS
What is a
FACT?
"A Fact is something that truly exists or happens: something that has
actual existence, a true piece of information."
— Me...
IMMUTABILITY
is a requirement
So, do variables
HAVE A PURPOSE IN LIFE?
"The assignment statement is the von Neumann bottleneck of
programming languages and keeps us thinking in word-at-a-time t...
MUTABLE STATE
NEEDS TO BE
CONTAINED
Ok, but how should we
MANAGE FACTS?
Functional
PROGRAMMING
Logic
PROGRAMMING
Dataflow
PROGRAMMING
NEVER
DELETE
FACTS
"When bookkeeping was done with clay tablets or paper and ink,
accountants developed some clear rules about good accountin...
CRUD
"Database is a cache of a subset of the log."
— Pat Helland (2007)
Store facts in an
EVENT LOG
The log allows
TIME
TRAVEL
Can we REWRITE THE PAST?
Allows us to shift our focus from
DATA AT REST, to
DATA IN MOTION
Stream Processing
CONSTRUCTING A SUFFICIENTLY CONSISTENT
LOCAL PRESENT
MEANS EMPLOYING
CONSISTENCY MECHANISMS
Consistency
WHAT?
WHY?
WHEN?
WE NEED TO DECOMPOSE THE SYSTEM USING
CONSISTENCY BOUNDARIES
INSIDE DATA: OUR CURRENT PRESENT
OUTSIDE DATA: BLAST FROM THE PAST
BETWEEN SERVICES: HOPE FOR THE FUTURE
— PAT HELLAND (DA...
MicroSERVICE
AGGREGATE Root
WITHIN THE CONSISTENCY BOUNDARY
EVENT
Sourcing
BETWEEN THE
Consistency
Boundaries
IT'S A ZOO
Decoupling in
TIME / SPACE
STRONG
CONSISTENCY
The wrong default
Here, we are living in the
LOOMING SHADOW OF
IMPOSSIBILITY
THEOREMS
FLPCONSENSUS IS IMPOSSIBLE
PROTOCOLS CLIMB THE LADDER OF KNOWLEDGE
Cɸ: Common Knowledge (infinite number of i)
Eiɸ: (Everyone knows * i) ɸ
E3ɸ: (Ever...
COMMON KNOWLEDGE
IS NOT ATTAINABLE VIA PROTOCOL- JOSEPH HALPERN
CAPCONSISTENCY IS IMPOSSIBLE
Dissecting
CAP
"The first principle of successful scalability is to batter the consistency
mechanisms down to a minimum."
– James Hamilton
EVENTUAL
CONSISTENCY
What does it really mean?
Tracking TIME is tracking CAUSALITY
RELYING ON
TIMESTAMPS
IS A BAD IDEA
Instead, rely on
LOGICAL TIME
Lamport
CLOCKS
GLOBAL CAUSAL ORDERING BETWEEN
Vector
CLOCKSPARTIAL CAUSAL ORDERING BETWEEN EVENTS
Causal
CONSISTENCY
What
CONSISTENCY
DO YOU REALLY NEED AND
when?
ACID 2.0ASSOCIATIVE
COMMUTATIVE
IDEMPOTENT
DISTRIBUTED
CONFLICT-FREE REPLICATED DATA TYPES
DISORDERLY PROGRAMMING
CALM THEOREM
WE ARE JUST GETTING STARTED
WE HAVE A LONG ROAD AHEAD OF US...
Thanks
FOR LISTENING
Life BEYOND
the ILLUSION
of PRESENT
Jonas Bonér
CTO Typesafe
@jboner
AS LATENCY GETS HIGHER, THE
AS LATENCY GETS HIGHER, THE
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AS LATENCY GETS HIGHER, THE Life Beyond the Illusion of Present

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AS LATENCY GETS HIGHER, THE
ILLUSION CRACKS EVEN MORE

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