The Umbrella Perspective on Communication Technology• Hardware - the • Social System - the communication political, economic and technology itself media systems• Software - the environment etc. messages/content of • Individual Users - actual the communication and potential technology• Organizational Infrastructure - those involved in the production/distribution
Using the Umbrella Perspective: Xbox• Xbox Live • Social System-Xbox live is more• Hardware-a gaming device that than a gaming system. Microsoft allows you to play video games has integrated social media into and chat online with opponents. their plan making it very easy to• Software-With over 23 million update members, Xbox Live is yourFacebookstatus, stream unstoppable and provides videos, tweet, and connect face entertainment to a large portion to face with friends and family via of our population. Kinect.• Organizational Infrastructure— • Users-Loyal gamers. Potential Microsoft owns Xbox and they users would be celebrities are far ahead of their endorsing the device via social competitors, Sony and Nintendo media outlets. Example: when it comes to production and LeBronJames playing Call of Duty distribution of the product. on Youtube, Charlie Sheen tweeting about the latest Madden game.
Critical Mass Theory• “Critical mass" is the Critical mass can be small segment of a applied to many societal system that different aspects of does the work or sociodynamics. It action required to becomes increasingly achieve the common applicable to good. innovations in interactive media.
Using Critical Mass Theory: Pinterest • “Our goal is to connect everyone in the world through the things they find interesting. We think that a favorite book, toy, or recipe can reveal a commonPinterest is an innovative way to link between two people.socially connect with a massive With millions of new pinsgroup of people and share added every week, Pinterestcommon interests. is connecting people all over the world based on shared tastes and interests.”
Roger’s Diffusion of Innovation Knowledge – person becomes aware of an innovation and has some • Implementation – person idea of how it functions. puts an innovation into• Persuasion – person use. forms a favorable or • Confirmation – person unfavorable attitude evaluates the results of toward the innovation. an innovation-decision• Decision – person already made. engages in activities that lead to a choice to adopt or reject the innovation.
Using Roger’s Diffusion of Innovation: Blogging Knowledge: User may research different blog sites to find one that best suits their personal needs. Persuasion: User would make a decision on which blog to create based on personal research. Decision: Person would create the blog and make a decision of they enjoy using it or not. Implementation: Success, and uses the blog regularly! Confirmation: Blogger it is
Uses and Gratifications Theory• What people do with • Cognitive needs media rather than what • Affective needs media does to people. • Personal Integrative needs• How people use media • Social Integrative needs at their convenience. • Tension free needs
Using the Uses and Gratification Theory: e-readers • E-readers such as the Kindle have changed the book industry and reading material drastically. • The compact device is sleek, easy to use, and takes up minimal space. • Society ‘needs’ this over a book for the mere fact that we are in the Digital Age, and books are on their way out completely, unfortunately .
Dependency Theory• You become dependent • You rely on the media on media information for information more so to meet certain needs than before. and achieve certain goals.
Using Dependency Theory: TiVo, On- Demand Television• The TiVo® Premiere DVR is the worlds first Smart DVR. It brings the best entertainment from cable and the web together in one place, with one remote and one simple search across everything.
Social Learning Theory and Social Cognitive TheoryPeople can learn new • Albert Bandura believedinformation and that directbehaviors by watching reinforcement could notother people. Known as account for all types ofobservational learning learning.(or modeling), this typeof learning can be usedto explain a wide varietyof behaviors.
Using social learning theory/socialcognitive theory: reality television• People watch reality • People watch and learn television shows to the lives of others to vicariously live the lives observe and operate in of celebrities and similar ways as they see normal folk to feel a on television. sense of stability and normalcy.
The Principle of Relative Constancy• This principle states that consumers spend a constant fraction of their income on mass media over time (constancy assumption), although they are expected to alter their spending patterns within mass media categories in response to the introduction of new mass media products or services (functional equivalence assumption).
Using the Principle of RelativeConstancy: getting the latest phone • Consumers feel as if they must keep up with the latest trends in cellular devices regardless if the phones serve the same purpose because our wants and needs extend with technology.
The Long Tail theory suggests that, as the Internet makes distribution easier-- and uses state-of-the-art recommendation systems that allows consumersto become aware of more obscure products -- demand will shift from themost popular products at the "head" of a demand curve . THE LONGTAIL THEORY
Long Tail Theory in use: iTunes• iTunes is a perfect example of the Long Tail because it provides ample opportunity for unknown artists to be discovered by fans based on search results and similar artists. It is a media that provides opportunity for up and coming artists.
In 2021……Now that you’ve seen the why’s oftechnology today, here is a look at our potential future.
Smartphones with breathalyzers?• Although some may joke about such a thing, I foresee it happening and think it could potentially prevent many drunk driving incidents.
Technology taking jobs?• Many fast food chains have already cut jobs and replaced them with robots, and it seems to be a continuing trend.• Robots and computer machines can enter orders and date via voice based or by punching in numbers—which saves companies money and also takes jobs from citizens.
Sources Cited• Dependency Theory. Retrieved December 12, 2011, from• http://www.utwente.nl/cw/theorieenoverzicht/Theory%20clusters/ Mass%20Media/Dependency%20Theory.doc/.•• Retrieved December 10, 2011, from• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Critical_mass_(sociodynamics).•• Retrieved December 12, 2011, from• http://www.fsc.yorku.ca/york/istheory/wiki/index.php/Diffusion_of _innovations_theory.•• Longtail Theory. Retrieved from December 12, 2011 from,• http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article.cfm?articleid=2338.
Cont’d• Uses and Gratification. Retrieved December 10, 2011, from• http://communicationtheory.org/uses-and-gratification-theory/.•• The Mechanism of Diffusion. Retrieved December 11, 2011, from• http://www.stanford.edu/class/symbsys205/Diffusion%20of%20Innovations.htm••• Retrieved December 10, 2011, from http://people.bethel.edu/~socsco/ComTech/ComTechTheory.html.•• Psychology Today. Retrieved December 12, 2011, from• The Mechanism of Diffusion. Retrieved December 11, 2011, from• http://www.stanford.edu/class/symbsys205/Diffusion%20of%20Innovations.htm.•• Xbox Information. Retrieved December 12, 2011, from• www.xbox.com.•• I do not own any copyrights to any photographs. All photographs came from the search engine: www.google.com .