Have you observed the impact of management on your farm?
Yield per unit of N has increased over the last 30 years ? lbs of grain per lb of N Some IL farmers consistently harvest more than 75 lbs of grain (1.3 bu) for each lb of N applied
So why does nutrientpollution from agriculturecontinue to besuch a serious problem in IL?
Has your farm everlooked like this in the last 3 years?
Or this? Dissipate large amounts of ag chemicals into the environment… sometimes the consequences are severe !http://mckusicklake.org/wp-content/uploads/2008/04/2007_0327image0001.JPG
Could this story be about your farm? Increasing yield by installing drainage By Mindy Ward, Missouri Farmer Today BOONVILLE --- For more than 100 years, the Hoff family has fought to farm wet areas of their fields. For Eddie Hoff, the fourth generation to farm the creek bottom ground in Cooper County, the loss of yield and added expense of working the ground was ultimately affecting his bottom line. “We were losing 60 to 70 bushels per acre in some spots,” he says. We were working the ground over and over. I just wanted to no-till and save some cost.” So, he decided to drain the soils with pattern tile.
Yield mapshave made drainage problems more obvious
Northern ILcontains alot of soils that are prone to nitrate leaching
Peak uptake > 10 lbs ofN/ac/day for high yield corn
Drainage practices should be combined with practices that reduce leaching REDUCTION POTENTIAL combine summer annuals with winter annuals
Seeding cover crops with a vertical tillage tool
The CC planting methods shown on theprevious slides are only feasible for a limited # of acres after harvest in the Corn Belt Other options are clearly needed! Student: Which cover crops have you tried? how many acres? following/preceding which crops? Joe Nester replied: We just inter-seeded 14,000 acres of corn and soybeans with annual ryegrass. We used a helicopter service out of Minnesota to seed it. We used annual ryegrass a year ago, seeding with drills after wheat and soybeans, but the planting date was too late to wait after beans. Excellent where seeded after wheat about Sept. 1. Our experience is limited, but the idea is really taking off, to hold the soil in place over the winter, keep nutrients within the field, and help with timely no-till planting in the spring.
IA and IL Aerial Applicator Survey (May-June 2010)Name Location Experience w/CC Cost no exp., no customerCady Aerial Spray Rock Falls, IL interest $8.00/a norm app $8.50/a ccBenoit AerialSpraying Kankakee, IL turnips and rye $8.00/a norm app $10.00/a ccFranks FlyingService Morrison, IL ryegrass and c. rye $8.00/a norm app $10.00/a ccReeds Fly-on yes, c. rye, small partFarming Mattoon, IL of business $8.00/a norm app $12.00/a ccKilliam Flying rye, wheat on beans, $8.00/a norm app $10.00/acService Carlinville, IL rye on corn or 10/lbCurless FlyingService Astoria, IL ryegrass and turnips $8-15.00/a all app.Klein Flying St. Francisville, ~$12.50/a cc,Service IL annual rye and turnips $9.00/a liquid appAgriflite Services Wakarusa, IN rye, wheat, ryegrass ave $15.00/a for cc app.Als Aerial $10-15.00/a ccSpraying Ovid, MI rye and wheat $10.00/a liquid
Don and Matt Birky’s uniquehighboy with 10 feet and sixinches of clearance could attracta crowd for its high-risingmaneuvers, but the father-sonteam created the specialequipment for a tough job.The highboy, dubbed High Roller,was developed to air seedlegumes and other cover cropsinto standing corn in August. TheBirkys, who operate On TrackFarming Inc. in rural Gibson City,put the highboy through its paceslast week.
“I have been building a seeder to overseed cover crops into corn & beans. Im using a Hagie STS 12 with a Gandy Orbit Air seed box. I can cover 90 feet / 36 rows and the hopper holds 65 bu. “Andy Ambriole’s Highboy air seeder
“This is the last and greenest field I did. Still has a little time to go yet, but it should make some corn. Most other fields are brown with grainmoisture, Im guessing, in the low 20s. The ground is getting more light, so well see if that makes a difference.”
“Its kinda hard to tell the seed from the corn pollen. The big lighter pieces are pollen. The smaller darker ones areryegrass and the little orange balls are crimson clover. The seed mix was 80/20 ryegrass/clover”
Rig for mid-summer over-seeding into corn in Ontario
New bulletin from Penn State Red clover can be frost seeded into smallgrains in early spring, over seeded into corn in early-summer and over seeded into soybeans just before leaf drop.
Combining striptill with cover crops on Ron Neumiller’s farm
Cover crops planted while stripping on Joe Rothermel’s farm
Small-seeded legumes and grasses can beplanted using the insecticide boxes of most corn/soybean planters. Just like granular insecticides, many of the small-seeded forages can be accurately metered directly in-furrow or banded just infront of the press wheel. Setting the double disk openers about 1/2” to 3/4” deep and runningthe seed in-furrow will give the best seed-to-soil contact and probably the best chance of success.
Cereal rye inter-seeded with soybean for in-row weed controlCereal rye and several other CC species that require vernalization will be planted over soybeans rows using the insecticide boxes on our planter in 2012
Terry Taylor planted radishes on 30” rows w/ hairy vetch, crimson clover and Austrian winter peas in fall 2010
A Wheat-Corn-Bean rotation with "tillage" done via RADISHES (!!) into the wheat stubble every third year! All done with a single 60 ft30" planter, RTK and one 60ft toolbar. Fertilizer efficiency is very good with banding, split application and no fall losses. I came away from there thinking I have seen the future of production agriculture, at least in some areas. Sorry to go on so long but this was a very interesting day. The field of tillage radishes was incredible. The size of those things does really seem to break up the soil at least as deep as many tillage tools. I think this may be the future for many folks… I am no longer a skeptic!
A Wheat-Corn-Bean rotation with "tillage" done via RADISHES (!!) into the wheat stubble every third year! All done with a single 60 ft 30" planter, RTK and one 60fttoolbar. Fertilizer efficiency is very good with banding, split application and no fall losses.I came away from there thinking I have seen the future of production agriculture, at least in some areas.Sorry to go on so long but this was a very interesting day. The field of tillage radishes was incredible. The size ofthose things does really seem to break up the soil at least as deep as many tillage tools.
A Wheat-Corn-Bean rotation with "tillage" done via RADISHES (!!) into the wheat stubble every third year! All done with a single 60 ft 30" planter, RTK and one 60fttoolbar. Fertilizer efficiency is very good with banding, split 8625 application and no fall losses. views!!I came away from there thinking I have seen the future of production agriculture, at least in some areas.Sorry to go on so long but this was a very interesting day. The field of tillage radishes was incredible. The size ofthose things does really seem to break up the soil at least as deep as many tillage tools.
November 2010Radishes planted on the WIU/AllisonOrganic Research farm on 30” rowsusing milo plates in our corn planter
Some 2011 data Cover crop system Relative corn yield Volunteer oats 79%Radishes planted on 30” 99%Radishes drilled on 7.5” 91%
Cover crops are multi-functional! Feedlivestock Cover Crops Adapted from Magdoff and Weil (2004)
Matching specific objectives with species #1 way to make CC pay Grazing brassicas, clovers, small grains, a. ryegrass, sorghum-sudan Nutrient scavenging/cycling brassicas, small grains, annual ryegrass Bio-drilling brassicas, sugarbeet, sunflower, sorghum-sudan sweet clover, alfalfa N-fixationclovers, vetches, lentil, winter pea, chickling vetch, sun hemp, cowpea, soybean Bio-activation/fumigation brassicas, sorghum-sudan, sun hemp, sesame Weed suppression brassicas, sorghum-sudan, cereal rye, buckwheat
Be realistic about potential cover crop challengesStart planning today for next fall!
Key considerations How will I seed the cover crop?What will soil temperature and moisture conditions be like? What weather extremes and field traffic must it tolerate? Will it winterkill in my area? Should it winterkill, to meet my goals? What kind of regrowth can I expect? How will I kill it and plant into it? Will I have the time to make this work? What’s my contingency plan—and risks—if the cover crop doesn’t establish or doesn’t die on schedule? Do I have the needed equipment and labor?