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History of ag mechanization


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I developed this presentation for my Intro to Sustainable Agriculture class at Western Illinois University in Fall 2012

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History of ag mechanization

  1. 1. Biographical info: Age? Gender? Education? Career? Relation to you? How have the physical demands of agriculture changed during your life? Do you miss any of the physical work of the past? What types of physically demanding work do you miss the least? Did you get paid for agricultural labor as a child? If not, what motivated you to do it? Do you view the reductions in physical labor in agriculture during your lifetime as all positive? Do you think there are any negative trade-offs? Do you think participation in agricultural labor has impacted your health or character? Please explain. Is there anything else that you would like to share about physical labor in ag? Physical labor interview Qs
  2. 2. 43 sets of Physical Labor interview responses have been submitted Allison H Responded on:2013-09-03 Andrew F Responded on:2013-09-04 Andrew H Responded on:2013-09-02 Andrew W Responded on:2013-09-03 Cheyenne S Responded on:2013-08-31 Chris C Responded on:2013-09-02 Clinton E Responded on:2013-09-02 Cody L Responded on:2013-09-03 Craig W Responded on:2013-09-04 Cristopher T Responded on:2013-09-03 Devan B Responded on:2013-09-04 Dillon P Responded on:2013-09-04 Elijah H Responded on:2013-09-03 Eric L Responded on:2013-09-02 Ethan B Responded on:2013-09-01 Evan P Responded on:2013-09-03 Gloria L Responded on:2013-09-04 Jacob P Responded on:2013-09-03 Jeffrey M Responded on:2013-09-04 Jessica M Responded on:2013-09-04 John C Responded on:2013-09-04 John H Responded on:2013-09-03 Joseph C Responded on:2013-09-04 Joseph M Responded on:2013-09-03 Joshua B Responded on:2013-09-03 Justin F Responded on:2013-09-03 Karisa J Responded on:2013-09-02 Kelly A Responded on:2013-08-29 Kelly J Responded on:2013-09-03 Kelsey H Responded on:2013-08-30 Kyle W Responded on:2013-09-03 Molly M Responded on:2013-09-04 Morgan W Responded on:2013-09-04 Olivia F Responded on:2013-09-04 Roger T Responded on:2013-09-03 Samantha S Responded on:2013-08-29 Sarah G Responded on:2013-09-03 Sean M Responded on:2013-09-03 Sean M Responded on:2013-09-03 Steven R Responded on:2013-09-01 Taylor J Responded on:2013-09-03 Tyler Z Responded on:2013-09-04 Zane H Responded on:2013-09-01 TALK to me if you have NOT submitted!!!
  3. 3. GOODWORKguys! youcollectedlotsofinterestingresponses!
  4. 4. Questions for Mechanization of ag interview (Due before start of class on 9/11) Biographical info: age, years farming, scale of main enterprises, HP of largest tractor What development(s) in farm equipment during your career have had the biggest impact on your life? Please explain. How do you weigh in on the value of new equipment? How valuable is it to regularly trade-up vs. run older well maintained equipment? How much of the repair and servicing of your equipment do you do yourself? How has this changed over time? What are the main ways that you learn about new developments in farm equipment? How many gallons of diesel fuel are required to produce an acre of corn on your farm? How has this changed during your career? Do you think equipment will just keep getting larger or do you expect smaller fully or mostly automated equipment will become important? Is there anything else that you would like to share about the mechanization of agriculture?
  5. 5. 1 submission as of noon today
  6. 6. Agriculture prior to the mechanical revolution • Wooden plows, all sowing by hand, cultivation by hoe (but mostly no weed control) • Hay and grain cutting with a sickle, and threshing with a flail The Sower by Vincent Van Gogh
  7. 7. An Allegory of Summer by Abel Grimmer, early 1600s
  8. 8. A recent threshing party in Mongolia
  9. 9. European farming practices in the 1600s were not that different from the practices used in ancient Egypt thousands of years earlier
  10. 10. Jethro Tull, 1731 Jethro Tull, a British agricultural pioneer (1674-1741) invented the grain drill and other complementary row crop implements that resulted in large increases in agricultural output and productivity.
  11. 11. Agricultural productivity is the relationship between agricultural inputs and outputs, a measure of the efficiency of production. What is productivity? Yield ≠ Productivity
  12. 12. Primary Methods for Productivity Enhancement in Agriculture
  13. 13. • 1790s Scythe and cradle introduced • 1793 Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin and championed manufacturing using interchangeable parts • 1794 Thomas Jefferson designed an improved grain drill and moldboard plow • 1797 Charles Newbold patented first cast-iron plow Cotton Gin Scythe w/ cradle What does a cotton gin do? What is the purpose of the cradle?
  14. 14. A 15-man haying crew in Pennsylvania ready to start work in the fields (~ 1900).
  15. 15. The cotton gin made large-scale production of cotton possible in the US South 10,500 bales produced in 1793 4.5 million produced in 1861  major expansion of slavery in southern US  cheap cotton  industrialization of textile production
  16. 16. • 1834 first McCormick reaper patented • 1847 McCormick moved to Chicago and began manufacturing reapers -- > International Harvester Later model reaper What does a reaper do? Why is Cyrus McCormick often called the Father of Modern Agriculture?
  17. 17. McCormick’s reaper triggered a major expansion of commercial agriculture in the US. Farmers needed cash to purchase factory-made reapers and other agricultural machinery and thus had to increase their sale of farm products. subsistence farming → commercial farming
  18. 18. • 1837 John Deere invented the self- scouring steel plow greatly accelerating the breaking of prairie John Deere (1804-1886) What is meant by “self-scouring”?
  19. 19. After a strained 5 yr partnership that ended in 1848, Deere moved to Moline, IL, because the city was a transportation hub on the Mississippi River. In 1855, Deere's new factory manufactured more than 10,000 plows. In 1838, John Deere sold his first steel plow to a local farmer who quickly spread word of his success with the plow. By 1841, Deere was manufacturing 75-100 plows per year.
  20. 20. The first practical threshing machine was also invented in 1837
  21. 21. Feeding bundles into the threshing machine
  22. 22. Why did many farm wives not enjoy threshing time? - too many mouths to feed - too many unsavory characters on their farms
  23. 23. Have you been to an Old Threshers Reunion?
  24. 24. • 1841 Improved grain drill patented. • 1842 First grain elevator, Buffalo, NY • 1844 Sickle bar mowing machine patented • 1847 Irrigation begun in Utah
  25. 25. • 1854 Self-governing windmill patented. • 1856 2-horse straddle- row cultivator patented.
  26. 26. • 1865-75 Gang plows and sulky plows came into common use along with spring-tooth harrows for seed bed preparation. • 1868 Steam tractors first taken to the field.
  27. 27. • 1870s Silos came into use. • 1870s Deep-well drilling first widely used. • 1874 Glidden barbed wire patented. Barbed wire allowed fencing of rangeland, ending the era of unrestricted open-range grazing. First upright silo built in 1873 Hatch farm, McHenry Cty, IL
  28. 28. Acclaimed director George Stevens' legendary tale of the end of the open range earned six Academy Award nominations and was my dad’s favorite film. The story brings Shane, a drifter and retired gunfighter, to the assistance of a homestead family terrorized by a wealthy cattleman and his hired guns. Have any of you seen this classic film?
  29. 29. • 1880 William Deering sold 3,000 twine binders. • Late 1880s Horse-drawn combine first used on wheat farms in the PNW. A binder
  30. 30. Bonanza farming in the Red River Valley
  31. 31. The Bonanza farms of the Red River Valley were very large- scale wheat farms that developed as a result of a monetary panic in 1873. As shares of the Northern Pacific Railway plummeted, investors were given the option of trading their bonds for railroad owned land in the Dakota Territory. Hundreds of investors traded their railroad bonds for hundreds of thousands of acres of virgin prairie in the northern part of Dakota and hired professional managers to run their farming operations. Techniques recently introduced in American factories were applied to these farms in an attempt to make each farm extremely efficient through the use of large-scale machinery and cheap migrant labor. After ~ 20 years of profitable bonanza farming, low wheat prices, degraded soils and high land prices drove the investors to sell off the Bonanza farms.
  32. 32. Farm boys from IL and other parts of the Midwest, who spent time working on Bonanza farms, returned home to their families’ small diversified homesteads and began building larger farms with mechanization, hired labor and borrowed capital.
  33. 33. 1902 First U.S. factory for tractors with internal combustion engines Charles Hart and Charles Parr established the first U.S. factory devoted to manufacturing a traction engine powered by an internal combustion engine. Smaller and lighter than its steam-driven predecessors, it ran all day on one tank of fuel. Hart and Parr are credited with coining the term "tractor" for the traction engine.
  34. 34. 1904 First crawler tractor with tracks rather than wheels Benjamin Holt, a California manufacturer of agricultural equipment, developed the first successful crawler tractor, equipped with a pair of tracks rather than wheels. Dubbed the "caterpillar" tread, the tracks helped keep heavy tractors from sinking in soft soil and were the inspiration for the first military tanks. The 1904 version was powered by steam; a gasoline engine was incorporated in 1906. The Caterpillar Tractor Company was formed in 1925, in a merger of the Holt Manufacturing Company and its rival, the C. L. Best Gas Traction Company.
  35. 35. Fordson Tractor Henry Ford & Son Corporation—a spinoff of the Ford Motor Company— began production of the Fordson tractor. Originally called the "automobile plow" and designed to work 10- to 12-acre fields, it cost as little as $395 and soon accounted for ~ 75% of US and 50% of global tractor sales. 1917 Tractors become affordable
  36. 36. In 1918, Deere and Company bought Waterloo Gasoline Engine Company. This company had already established its own tractor model called the Waterloo Boy. Suddenly Deere and Company was in the tractor race. Deere’s first tractor, the Dain All-Wheel-Drive had 4 cylinders and 3 wheels - 2 in front and 1 in the rear. Only 100 were ever produced because it was too expensive - $1500!! Key ignition Gear-driven water pump On-the-go shifting Shiftless speed changing 4 cylinder 24 belt HP 4600 lbs State of the art Only 1 exists today!
  37. 37. 1921 First major aerial dusting of crops U.S. Army pilots and Ohio entomologists conducted the first major aerial dusting of crops, spraying arsenate of lead over 6 acres of catalpa trees in Troy to control the sphinx caterpillar.
  38. 38. 1922 International Harvester introduces the PTO International Harvester introduces the PTO, a device that allowed rotary power from the tractor’s engine to be transmitted to attached harvesting equipment. This innovation was part of the company’s signature Farmall tractor in 1924. The Farmall featured a tricycle design with a high-clearance rear axle and closely spaced front wheels.
  39. 39. 1931 Caterpillar manufactures a crawler tractor with a diesel engine Caterpillar manufactured a crawler tractor with a diesel engine, which offered more power, reliability, and fuel efficiency than those using low-octane gasoline. Four years later International Harvester introduced a diesel engine for wheeled tractors.
  40. 40. 1932 - First tractor with rubber wheels An Allis-Chalmers Model U tractor belonging to Albert Schroeder of Waukesha, Wisconsin, was outfitted with a pair of Firestone 48X12 airplane tires in place of lugged steel wheels. Tests by the University of Nebraska Tractor Test Laboratory found that rubber wheels resulted in a 25 percent improvement in fuel economy. Rubber wheels also allowed smoother, faster driving with less wear and tear on tractor parts and the driver.
  41. 41. Market Share of Leading Wheel Tractor Manufacturers by Decade 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950-55 Overall John Deere 4.0% 6.4% 21.7% 17.0% 14.5% 14.5% International Harvester 21.4% 28.6% 44.3% 32.7% 30.6% 32.5% Ford 20.1% 44.2% 0.0% 7.9% 19.3% 16.7% Massey-Ferguson 2.9% 1.9% 2.9% 14.7% 10.8% 9.1% Case 7.2% 3.6% 7.4% 7.6% 5.1% 6.2% Allis Chalmers 6.2% 3.5% 12.6% 9.7% 10.3% 9.1% Oliver 2.1% 2.2% 5.0% 4.8% 5.4% 4.4% Minneapolis Moline 8.0% 0.7% 2.9% 3.2% 3.6% 3.1% All Others 28.0% 9.0% 3.2% 2.5% 0.2% 4.4% Who is on top today?
  42. 42. US and global leader in farm equipment sales
  43. 43.
  44. 44. Tractor production at IH's Farmall Works in Rock Island, IL ceased in May 1985. Production of the new Case IH tractors moved to the J.I. Case Tractor Works in Racine, Wisconsin. Production of IH Axial-Flow combines continued at the combine factory in East Moline, IL. The combination of a 6 month strike starting in Nov 79, a sluggish economy and internal corporate problems placed IH in a hole that left little way out. Things only got worse until 1984, when the bitter end came. International Harvester, following long negotiations, agreed to sell its agricultural products division to Tenneco, Inc. on November 26, 1984. Tenneco had a subsidiary, J.I. Case, that manufactured tractors, but lacked the full line of farm implements that IH produced (combines, cotton pickers, tillage equipment…) So…what happened to IH?
  45. 45. 1932 First pickup baler manufactured The Ann Arbor Machine Company of Shelbyville, IIlinois, manufactured the first pickup baler, based on a 1929 design by Raymond McDonald. Six years later. Edwin Nolt developed and marketed a self-tying pickup baler. The baler, attached to a tractor, picked up cut hay in the field, shaped it into a 16-18-inch bale, and knotted the twine that held the bale secure.
  46. 46. 1933 3 point hitch developed A few years later, Ferguson’s company merged with Canadian company Massey-Harris to form Massey-Ferguson. The David Brown Company in England was the first to build tractors with a 3 pt hitch, but Ferguson also demonstrated the system to Henry Ford in the United States. With a handshake agreement, Ford manufactured Ferguson’s tractor and implements from 1939 to 1948. Irish mechanic Harry Ferguson developed an innovative hydraulic draft control system - the 3 point hitch which raised and lowered attached implements and set their depth.
  47. 47. 1935 Rural Electrification Administration begins bringing electricity to farms President Roosevelt issued an executive order to create the Rural Electrification Administration (REA), which formed cooperatives that brought electricity to millions of rural Americans. Within 6 years, the REA had aided the formation of 800 rural electric cooperatives with 350,000 miles of power lines. Electricity on the farm brought about dramatic change in the barn (motors to run ventilation fans, pumps, conveyors, arc welders, shop tools, lighting) and in the home (lights, radios, fans, refrigerators, washing machines) Rural and urban standards of living moved closer.
  48. 48. opened its doors in 1937
  49. 49. 1938 First self-propelled combine The Massey-Harris MH-20 was one of the most significant developments in harvesting history. The MH-20 introduced the term “Combine harvester” and was the first serious rival to tractor or horse drawn harvesting. There had been earlier attempts to develop self-propelled harvesters but none were commercial successes. Over 900 MH-20s were sold during its first 2 years on the market but the smaller MH-21 introduced in 1941 was much more popular. Annual sales peaked at >10,000 in 1949.
  50. 50. 1943 First commercially viable mechanical spindle cotton picker International Harvester built "Old Red," the first commercially viable mechanical spindle cotton picker, invented and tested by Texans John and Mack Rust beginning in 1927. The spindle picker featured moistened rotating spindles that grabbed cotton fibers from open bolls while leaving the plant intact. The cotton fibers are then blown into waiting hoppers, free of debris.
  51. 51. Have any of you read this book? Denver worked as a share cropper picking cotton by hand into the 1960s
  52. 52. About half of the global cotton crop is still picked by hand Kyrgyzstan Hand picked cotton is normally picked multiple times improving the quality of the cotton
  53. 53. 1948 Center pivot irrigation invented Colorado farmer Frank Zybach invented the center pivot irrigation machine, which revolutionized irrigation technology. The system consists of sprinklers attached to arms that radiate from a water- filled hub out to motorized wheeled towers in the field. Zybach was awarded a patent in 1952 for the "Self-Propelled Sprinkling Irrigating Apparatus." # of acres irrigated in US quadrupled
  54. 54. Peak tractor sales in the US (~ 800,000) occurred in 1951 Tractor HP exceeded horse/mule power in ~ 1930
  55. 55. TODAY - India is the # 1 market for tractors
  56. 56. John Deere and International Harvester were the first companies to introduce corn head attachments for their combines. 1954 Corn head attachments for combines Corn heads allowed farmers to use just one combine to harvest small grain crops in the summer and corn and soybeans in the fall but required new handling and storage systems for shelled corn.
  57. 57. How many of you have ever seen a corn crib? How many of you have ever seen a corn crib full of ear corn? When I was growing up in Maryland most farms in our area still picked ear corn.
  58. 58. Carl Seiler of Knox County, IL – National champion corn husker in 1932
  59. 59. Frank Hennenfent of Roseville, IL shortly after winning the open class at Nationals in ‘08
  60. 60. Where will you be on September 29th?
  61. 61. 1956 Gyral air seeder patented The Gyral air seeder, which planted seeds through a pneumatic delivery system, was patented in Australia. The technology eventually evolved into large multi-row machines with a trailing seed tank and often a second tank holding fertilizers.
  62. 62. 1966 Electronic planter monitors The DICKEY-JOHN Manufacturing Company introduced electronic monitoring devices that allowed farmers to quickly identify problems during planting. Attached to mechanical planters and air seeders, the devices monitored the number and spacing of seeds being planted. During the 1990s, next generation devices were introduced for yield mapping i.e., measuring and displaying the quality and quantity of grain entering a combine.
  63. 63. Versatile was the first company to mass- produce articulated four-wheel drive tractors, starting in 1966 with the D100 and G100
  64. 64. In 1966, George McKibben established no-till plots at the U of IL Experiment Station in Dixon Springs, IL. The plots are now named after George McKibben. According to Don Holt, former head of the University of Illinois agronomy department, "These plots represent a historic resource," and McKibben's research on no-till was "probably the greatest single contribution to control soil erosion“. McKibben's no-till plots are the oldest in Illinois and also globally. Early Allis-Chalmers no-till planter Many conservation tillage tools were developed in the 70s and 80s
  65. 65. Guidance before GPS
  66. 66. 1995 Global Positioning Systems (GPS) The U.S. Department of Defense began constructing a network of satellites for positioning purposes in the 1970s. Civilian use began in the 1980s. In 1995, GPS reached full operational capability and farmers began using GPS receivers to geo-reference soil sampling, crop scouting, crop yield data… In 1999, the first GPS automated steering system became commercially available in North America.
  67. 67.
  68. 68. Planting with Auto steer at the WIU/ Allison Organic research farm
  69. 69. Swath/row control using RTK Guidance
  70. 70. Tiling using RTK Guidance
  71. 71. Will this become the norm in the Corn Belt?
  72. 72. Robotic milking machine
  73. 73. Automatic Milking Systems (AMS), also referred to as robotic milkers, were developed in Europe and became available there in 1992. The technology was introduced to the US in 2000 and the first robotic milker was installed on a Michigan farm in 2009. In 2012, there were 10 dairy farms in Michigan using robotic milking technology. With current designs, robotic milking is most appealing to small and medium-sized dairies. Farms with hundreds of cows need to purchase multiple robots, which is currently less economical than hiring people to milk.
  74. 74. 10 Most Frequently Asked Questions About Robotic Milking of Dairy Cows • How many cows will I have to cull because robots cannot milk them? • How long does it take cows to learn to use a robotic milking system and what is involved in training? • How will I know there is a problem with a cow, such as clinical mastitis? And can the system separate unmarketable milk? • But isn't this way more expensive than other milking systems? • Do I need to build a new barn to use robotic milking? • Does Robotic Milking require special feeding? Will it work with TMR? • Are there issues unique to North America? • Are there special regulations for robotic milking? • How good is milk quality from these herds? • How will I spend my time, if there is no milking to do? Jack Rodenburg - Dairy Cattle Production Systems Program Lead/OMAFRA
  75. 75. There is increasing awareness and development of agricultural robots around the world. In these pages I will try to bring together the links to projects that I am aware of. If you know of any links not included here, please let me know!
  76. 76. Reductions in labor required to produce crops during the 20th century
  77. 77. U of Illinois estimates How much fuel is required to perform field operations?
  78. 78. For 12 Long Years, ever since the EPA included off-highway diesel engines on its hit list of polluters, engine makers have been scrambling, reviewing, analyzing, redesigning and refining the science of compression ignition to come up with the world's first smokeless tractor. And let's just say, they've come a long way, baby. Those black puffs of smoke that once characterized tractor exhaust have been reduced to a few particles on a pinhead, thanks to technologies that better control the burning of fuel. But one more overhaul is required to get the regulated emissions down to zero. EPA's final regulations for non-road diesel engines, known as Tier 4, are at hand, and engineers say it's the toughest round yet.
  79. 79. The Tier 3 regulations reduced by 60% the emissions of the unregulated engines produced just 12 years ago. Tier 4 requires a 90% reduction in the levels of PM and NOx set by those Tier 3 standards. “I always think of the white hankie test for carbon,” says Roger Gault, technical director of the Engine Manufacturers Association (EMA). “When you place a hankie over the exhaust, it will remain white if the engine is compliant. Tier 4 engines will be that clean.” Large engines rated over 174 hp will have the toughest time meeting the requirements. Tractor engines this size will require not only advanced engine technologies but also after-treatment of the exhaust gas. Because this poses new problems — like how to fit all the new components and plumbing under the narrow nose of a tractor — the EPA has staggered the deadlines for this size category. The interim deadline, which applies mostly to PM, comes up in 2011. The final deadline, which includes the tougher limits on NOx, is set for 2014. All farm vehicles with engine power ratings of 174 hp and above and manufactured beginning on those dates must comply.
  80. 80. Stats are available for every tractor marketed in the US since 1920
  81. 81. "It was not as easy as just taking a harvester and putting it out in their existing field with the existing varieties. They had to change what they were growing, their irrigation, fertilization—all sorts of things“ “We'd harvest in the daytime, and then we'd work all night putting it back together” Nearly all of California's tomato crop was converted to machine harvest within ~ 5 yrs.
  82. 82. Failure of the Land Grant College Complex Who benefited from public investment in mechanized tomato harvesting?
  83. 83. Mechanical revolution in food processing
  84. 84. Manson Industries - where Rocky popcorn gets packed – Where are the people??
  85. 85. Mechanical revolution in transportation
  86. 86. largest ships carry ~18,000 containers On any 1 day, > 20 million containers are traveling at sea Chinese goods, like Nike shoes, iPods and Barbies are transported to the U.S. in 20&40-foot steel containers. Once emptied, the containers pile up at major transport hubs like Chicago. Grain merchants have jumped on this opportunity to back ship grain to China.
  87. 87.
  88. 88. Rural Exodus
  89. 89. in 638,000 don’t have permanent homes % INDIA has 650 million farmers
  90. 90. Rural exodus in Mexico has had major impact on labor in the US