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New S12 Security Protection

  1. 1. Designing for Security Protection with Laminated Glass
  2. 2. Presented by: This course is worth 1 hour of Health, Safety and Welfare Credit through the American Institute of Architects Saflex
  3. 3. About Solutia Inc. <ul><li>World Headquarters located in St. Louis, MO </li></ul><ul><li>$3.8 Billion Chemical Company </li></ul><ul><li>World’s largest producer of polyvinyl butyral (PVB) used in laminated glass </li></ul>
  4. 4. Solutia Architectural Brands
  5. 5. Course Objectives What you will learn… <ul><li>Glass Options for Security Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Bomb Blast Basics </li></ul><ul><li>Additional protective solutions with laminated glass </li></ul>
  6. 6. Providing Security Protection & Glass Options
  7. 7. Safety vs. Security Safety = refers to freedom from the risk OR occurrence of injury/loss from natural cause Security = refers to freedom from the risk OR occurrence of injury/loss from the intentional actions of mankind
  8. 8. What is expected of security glazing? Glazing: Must provide an element barrier, excellent optical quality and ease of maintenance Must resist impact, forced entry, bomb blasts, accidental explosions, and ballistic attacks according to national consensus standards Must allow for Building Envelope to be maintained Security glazing is not mandated by the model building codes. The need for security protection and the level of security desired to meet perceived needs are determined by the occupants or owners
  9. 9. Why Design for Security Protection? <ul><li>Burglary, Forced Entry, Ballistic Attacks, and Bomb Blasts and are more and more common </li></ul><ul><li>A burglary occurs every 11 sec in the US </li></ul><ul><li>Bomb Blast events are globally on the rise </li></ul><ul><li>Flying glass shards: 50+% of all injuries from terrorist targeted public building bombings </li></ul><ul><li>Flying or Falling Glass #1 cause of non-fatal injuries </li></ul>
  10. 10. Types of Security Glazing <ul><li>Burglary/Forced Entry Resistant </li></ul><ul><li>Barrier/Forced Exit Resistant </li></ul><ul><li>Bullet Resistant </li></ul><ul><li>Blast Resistant </li></ul>
  11. 11. Types of Security Glazing <ul><li>Standard Laminated Architectural Glass (LAG) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(1/4” with 0.060” thickness) provides a significant improvement in resistance to attack from a variety of hand held weapons in: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Residential: Rock, Hammer, Pry bar, Brick, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial: Sledgehammer, Battering Ram, Chisel, Axe </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>LAG cannot be cut from one side deeming glass cutters useless </li></ul><ul><li>Impact resistance (penetration) is directly related to the % of interlayer in the laminate. </li></ul>Burglary Resistance/Forced Entry
  12. 12. Benefits of Laminated Glass FORCED ENTRY
  13. 13. Barrier/Forced Exit Resistant <ul><li>Standard construction multi-ply glass with 0.060” interlayer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides layers of significant barrier to penetration resistance: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Institutional (i.e.: human, furniture impact) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Detention Glazing (i.e.: pry tools, safety equipment) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LAG provides time to for assessment and action. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact resistance (penetration) is directly related to the % of interlayer in the laminate and number of layers of glass. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Types of Security Glazing <ul><li>Bullet-resistant glass is made by laminating multiple layers of glass and thin (0.015”) interlayer to form a single multi-ply unit </li></ul><ul><li>The glass layers flatten the bullet upon impact to slow penetration through unit </li></ul><ul><li>The interlayer holds the glass in place to provide resistance to additional incoming rounds </li></ul><ul><li>The interlayer provides flexibility and absorbs energy through the unit </li></ul>Ballistic Protection
  15. 15. Typical Thickness per Level Check this versus GANA guide 2” .30-’06 Rifle Level 4 High Power – Rifle 1 ¾” .44 Magnum Revolver Level 3 Super Power – Small Arms 1 ½” .357 Magnum Revolver Level 2 High Power – Small Arms 1 ¼” Super .38 Automatic / 9mm Level 1 Medium Power – Small Arms Typical Laminate Thickness Typical Weapon UL 752 Test
  16. 16. Types of Security Glazing <ul><li>Standard LAG (1/4” with 0.030” or 0.060” thick interlayer) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides significant air blast protection through glass retention and debris resistance: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glass Retention: Interlayer tends to keep broken glass shards adhered in laminate unit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Debris Resistance: laminate unit resists penetration from most debris from blast </li></ul></ul></ul>Bomb Blast Resistance
  17. 17. LAG Configurations Single Lite Forced Entry Bomb Blast Hurricane Acoustical Safety Laminated Insulated Same as Single Plus: Energy Conservation Enhanced Acoustical Double Laminated Available Multi-ply Laminated Same as Single Plus: Enhanced Forced Entry Enhanced Forced Exit Bullet Resistance Enhanced Blast Resistance
  18. 18. Bomb Blast Review
  19. 19. Blast <ul><li>Bomb Blast Events are common </li></ul><ul><li>Glass part of terrorist's arsenal </li></ul><ul><li>Flying glass shards major contributor to injuries </li></ul><ul><li>Blast wave damage upon penetrating the building </li></ul><ul><li>Interlayers in Laminated Glass have been tested for common and extreme blast levels </li></ul>
  20. 20. Bomb Blast Basics Chronology of a blast event 0.0 Time (milliseconds) Overpressure (psi) Positive Phase Awareness <ul><li>Other Blast Considerations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Debris </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glass Retention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary debris </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surrounding buildings…sympathetic damage </li></ul></ul>Negative Phase
  21. 21. Blast Test Methods and Standards
  22. 22. Standards/Specifications <ul><li>Test Methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ASTM F 1642 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GSA/ISC-TS01-2003 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISO 16933 (arena) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Related Documents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UFC – Unified Facilities Criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AAMA 510 - Voluntary Guide Specification for Blast Hazard Mitigation for Fenestration Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ASTM F 2248 Specifying an Equivalent 3-second Duration Design Loading For Blast Resistant Glazing Fabricated with Laminated Glass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ASTM C 1564 Use of Silicone Sealants for Protective Glazing Systems </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Testing Methodology <ul><li>Shock Tube </li></ul><ul><li>Arena Testing </li></ul>
  24. 24. Testing Methodology <ul><li>Shock Tube </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single Lite per test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproducible Shock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typical for Initial R&D </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less Expensive than Arena </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. LAG Reaction During Blast <ul><ul><li>Lite cracks as static strength is surpassed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laminate deforms inward </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interlayer absorbs blast energy as it deflects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laminate deters accompanying debris </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy transferred to frame </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laminate reacts with an elastic response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interior & Exterior protected due to Retention </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Large Shock Tube Photo Courtesy of Baker Risk – San Antonio, Tx
  27. 27. Testing Methodologies <ul><li>Arena Testing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Several lites tested simultaneously </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>True blast event with negative pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weather Restrictions may apply </li></ul></ul>SOD 100ft (30 m) SOD 50ft (15 m)
  28. 28. Explosive in tube
  29. 29. Specimen Chambers
  30. 30. Blast Detonation
  31. 31. Product Testing <ul><li>Qualifications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hazard Rating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection Levels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government Requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project Specific (Industry) </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Post Blast Analysis <ul><ul><li>Blast Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glass Crack / Shatter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glass Retention/Opening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location of Shards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Damage to Witness Panel </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Blast Protection/Hazard Rating HH High Hazard Zone Blast Window Threshold 2.0 m 1.0 m 0.6 m ISC/GSA No Break No Hazard Minimal Hazard VLH Very Low Hazard Zone LH Low Hazard Zone Threshold 0.5 m 1 2 3a 3b 4 5
  34. 34. Classification and Performance <ul><li>GSA Levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Level C Building 4 psi /28 psi*msec </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level D Building 10 psi/88 psi*msec </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on 44” x 66” opening </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other Government/Private Sector </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UFC: 6 psi/ 42 psi*msec </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DoS: 42 psi/260-300 psi*msec </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ASTM: Levels not provided </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. PVB Laminate Response <ul><ul><li>Lite cracks as static strength is surpassed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laminate deforms inward </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PVB absorbs blast energy as it deflects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laminate deters accompanying debris </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some energy transferred to frame </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laminate “vacillates” (neg. phase & elasticity) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interior & Exterior protected due to retention performance </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Blast Test with Annealed
  37. 37. Blast Resistant Glazing Retrofit Installations Glazing Tape Existing Aluminum Frame or Window Glazing Tape Retrofit Frame Laminated Glass Setting Block 1/8 - 1/4” thick (positioned at bottom of glass only - 6” from corners & midpoint) Existing Glass
  38. 38. Blast Test with Laminated
  39. 39. 20 psi ; 78 psi*msec 700 lb. TNT Equivalent From the OUTSIDE!
  40. 40. 20 psi ; 78 psi*msec 700 lb. TNT Equivalent From the INSIDE!
  41. 41. Twin Span – Curtain Wall Pre-test: 6 psi @ 42 psi*msec
  42. 42. Twin Span – Curtain Wall Post-test: 6 psi @ 42 psi*msec
  43. 43. System Design <ul><ul><li>Importance of Framing Design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frame must withstand designed and transferred loads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adequate Frame attachment to the structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anchoring of laminate into frame – sealant, tape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>minimum 1/4” – at least as thick as Blast Resistant Glazing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>glass depth bite up to 1” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laminate Configuration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structural load governs minimum thickness and treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interlayer minimum 0.030” (0.76 mm) for AN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommend 0.060” (1.52 mm) for HS or FT </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Security: Blast Trends <ul><li>Government mandates for laminated glass </li></ul><ul><li>Annealed and Heat Strengthened Glass </li></ul><ul><li>Standard PVB in 30 or 60 gauge </li></ul><ul><li>Laminated Insulating Units </li></ul><ul><li>Double Laminated for Essential Facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Rational Analysis of Tested Systems </li></ul>
  45. 45. Security: Blast Trends continued… <ul><li>Multifunctional Units </li></ul><ul><li>Glazing into Hurricane Approved Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Specifications following Government Guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Social Responsibility of Building Owners </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological Need for Protection </li></ul>
  46. 46. CONCLUSIONS Laminated Glass with PVB <ul><ul><li>High performer in bomb blast protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protects building structure, occupants and surroundings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wide Application Range </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Top choice for New Construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retrofit capable and feasible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resists the impact from debris </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offers high levels of retention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must Follow Loads from Glass to Building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must consider all design parameters </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Additional Protection Safety, Sound and Solar
  48. 48. Benefits of Laminated Glass SAFETY <ul><li>Meets all the Federal and Voluntary safety glazing standards: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ANZI Z97.1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CPSC 16 CFR 1201 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(Consumer Product Safety Commission) </li></ul><ul><li>Resist penetration, won’t shatter into dangerous fragments </li></ul>
  49. 49. Benefits of Laminated Glass SOUND <ul><li>Reduces unwanted sound and noise </li></ul><ul><li>Typical STC ratings between 32-36, specific constructions 40-50. </li></ul><ul><li>Can reduce perceived noise by up to 50% </li></ul>
  50. 50. Benefits of Laminated Glass SOLAR <ul><li>Screens out 99% of harmful & damaging UV rays to 380 nm equivalent to SPF 50+ </li></ul><ul><li>Protects delicate plants, fabrics, carpets, and furniture from fading </li></ul><ul><li>Can use tinted PVB to reduce solar heat gain, reduce glare </li></ul>
  51. 51. Benefits of Laminated Glass Aesthetic <ul><li>1000’s of design possibilities with color </li></ul><ul><li>For both interiors and exteriors w/ heat & light stable pigments </li></ul>Christian La Croix
  52. 52. Project Showcase
  53. 53. Las Vegas Federal Courthouse Architect: Dworsky Associates
  54. 54. Oklahoma City Federal Campus Architect: Ross Barney and Jankowski Architects
  55. 55. Eagleton Federal Courthouse St. Louis, MO Architect: HOK
  56. 56. Oasis 21 Nagoya, Japan Architect: Obayashi Corporation
  57. 57. South Beach Cinema Miami, FL Architect: Zyscovich, Inc.
  58. 58. Tokyo International Forum Architect: Raphael Vinoly Architects
  59. 59. Laminated Glass Protection Summary <ul><li>Application </li></ul><ul><li>Safety Glazing </li></ul><ul><li>Main Force Entry </li></ul><ul><li>Ballistic </li></ul><ul><li>Windborne Debris (SM) </li></ul><ul><li>Windborne Debris (LM) </li></ul><ul><li>Seismic </li></ul><ul><li>Bomb Blast </li></ul>Basic Configuration* . . . . . . . . . Glass / 0.030” interlayer / Glass . . . . . . . Glass / 0.060” interlayer / Glass . . .. . . . . . . . . Multi-layer glass with 0.015” interlayer . . . . . . Glass / 0.060” interlayer / Glass . . . . . . . . Glass/ 0.090” interlayer, or 0.075” composite interlayer / Glass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Glass / 0.030” interlayer/ Glass . . . . . . . . . . . . Glass / 0.030” interlayer / Glass * Minimum interlayer thickness depending upon type with glass designed for appropriate structural load
  60. 60. Information & Support <ul><li>Websites </li></ul><ul><li>Product Literature </li></ul><ul><li>Master Format Specs </li></ul><ul><li>Spec Reviews </li></ul><ul><li>Technical Support </li></ul><ul><li>Custom Samples </li></ul>Architectural Glazing Solutions Centre: 1-877-674-1233
  61. 61. Questions?
  62. 62. This presentation is protected by US and International copyright laws. Reproduction, distribution, display and use of the presentation without written permission of the speaker is prohibited. © Solutia Inc. 2007

Editor's Notes