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New S11 Designing With Laminated Glass


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New S11 Designing With Laminated Glass

  1. 1. Designing with Laminated Glass
  2. 2. Presented by: This course is worth 1 hour of Health, Safety and Welfare Credit through the American Institute of Architects Saflex
  3. 3. About Solutia Inc. <ul><li>World Headquarters located in St. Louis, MO </li></ul><ul><li>$3.5 Billion Chemical Company </li></ul><ul><li>Saflex division is the world’s largest producer of polyvinyl butyral (PVB) used in laminated glass </li></ul>
  4. 4. Solutia Architectural Brands
  5. 5. <ul><li>This program is registered with the AIA/CES for continuing professional education. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of any material of construction or any method or manner of handling, using, distributing, or dealing in any material or product. Questions related to specific materials, methods, and services will be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation. </li></ul>Thank you!
  6. 6. Course Objectives <ul><li>What you will learn… </li></ul><ul><li>Laminated glazing products </li></ul><ul><li>Applications for laminated glass </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits of laminated glass </li></ul><ul><li>Designing with laminated glass </li></ul>Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum Architectural Firm: Pei Cobb Freed and Partners
  7. 7. Laminated Glazing Products
  8. 8. Laminated Glass is made with… <ul><li>Plastic “PVB” (Polyvinyl Butyral) interlayer sandwiched between two pieces of glass with heat & pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Used in the automotive industry for over 60 years </li></ul><ul><li>Used in the architectural market for over 30 years </li></ul>PVB sheet being applied to glass
  9. 9. Laminated Glass can be … <ul><li>used in Insulated Glass units </li></ul><ul><li>used with Low E coatings </li></ul><ul><li>made with tinted glass </li></ul><ul><li>made with multiple layers of glass </li></ul><ul><li>cut when made with annealed glass </li></ul>Grand Slam Canyon, Las Vegas
  10. 10. Laminated Glass Sizes <ul><li>SIZES: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>can be produced up to 102” x 200” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>** Depends on local plant autoclave size </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Weight: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1/8” .030 1/8” = 3.50 lbs per sq. ft. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1/4” .030 1/4” = 6.6 lbs. per sq. ft. </li></ul></ul>Chromatic Oasis, Sacramento International Airport
  11. 11. Laminated Glass is used in Various Window Types <ul><li>Curtain walls </li></ul><ul><li>Ribbon Windows </li></ul><ul><li>Store Fronts </li></ul><ul><li>Punched or Architectural windows </li></ul><ul><li>Overhead Glazing </li></ul><ul><li>Handrails & Floors </li></ul><ul><li>Specialty Applications </li></ul>Main Entrance Louvre Museum, Paris
  12. 12. Most Common Application <ul><li>High Performance Glazing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial Buildings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Airports & Ports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schools & Hospitals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Courthouses & Federal Buildings </li></ul></ul>Las Vegas Federal Courthouse Architect: Dworsky Associates
  13. 13. Cost Elements of LAG… <ul><li>Thickness of glass </li></ul><ul><li>Glass Type </li></ul><ul><li>Thickness of interlayer </li></ul><ul><li>Special Interlayers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>acoustics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>color </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Glass treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tinting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>coatings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Type of framing Installation </li></ul>Portofino Tower, Miami Florida Architect: Seeger Architectural Partnership
  14. 14. Most Common Configurations of LAG … PVB Thickness .030 Tempered, Heat Strengthened, and Annealed can be laminated Typical lite thickness: 1/8” to 1/4” PVB Thickness .060 PVB Thickness .090
  15. 15. Laminated Glass Benefits and Performance
  16. 16. Benefits of Laminated Glass <ul><li>Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Sound </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><li>Solar </li></ul><ul><li>Storm </li></ul><ul><li>Style </li></ul>The 6 “S’s” Tokyo International Forum, Japan Architect: Rafael Vinoly Architects
  17. 17. Benefits of Laminated Glass <ul><li>Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Sound </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><li>Solar </li></ul><ul><li>Storm </li></ul><ul><li>Style </li></ul><ul><li>Meets all the national safety glazing standards: </li></ul><ul><li>ANSI Z97.1 </li></ul><ul><li>CPSC 16 CFR 1201 – Cat II </li></ul><ul><li>(Consumer Product Safety Commission) </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used anywhere Safety tempered glass is used </li></ul><ul><li>Resist penetration, won’t shatter into dangerous fragment </li></ul><ul><li>Seismic and Hurricane Glazing Solution </li></ul>
  18. 18. Benefits of Laminated Glass <ul><li>Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Sound </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><li>Solar </li></ul><ul><li>Storm </li></ul><ul><li>Style </li></ul>
  19. 19. Glass House, Tokyo Japan Architect: Ken Yokogawa Safety Applications for Laminated Glass <ul><li>Overhead Glazing </li></ul><ul><li>Sloped Glazing </li></ul><ul><li>Entrance Doors </li></ul><ul><li>Storm and Patio-Type Doors </li></ul><ul><li>Sidelights and Fixed Glazed Panels </li></ul>
  20. 20. Benefits of Laminated Glass <ul><li>Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Sound </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><li>Solar </li></ul><ul><li>Storm </li></ul><ul><li>Style </li></ul>
  21. 21. Sound Benefit of Laminated Glass <ul><li>Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Sound </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><li>Solar </li></ul><ul><li>Storm </li></ul><ul><li>Style </li></ul>Reduces unwanted sound and noise Typical STC (Sound Transmission Class) ratings between 34 to 40* Can reduce perceived noise by up to 50% *Based on PVB interlayer type, glass thickness, and airspace in IG Units
  22. 22. Laminated Glazing for Optimal Sound Performance Typical Makeup and Performance : Laminated Glass (1/4” nominal) 1/8” [.030” PVB] 1/8” STC 34 1/8” [.030” Acoustic PVB] 1/8” STC 35 Laminated Glass Insulated Glass Unit (1” nominal) 1/4” [.030” PVB] 1/2” A.S. 1/4” STC 39 1/4” [.030” Acoustic PVB] 1/2” A.S. 1/4” STC 40
  23. 23. Kamm House, Miami, Florida Architect: R.A. Kamm & Assoc. Sound Reduction Applications for Laminated Glass <ul><li>Airports </li></ul><ul><li>Educational Facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Highways and Congested Traffic Areas </li></ul><ul><li>Railways </li></ul><ul><li>Residential areas bordering commercial and transit areas </li></ul>
  24. 24. Benefits of Laminated Glass <ul><li>Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Sound </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><li>Solar </li></ul><ul><li>Storm </li></ul><ul><li>Style </li></ul>
  25. 25. Benefits of Laminated Glass <ul><li>Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Sound </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><li>Solar </li></ul><ul><li>Storm </li></ul><ul><li>Style </li></ul><ul><li>Can meet various levels of security including: </li></ul><ul><li>Burglary </li></ul><ul><li>Forced entry </li></ul><ul><li>Forced exit </li></ul><ul><li>Ballistics </li></ul><ul><li>Bomb Blast </li></ul><ul><li>Standards include: </li></ul><ul><li>ASTM F1233/UL 972 (forced entry) </li></ul><ul><li>ASTM F 1915 (forced exit) </li></ul><ul><li>UL 752 (bullet resistant) </li></ul>
  26. 26. Benefits of Laminated Glass <ul><li>Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Sound </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><li>Solar </li></ul><ul><li>Storm </li></ul><ul><li>Style </li></ul>
  27. 27. Why Design for Security Protection? <ul><li>Burglary, Forced Entry, Ballistic Attacks, and Bomb Blasts and are more and more common </li></ul><ul><li>A burglary occurs every 11 sec in the US </li></ul><ul><li>Bomb Blast events are globally on the rise </li></ul><ul><li>Flying glass shards: 50+% of all non-fatal blast injuries. </li></ul><ul><li>Flying or Falling Glass #1 cause of injury non-structural collapse </li></ul>
  28. 28. Types of Security Glazing <ul><li>Standard LAG (1/4” with 0.060” thickness) provides a significant improvement in resistance to attack from a variety of hand held weapons in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Residential: Rock, Hammer, Pry bar, Brick, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial: Sledgehammer, Battering Ram, Chisel, Axe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LAG cannot be cut from one side deeming glass cutters useless </li></ul><ul><li>Impact resistance is improved as % of interlayer is increased, not glass </li></ul>Burglary Resistance/Forced Entry
  29. 29. Types of Security Glazing Bullet-resistant glass is made by laminating multiple layers of glass and interlayer to form a single multi-ply unit The glass layers flatten the bullet upon impact The interlayer provides flexibility and absorbs energy through the unit Ballistic Protection
  30. 30. Typical Thickness per Level 2” .30-’06 Rifle Level 4 High Power – Rifle 1 ¾” .44 Magnum Revolver Level 3 Super Power – Small Arms 1 ½” .357 Magnum Revolver Level 2 High Power – Small Arms 1 ¼” Super .38 Automatic / 9mm Level 1 Medium Power – Small Arms Typical Laminate Thickness Typical Weapon UL 752 Test
  31. 31. Types of Security Glazing <ul><ul><li>Lite cracks as static strength is surpassed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laminate deforms inward </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interlayer absorbs blast energy as it deflects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laminate deters accompanying debris </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy transferred to frame </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laminate reacts with an elastic response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interior & Exterior protected due to Retention </li></ul></ul>Bomb Blast Resistance
  32. 32. LAG Configurations Single Lite Forced Entry Bomb Blast Hurricane Acoustical Safety Laminated Insulated Same as Single Plus: Energy Conservation Enhanced Acoustical - Can be Double Laminated Multiply Laminated Same as Single Plus: Enhanced Forced Entry Bullet Resistance Enhanced Blast Resistance
  33. 33. Bomb Blast Basics Chronology of a blast event 0.0 Time (milliseconds) Overpressure (psi) Positive Phase Awareness <ul><li>Other Blast Considerations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Debris </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glass Retention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary debris </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surrounding buildings…sympathetic damage </li></ul></ul>Negative Phase
  34. 34. Video of a Blast Event
  35. 35. Test Methods & Classifications <ul><li>Test Methods/Standards </li></ul><ul><li>ASTM F 1642 </li></ul><ul><li>GSA/ISC (injury criteria) </li></ul><ul><li>Department of Defense </li></ul><ul><li>ISO (draft) </li></ul><ul><li>Methodologies </li></ul><ul><li>Arena </li></ul><ul><li>Shock Tubes </li></ul>
  36. 36. Testing Methodologies <ul><li>Arena Testing </li></ul><ul><li>Several lites tested simultaneously </li></ul><ul><li>True blast event with negative pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Weather Restrictions </li></ul><ul><li>Shock Tubes </li></ul><ul><li>Single Lite per test </li></ul><ul><li>Reproducible Shock </li></ul><ul><li>Less Expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Blast not as realistic </li></ul><ul><li>Good Predictor Test </li></ul>
  37. 37. Bomb Blast Applications <ul><li>Classifications and Performance Levels </li></ul><ul><li>GSA Levels </li></ul><ul><li>Level C Building (4 psi/28 psi*msec) </li></ul><ul><li>Level D Building (10 psi/88 psi*msec) </li></ul><ul><li>Other Government/Private Sector </li></ul><ul><li>??? </li></ul>
  38. 38. Oklahoma City Federal Campus Architect: Ross Barney and Jankowski Architects
  39. 39. Benefits of Laminated Glass <ul><li>Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Sound </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><li>Solar </li></ul><ul><li>Storm </li></ul><ul><li>Style </li></ul>
  40. 40. Benefits of Laminated Glass <ul><li>Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Sound </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><li>Solar </li></ul><ul><li>Storm </li></ul><ul><li>Style </li></ul>Screens out 99% of harmful & damaging UV rays up to 380 nm(= SPF 50+) Protects delicate plants, fabrics, carpets, and furniture from fading Can use tinted PVB to reduce solar heat gain
  41. 41. Benefits of Laminated Glass <ul><li>Green Friendly – can help meet LEEDS objectives through natural day lighting </li></ul><ul><li>Open natural day lighted workspaces can reduce stress and enhance creativity </li></ul>South Beach Lincoln Cinema, Miami Florida Architect: Zyscovich Inc.
  42. 42. Benefits of Laminated Glass <ul><li>Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Sound </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><li>Solar </li></ul><ul><li>Storm </li></ul><ul><li>Style </li></ul>
  43. 43. Laminated Glazing for Hurricane Protection <ul><li>Flying debris breaks glass </li></ul><ul><li>Wind and rain enters a building through breached openings </li></ul><ul><li>1% opening on windward wall </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>200% increase in pressure on underside of roof </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>50% increase in pressure on exterior walls </li></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Structural Failure
  45. 45. Hurricane Applications <ul><li>Typically mandated by code and referenced by a standard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dade County, FL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ICC (IRC, IBC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ASTM E1886 * E1996 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most stringent glazing standards in the industry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cycling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structural </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. City Place, Palm Beach, FL – Architects: Roger Fry
  47. 47. Benefits of Laminated Glass <ul><li>Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Sound </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><li>Solar </li></ul><ul><li>Storm </li></ul><ul><li>Style </li></ul>
  48. 48. Designing with Functionality <ul><li>Color adds </li></ul>personality!
  49. 49. <ul><li>Use Heat and Light Stable Pigments, Not Dyes </li></ul><ul><li>1000’s of Color Possibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Unlimited Color Range When Combined with Tinted Glass and Coatings </li></ul><ul><li>Ease of maintenance unlike surface treatments </li></ul>Colors
  50. 50. The Glass Store, Sao Paulo – Brunette Fraccaroli Pattern and Mass pigmented Color LAG
  51. 51. Office Partitions – Perkins & Will Pattern and Mass pigmented Color LAG
  52. 52. Grand Slam Canyon, Circus Circus Hotel & Casino, Las Vegas, NV Mass pigmented Color LAG
  53. 53. New York, New York Hotel & Casino, Las Vegas, NV Mass pigmented Color LAG
  54. 54. Olympic Cauldron, Salt Lake City, UT Jim Doyle, Wet Design - Mass pigmented Color LAG
  55. 55. Questions?
  56. 56. This presentation is protected by US and International copyright laws. Reproduction, distribution, display and use of the presentation without written permission of the speaker is prohibited. © Solutia Inc. 2007