A Brief History of
Audio in Film (excerpt)
Sound comes to film
Sound comes to film

• over 3 decades of significant
  innovation
Sound comes to film

• over 3 decades of significant
  innovation

• declining profits in 1927-28 led
  film companies to push...
Sound comes to film

• over 3 decades of significant
  innovation

• declining profits in 1927-28 led
  film companies to push...
Three Phases of
Technological Development
Three Phases of
      Technological Development

Invention
Three Phases of
      Technological Development

Invention
Three Phases of
      Technological Development

Invention     Innovation
Three Phases of
      Technological Development

Invention     Innovation
Three Phases of
      Technological Development

Invention     Innovation     Diffusion
Three Phases of
      Technological Development

Invention     Innovation     Diffusion
Major Early Events
Major Early Events
• 1877 - Edison makes first sound recording
Major Early Events
• 1877 - Edison makes first sound recording
• 1895 - Edison introduces Kinetophone
Major Early Events
• 1877 - Edison makes first sound recording
• 1895 - Edison introduces Kinetophone
• 1902 - Gaumont intr...
3 Major Problems
3 Major Problems


• synchronization
3 Major Problems


• synchronization
• amplification
3 Major Problems


• synchronization
• amplification
• cost
Synchronization
 problem solved
Synchronization
       problem solved
• 1913 - Edison introduces a new version of
  the Kinetophone
Synchronization
       problem solved
• 1913 - Edison introduces a new version of
  the Kinetophone

• It successfully syn...
2 Major Problems
  still remained
2 Major Problems
      still remained


• synchronization
2 Major Problems
      still remained


• synchronization
• amplification
2 Major Problems
      still remained


• synchronization
• amplification
• cost
Amplification
problem solved
Amplification
         problem solved
• 1904 - Daniel Higham invents
  the Higham-A-Phone
  reproducer, the amplifier
  used...
Amplification
         problem solved
• 1904 - Daniel Higham invents
  the Higham-A-Phone
  reproducer, the amplifier
  used...
Amplification
         problem solved
• 1904 - Daniel Higham invents
  the Higham-A-Phone
  reproducer, the amplifier
  used...
1 Major Problem
 still remained
1 Major Problem
      still remained


• synchronization
1 Major Problem
      still remained


• synchronization
• amplification
1 Major Problem
      still remained


• synchronization
• amplification
• cost
Making Sound for Film
   Cost Effective
Making Sound for Film
    Cost Effective
• 1911-1919 - Western Electric and Lee
   DeForest develop Vitaphone, a method of...
Making Sound for Film
    Cost Effective
• 1911-1919 - Western Electric and Lee
   DeForest develop Vitaphone, a method of...
Making Sound for Film
    Cost Effective
• 1911-1919 - Western Electric and Lee
   DeForest develop Vitaphone, a method of...
Making Sound for Film
    Cost Effective
• 1911-1919 - Western Electric and Lee
   DeForest develop Vitaphone, a method of...
Making Sound for Film
    Cost Effective
• 1911-1919 - Western Electric and Lee
   DeForest develop Vitaphone, a method of...
Making Sound for Film
   Cost Effective
Making Sound for Film
   Cost Effective
• May 1928 - the major film
  companies sign with AT&T to
  produce pictures with s...
Making Sound for Film
   Cost Effective
• May 1928 - the major film
  companies sign with AT&T to
  produce pictures with s...
Making Sound for Film
   Cost Effective
• May 1928 - the major film
  companies sign with AT&T to
  produce pictures with s...
Silent Films are history
Silent Films are history

• Mass Production and lower cost
  implementations resolved the last
  problem.
Silent Films are history

• Mass Production and lower cost
  implementations resolved the last
  problem.

• Sound for Fil...
History Of Film Sound Excerpt Revised
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History Of Film Sound Excerpt Revised

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History Of Film Sound Excerpt Revised

  1. 1. A Brief History of Audio in Film (excerpt)
  2. 2. Sound comes to film
  3. 3. Sound comes to film • over 3 decades of significant innovation
  4. 4. Sound comes to film • over 3 decades of significant innovation • declining profits in 1927-28 led film companies to push the wide-spread implementation of sound for film
  5. 5. Sound comes to film • over 3 decades of significant innovation • declining profits in 1927-28 led film companies to push the wide-spread implementation of sound for film • by 1931 all Hollywood movies are ‘talkies’
  6. 6. Three Phases of Technological Development
  7. 7. Three Phases of Technological Development Invention
  8. 8. Three Phases of Technological Development Invention
  9. 9. Three Phases of Technological Development Invention Innovation
  10. 10. Three Phases of Technological Development Invention Innovation
  11. 11. Three Phases of Technological Development Invention Innovation Diffusion
  12. 12. Three Phases of Technological Development Invention Innovation Diffusion
  13. 13. Major Early Events
  14. 14. Major Early Events • 1877 - Edison makes first sound recording
  15. 15. Major Early Events • 1877 - Edison makes first sound recording • 1895 - Edison introduces Kinetophone
  16. 16. Major Early Events • 1877 - Edison makes first sound recording • 1895 - Edison introduces Kinetophone • 1902 - Gaumont introduces Chronophone
  17. 17. 3 Major Problems
  18. 18. 3 Major Problems • synchronization
  19. 19. 3 Major Problems • synchronization • amplification
  20. 20. 3 Major Problems • synchronization • amplification • cost
  21. 21. Synchronization problem solved
  22. 22. Synchronization problem solved • 1913 - Edison introduces a new version of the Kinetophone
  23. 23. Synchronization problem solved • 1913 - Edison introduces a new version of the Kinetophone • It successfully synchronized with picture
  24. 24. 2 Major Problems still remained
  25. 25. 2 Major Problems still remained • synchronization
  26. 26. 2 Major Problems still remained • synchronization • amplification
  27. 27. 2 Major Problems still remained • synchronization • amplification • cost
  28. 28. Amplification problem solved
  29. 29. Amplification problem solved • 1904 - Daniel Higham invents the Higham-A-Phone reproducer, the amplifier used in the Columbia Graphophone
  30. 30. Amplification problem solved • 1904 - Daniel Higham invents the Higham-A-Phone reproducer, the amplifier used in the Columbia Graphophone • 1906 - Lee DeForest invents the Audion, an early tube amplifier
  31. 31. Amplification problem solved • 1904 - Daniel Higham invents the Higham-A-Phone reproducer, the amplifier used in the Columbia Graphophone • 1906 - Lee DeForest invents the Audion, an early tube amplifier • 1908 - E.E. Norton invents the Cameraphone
  32. 32. 1 Major Problem still remained
  33. 33. 1 Major Problem still remained • synchronization
  34. 34. 1 Major Problem still remained • synchronization • amplification
  35. 35. 1 Major Problem still remained • synchronization • amplification • cost
  36. 36. Making Sound for Film Cost Effective
  37. 37. Making Sound for Film Cost Effective • 1911-1919 - Western Electric and Lee DeForest develop Vitaphone, a method of recording and reproducing sound electronically on disc.
  38. 38. Making Sound for Film Cost Effective • 1911-1919 - Western Electric and Lee DeForest develop Vitaphone, a method of recording and reproducing sound electronically on disc. • 1921 - DeForest patents phonofilm, a method of recording sound on film
  39. 39. Making Sound for Film Cost Effective • 1911-1919 - Western Electric and Lee DeForest develop Vitaphone, a method of recording and reproducing sound electronically on disc. • 1921 - DeForest patents phonofilm, a method of recording sound on film • 1926 - Warner Bros. releases Don Juan, the first film to include music on an amplified sound-track using the Vitaphone system.
  40. 40. Making Sound for Film Cost Effective • 1911-1919 - Western Electric and Lee DeForest develop Vitaphone, a method of recording and reproducing sound electronically on disc. • 1921 - DeForest patents phonofilm, a method of recording sound on film • 1926 - Warner Bros. releases Don Juan, the first film to include music on an amplified sound-track using the Vitaphone system. • 1927 -The Jazz Singer featuring Al Jolson is released by Warner Bros. First full-length film with synchronized dialog.
  41. 41. Making Sound for Film Cost Effective • 1911-1919 - Western Electric and Lee DeForest develop Vitaphone, a method of recording and reproducing sound electronically on disc. • 1921 - DeForest patents phonofilm, a method of recording sound on film • 1926 - Warner Bros. releases Don Juan, the first film to include music on an amplified sound-track using the Vitaphone system. • 1927 -The Jazz Singer featuring Al Jolson is released by Warner Bros. First full-length film with synchronized dialog. • 1927 - Fox Film Corp. produces newsreels with a sound on film process called Movietone.
  42. 42. Making Sound for Film Cost Effective
  43. 43. Making Sound for Film Cost Effective • May 1928 - the major film companies sign with AT&T to produce pictures with sound on film.
  44. 44. Making Sound for Film Cost Effective • May 1928 - the major film companies sign with AT&T to produce pictures with sound on film. • End of 1920s - Most theaters no longer have a house orchestra and organist.
  45. 45. Making Sound for Film Cost Effective • May 1928 - the major film companies sign with AT&T to produce pictures with sound on film. • End of 1920s - Most theaters no longer have a house orchestra and organist. • 1928 -- Warner Bros. releases The Singing Fool -- again starring Al Jolson. Makes an unprecedented $5,000,000.
  46. 46. Silent Films are history
  47. 47. Silent Films are history • Mass Production and lower cost implementations resolved the last problem.
  48. 48. Silent Films are history • Mass Production and lower cost implementations resolved the last problem. • Sound for Film was now cost effective and making film companies more money than ever!

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