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Socialism and the Industrial Revolution

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Socialism and the Industrial Revolution

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Socialism and the Industrial Revolution

  1. 1. World History II – September 2012
  2. 2.  Industrialization created two new classes  Industrial middle class Industrial working class  Good for middle; bad for working – factory conditions, hours, pay, etc.
  3. 3.  This system was called capitalism!  An economic system based on private ownership of the means of production (factories, machines, and tools used to create wealth)  Free trade and lack of government regulation
  4. 4.  People started questioning the merits of capitalism because only the wealthy seemed to benefit  They promoted that the means of production should be operated by the people who did the work or by the government  “Utopian Socialism”  All members of the society would share in the work and the profits  Many said this was unrealistic  Too idealistic  Wanted to build within existing society
  5. 5. Karl Marx (1818 – 1883)  German philosopher  moved to Paris, Brussels, London  Observed the plight of the working class  Wrote for a series of radical newspapers promoting socialism  Frequently borrowed money from his friend and colleague Friedrich Engels
  6. 6.  1820 – 1895  Son of a wealthy German cotton manufacturer  Observed plight of the working class while managing a factory in London
  7. 7.  Economic determinism  All cultural (social), political, intellectual activities are the product of the society’s economic organization  All of history is the struggle for resources  Class antagonism has been simplified to  Bourgeoisie – those who own the means of production (industrial middle class)  Proletariat – those who sell their labor to the producers (industrial working class)  Five Essential Stages of Human Society
  8. 8. 1. Primitive hunting and gathering societies  no extra wealth  no private property, social classes, class struggles, or even the need for government 2. Slave societies  rich ruling class  oppressed underclass of slaves
  9. 9. 3. Feudal society  noble class of landowning lords  oppressed class of serfs 4. Capitalist society  rich class of factory owners (bourgeoisie)  oppressed class of factory workers (the proletariat)
  10. 10. 5. Socialist society  run by the workers  no private property, and thus no social classes or class conflicts.  “Dictatorship of the proletariat”

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