Modern dairying uses sophisticated data collection systems to maximize farm profitability. This has traditionally included information on cows and their environments, and now commonly includes genotype information from high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panels. The US national database alone contains genotypes for 924,543 bulls and cows as of March 23, 2015, and many other countries are also genotyping animals. As the data continue to grow, the prospect of using genotypes to construct phenotypes directly, instead of measuring phenotypes on animals, becomes more attractive. There are many applications for this genomic information other than the prediction of breeding values. A notable recent application is the use of haplotypes in combination with next-generation sequencing data to identify causal variants associated with recessives. The methodology for identifying recessive haplotypes by searching for a deficit of homozygotes was first used in combination with sequence data to identify the causal variant (APAF1) associated with the HH1 haplotype. The US currently tracks 24 recessive haplotypes in four cattle breeds, and thanks to the work of several teams around the world the causal variants for 17 of them are known. The haplotypes include lethal recessive conditions, such as brachyspina, as well as hair coat color and polledness. There is growing interest in the latter to improve animal welfare and increase economic efficiency, but the polled haplotype has a very low frequency (0.41%, 0.93%, and 2.22% in Brown Swiss, Holstein, and Jersey, respectively). Increasing haplotype frequency by index selection requires known status for all animals. Gene content (GC) for non-genotyped animals was computed using records from genotyped relatives. Prediction accuracy was checked by comparing polled status from recessive codes and animal names to GC for 1,615 non-genotyped Jerseys with known status. 97% (n = 675) of horned animals were correctly assigned GC near 0, and 3% (n = 19) were assigned GC near 1. Heterozygous polled animals had GC near 0 (52%, n = 474) and near 1 (47%; n = 433), although 3 animals were assigned a GC near 2. All homozygous polled animals (n = 11) were assigned GC near 2. Genotype information can also be combined with other data, such as milk spectral data, to predict phenotypes for traits that are expensive or difficult to measure directly. These data can be used for precision farm management, including early culling decisions, monitoring of animals at risk for health problems, and identification of efficient and inefficient cows. The most substantial challenge faced by many dairy managers will be the effective use of the new phenotypes that now are available.